安庆为什么会包茎过长ask爱问

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年12月16日 09:24:27
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Ive seen just what South Africa really is, a world in one country.我已经看到正是南非真的是,世界上独一无二的国家。I thought I knew this place pretty well,我想自己十分清楚知道这个地方很好,but each of my four adventures has taught me and show me something completely new.但每四个冒险教会我,给我一些完全新的体验。They have an expression here, Muli, delu, saba, kilini.他们在这里有一种表达式,母力,得露,萨巴,克里尼。Dont take these lines bad, otherwise youll get beaten.不要认为条线路不好,否则你会被搞的很惨。Its too late for me.但对我来说一切已经太迟了。 201310/260865Some are little more than rocks, others substantial mountains, covered in woodland. 有的也就比岩石大点,其他的则是覆盖着森林的山脉。The first British person to see that was captain Cook, who stood here in 1770, and for the first time, realized the scale of the Great Barrier Reef. 第一个到达这里的英国人是库克船长,他1770年来到这里,第一次意识到大堡礁的规模。He also realized that the scale of the problem that faced him. 但他也意识到眼前的问题。For Cook and his men without benefits of modern charts and sonar, it represented nothing more than a deadly labyrinth. 对库克和他的船员而言,没有现代航海图和定位装置。这就是致命的迷宫。But its exactly this complexity and the sheer size of the reef that has created so many opportunities for life. 但也正是它的复杂和庞大,大堡礁才能提供各种生物各种生存机会。There are fish of almost every imaginable kind. 这里有各种能想得到的。Coral eaters, plant eaters, plankton eaters, the hunters and the hunted. 以珊瑚为食,以植物为食,以浮游生物为食。Bluefin trevally, powerful predators that hunt in packs. 蓝鳍鰺,非常强悍的群体捕食者。One minute that apparently minding their own business, the next, charging their prey with a sudden rush. 前一分钟还在独自晃晃悠悠,下一秒随即就对他们的猎物展开攻击。Working together, they create confusion. 它们一起合作,制造混乱。The trevally depart as quickly as they arrived, and the colorful reef fish regroup again to feed.它们来无影去无踪,随后这些色缤纷的鱼又重新聚集在一起觅食。201409/326415

Like many midwesterners, it turns out that giant African landsnails really love Florida.体型巨大的非洲陆生蜗牛同许多生活在中西部地区的动物一样大爱美国弗罗里达州。Unfortunately, giant African Land Snails are some of the worlds most destructive snails.但不幸的是,他们的破坏性在世界上数一数二。They cangrow to be eight inches long-as big as rats-and to weigh more than one pound.他们有8英寸长,和老鼠一般大小,重达一磅还多。Theyre sohuge, in fact, that their shells have been known to blow out tires.他们是那样的大,事实上,他们的壳能扎破轮胎,这一点远近闻名。The real trouble is that these snails reproduce very quickly.真正的麻烦在于这种蜗牛繁衍速度极快。Under optimal conditions-such aswarm, tropical Florida-one snail can lay up to a thousand or so eggs a year.真正的麻烦在于这种蜗牛繁衍速度极快。And these snailstypical life span is three to five years, with some living as long as nine years.而一般这种蜗牛的寿命是3到5年,一些甚至可以存活9年之久。Unlike most snails, giant African land snails dont just eat decaying organic matter or leaf molds;they eat the plants themselves, so they pose a huge threat to agriculture, one of Floridas mainindustries.同大多数蜗牛不同,这种蜗牛不吃腐败的有机质食物,也不吃叶霉。他们吃植物本身,如此一来,对主要产业为农业的弗罗里达州来说,他们会构成巨大的威胁。Whats more, theyre not picky.此外,他们可一点也不挑食。They eat over five hundred species of plants, and somehave even been known to chew through stucco and plastic containers.他们的食物涵盖500多种植物,据说有些蜗牛甚至还啃食石灰泥和塑料袋。And for your health.蜗牛对人类的健康也有害。Some of these snails can carry diseases such as a parasitic rat lungworm thatcan cause meningitis in humans.一些蜗牛会携带具有寄生性的大鼠肺丝虫和其他疾病,导致人类患上脑膜炎。So if you see a giant African land snail in your yard, dont touch itor kill it yourself.因此,你要是在自家的庭院看到一个巨大的非洲蜗牛,珍爱生命,千万别碰。Instead, call your local authorities or department of agriculture so that they can dispose of the snail and its nesting materials safely.你要做的是打电话请地方当局或农业部门来安全地处理它们及它们筑巢的材料。 201406/304935

Who created one of the strangest regime in history,magnificent, repressive and terrifying.他创造了历史上最奇特的一个政权,华丽,专制及恐怖。This is the story of Henry the 7th.这是亨利七世的故事。The first Tutor.第一位导师。This is Henry.这就是亨利。It took remains of the funeral refugee which is parade on the London street after his death dressed in his parliament ropes and clutching his open sebster state.在死后他身着议会长袍,手里紧握圣物,遗体葬礼在伦敦街头游行。We can see his fine-boned feature on the distinctive cast in his left eye.我们可以从他独特的左眼中看出骨骼发育良好的特征。This is also a face emaciated and varnished by stress.这也是因为压力造成的一脸憔悴及消沉。Is a face of a man who has never known a moment of peace.从来不知道和平时刻的男人的脸。Henrys journey to fulfill his unlikely destiny brought him to Milft Heavin on Sunday the 7th August 1485.亨利履行自己命运的旅程于1485年8月7日拉开大幕。His small fleet appeared from the south and anchored quietly in near bay.他的小舰队出现在南部后在靠近的港湾悄无声息的抛锚。Henrys ship dropped anchor here and his men came ashore.亨利的船停泊在这里后他的人开始上岸。We can picture them.我们可以想象他们。Hiving munitions on the beach.在海滩上装满弹药整装待发。Carmen and horses coming through the surf.战士们和军穿过海浪而行。 201310/261990

  

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  Science and technology科学技术Entomology昆虫学Bad beehaviour有失蜂度The strange case of the bandit bumblebees熊蜂:不可思议的土匪TO MOST people, bumblebees are charming, slightly absurd creatures that blunder through garden and meadow with neither the steely determination of the honeybee nor the malevolent intention of the wasp.在人们的印象里,熊蜂可爱、友好而又有些令人可笑。它们跌跌撞撞地穿过花园和草场,既不像蜜蜂,有钢铁般的决心;也不似黄蜂,具备恶意的企图。If you are a plant, though, things look rather different—for from the point of view of some flowering plants many bumblebees are nothing more than thieves.不过,如果你是一株植物,你就会从新定义它们。从一些有花植物角度来看,熊蜂是彻头彻尾的贼:They rob them of their nectar and give nothing in return.它们掠夺花蜜,却未予回报。Nectar robbery, in which a bumblebee carves a hole in the side of a flower as a bank robber might cut his way into a vault, was discovered by Charles Darwin.某些花的形状发生了演化,以促进具有长舌的昆虫为其授粉。昆虫的长舌能探到狭小管道状花的深处。This technique lets bees get at the nectar of flowers whose shapes have evolved to encourage their pollination by insects with long tongues, which can reach down narrow tubes.达尔文最先发现熊蜂抢劫花蜜的行为。熊蜂在花的一侧切开一个口,行径无异于强盗杀进金库。它们凭借这种本领获取狭小管道状花的花蜜。Some bumblebees do have such tongues. But some do not.有的熊蜂的确有长舌,不过有些确实没有。Short-tongued bees are, however, unwilling to deny themselves the bounty of nectar inside these flowers. Hence the hole-cutting.短舌熊蜂难以抵御丰厚花蜜的诱惑,于是就有了切口打孔。By breaking in in this way, though, a bumblebee nullifies the 100m-year-old pact between flowering plants and insects: that the plant feeds the insect in exchange for the insect pollinating the plant.然而这种暴力获取的方式却撕毁了有花植物和昆虫间一亿万年的古老契约:植物为昆虫提供食物,昆虫履行为其授粉的义务。The question about nectar robbery that has intrigued biologists from Darwin onwards is whether the behaviour is innate or learnt.熊蜂抢劫花蜜的行为到底是先天性还是后天性,自达尔文起,生物学家们一直对此感到困惑。Darwin, though he originated the idea that many behaviour patterns are products of evolution by natural selection, suspected that it is learnt.达尔文推测这是后天性的。Insects, in other words, can copy what other insects get up to.换言之,他推测昆虫有能力模仿其他昆虫的行为习惯。Only now, though, has somebody proved that this is true.直到现在,这种推测才被明是正确的。The observations were made by David Goulson, and his colleagues.做出观测的是David Goulson以及他的同事。To test his ideas he had to go from Britain to Switzerland, for only there could he find a flower of the correct shape to conduct the study.为了检验他的想法,他必须远离英国前往瑞士。因为只有那里才能找到形状合适的花以进行研究。His crucial observation was that when the flowers of an alpine plant called the yellow rattle are robbed, the entry holes—because of the structure of the flower—tend to be unambiguously on either the right-hand side or the left-hand side.决定性的观测在于yellow rattle被熊蜂造访后留下的孔。由于这种花的特殊结构,人们可以明确地区分出孔在花的左侧还是右侧。Moreover, preliminary observation suggested that the holes in flowers in a single meadow are often all made on the same side.加之初步观测结果表明,同一块草场中这种花上的孔常常在同一侧。This led him to speculate that bumblebees in a particular area do indeed learn the art of nectar robbery from one another, and then copy the technique with such fidelity that they always attack a flower from the same side.他认为,对于生活在所研究的特定草场中的熊蜂,它们确确实实从其他个体那里学习了抢劫花蜜的技术。并且它们模仿的相当精准,以至于总是从同一侧侵袭花朵。Crime and nourishment罪与馐His team monitored 13 alpine meadows during the summers of and 2011.他的研究组于年和2011年的夏天监测阿尔卑斯山13块草场。They painstakingly recorded the sites of robbery holes in yellow-rattle flowers, and studied the behaviour of 168 bumblebees.他们煞费苦心地记录yellow rattle上抢劫孔的位置,并且研究了168只熊蜂的行为。They tried to follow each bee until it had visited 20 flowers, though they lost sight of some insects before they had reached this score.研究组尽力追踪每只熊蜂,直到它光顾的花达到20朵为止。If they could, they then captured the insect so as not to follow it again on another occasion.尽管有些熊蜂没有达到这个数量就不见了,但若够数,他们旋即捉捕那只熊蜂,以防止二次追踪。Dr Goulson found, as he reports in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, that two short-tongued bumblebee species which live in the area, Bombus lucorum and Bombus wurflenii, demonstrated handedness when they robbed flowers.士发现,生活在该地区的两种短舌熊蜂在打劫花时表现出利手行为。Moreover, if one species was behaving in a left-handed manner in a particular meadow, the other was likely to do the same.更有甚者,如果针对特定的草场,一种熊蜂是左撇子,那么另一种熊蜂通常也是左撇子。This suggests that one species can learn from another—a trick previously thought to be confined to vertebrates.这暗示一物种可以向另一物种学习—过去人们认为只有脊椎动物才有这种本领。Handedness in any given meadow, Dr Goulson found, increased as the season progressed.他还发现,在任何指定的草场中,利手性随着季节的更替而强化,But each summer appeared to start as a blank slate.但每到夏天则似乎从新形成。The handedness that developed in a meadow in did not predict its handedness in 2011.某块草场中09年利手性并没有预测出11年的利手性。Goulson士将以上发现发表在《生态学与社会生物学》上。The most reasonable explanation, Dr Goulson argues, is that each year a few bumblebees which have learnt the trick of nectar robbery in the previous season come out of hibernation and start robbing flowers again.Goulson士认为最合理的解释是:每一年,一些熊蜂在过去季节里掌握了抢劫花蜜本领,它们冬眠后再次出来抢劫。By chance, they make more holes on one side of the flowers than the other, and as the habit is picked up by other, newly hatched bees, a preference for left or right sps by a process of positive feedback.它们偶然间在花的一侧制造出更多的抢劫孔。由于其他新孵化出的熊蜂效仿了这种习惯,左利手或右利手作为一种正反馈进行传播。The bees have, in other words, created a simple culture.或者说,熊蜂创造出一种简单的文化。It is a criminal culture, admittedly.诚然,这是一种罪恶的文化,But no one ever said that nature was pretty.但没有人曾说,自然界原本是优雅的。 /201312/266849

  It sounds like something from a fairy tale. 这听起来就像是个童话故事。If you look at the horizon at sunset–exactly as the last sliver of sun disappears–you might see a flash of brilliant green blaze across the sky. 日落的时候如果你看看地平线,尤其是在太阳的最后一缕银光消失的时候,你可能会看到一束耀眼的火焰划过天空。Indeed, an old Scottish proverb maintains that whoever sees this flash will always be lucky in love. 的确,有一句古老的苏格兰谚语这么说,看见这道光焰的人总是会在爱情上交好运。While we cant confirm the lucky-in-love part of this, there is a scientific explanation for the flash of green light. 尽管我们无法实会有桃花运,但对于这束绿光倒有一个科学的解释。As sunlight enters our atmosphere, it bends slightly.当阳光进入大气层,光线会发生轻微的弯曲。 This is due to refraction, the same thing that makes a pencil look slightly askew when you stick it half way into a glass of water. 这是折射的作用,就象把铅笔的一半插入一玻璃杯水中,铅笔会看起来有点倾斜。The atmospheric bending of light rays is greatest when the sun is right along the horizon, at sunrise or sunset. 日出日落时分,太阳恰好贴着地平线的时候就是光线折射作用最强的时候。How does bending sunlight create a green flash? 但弯折的太阳光又是怎样产生绿光的呢?When sunlight is bent by refraction, it separates into different colors, just like light through a prism. 当日光由于折射而弯曲时,光线就会分解成不同的颜色,就像通过棱镜发射不同的光一样。While a prism can make a dramatic rainbow, atmospheric refraction isnt that strong. 然而三棱镜可以折射出漂亮的七色虹,而大气的折射作用却没有那么强。It doesnt turn the sun into a rainbow, but it makes the lowest part of the sun seem a bit more red, and the top of the sun seem greenish blue. 它不会将太阳光折射成虹,但是它可以使最底部的光变得更红一些,而最顶部的光看上去像蓝绿色。The effect is so subtle, youd never notice it. 这个变化非常微妙,你可能从来都未曾注意。Except, of course, at sunset or sunrise. 当然,除了在日出或日落的时候。For a split second, when most of the suns globe is below the horizon, the only part showing is that blue-green sliver along the top. 只有那么一瞬间,当太阳的大部分轮廓低于水平线,仅有的露出来的部分就是顶部的蓝绿色长条。Blue light is scattered by the atmosphere, so whats left is a brief flash of green, the only illumintion in the sky! 蓝光被大气层分散,剩下的就是一缕缕的绿光,天空唯一的光亮处。Please remember, this happens immediately after a sunset. Never look directly at the setting sun. 请记住,这种现象只在日落后的一瞬间发生。要记着可别一直盯着落日看。 201308/251825Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag. A listener writes:又到了再次查看科学一刻来信的时候了。一位听众朋友写到:Dear A Moment of Science,I know that gorillas and chimpanzees can learn sign language and use it to communicate.亲爱的科学一刻:我知道大猩猩和黑猩猩能够学习手势并用它进行交流。But can other animals use sign language, too?但是其他动物呢,它们也会使用手语么?Good question. And the answer is, maybe.问得好。是:可能会。To be clear, gorillas and chimps are the only animals that have so far been taught to use human sign language.明确的说,大猩猩和黑猩猩是迄今为止被教授使用人类手语的仅有的两种动物。But some other animals do seem to use a form of sign language, or at least use gestures to communicate with other species.但是某些其它动物似乎也在使用一种形式的手语进行交流,或是至少能使用手势与同类进行交流。Like, for example, fish.比如说:鱼类。Really? How can fish use sign language?真的么?鱼怎么能使用手语呢?You know how some fish hunt in cooperation with other types of fish?你知道一些鱼是如何与其它种类的鱼共同合作捕猎的么?Scientists have found that these animals have ways of using gestures to communicate during a hunt.科学家发现这些动物在猎食的过程中会使用手势来进行彼此间的交流。For example, when grouper and eels are on the prowl, grouper will sometimes position themselves where prey is hiding.例如,石斑鱼和鳗鱼在来回游动的时候,石斑鱼会不时地在猎物的躲藏处停下。And they do a sort of headstand and shake their head in the direction of the hidden prey.接着它们会做一个头倒立的姿势并朝着猎物躲藏的地方不断摇头。Taking the signal, eels then slither in and flush out the prey.收到信号后,鳗鱼就会滑行过去并把猎物驱赶出来。Trout do something similar with octopuses.鳟鱼也会同章鱼进行类似的合作捕食。Thats cool, but does it really qualify as sign language?这太酷了!不过这种行为真的能称之为一种手语么?It depends how you define it.这取决于你如何定义手语。But typically, scientists define a referential gesture as one thats directed toward an object, isnt used for an immediate mechanical purpose, is aimed at a recipient, and is then used by that recipient to do something like chase or catch prey.但是通常来说,科学家认为,当一种姿势在指向某个物体的时候,就可以把它看作一种具有参考意义的手势。它并不是用于一种即时的无意义的目的,而是指向接受者的。接受者再通过这一手势所传达的信息来追赶或捕获猎物。 /201312/267979

  Fine-wine fraud伪造的美酒Chateau Lafake法国酒庄拉法克红酒The fine-wine boom is attracting forgers美酒追捧热潮催生造假者Taste is a delicate thing味觉一种微妙的东西WINE buffs are like art collectors.葡萄酒爱好者与艺术品收藏者相同,Few can tell the difference between a well-made fake and the real thing.他们中很少人能分清真品与制作精良的赝品有什么区别。Yet whereas counterfeit art has been around for centuries, wine forgery is relatively new.但艺术品伪造已经有几百年历史了,酒类伪造却还只是近几十年的事。It started in the late 1970s when the prices of the best wines—especially those from Bordeaux—shot up.20世纪70年代末期,由于精品美酒尤其来自法国波尔多的葡萄酒价格飙升,名酒伪造应运而生。Today, with demand from China fuelling a remarkable boom, counterfeiting is rife.现在,中国对尊贵名酒的需求推动了名酒市场的繁荣,假冒伪劣酒也开始盛行。By some estimates 5% of fine wines sold at auction or on the secondary market are not what they claim to be on the label.据估计,拍卖会或二级市场出售的美酒有5%货不对板。The simplest technique is to slap the label of a 1982 Chateau Lafite onto a bottle of 1975 Lafite.伪造名酒最简单的方法是将1982年产法国酒庄拉法克红酒的标签贴到1975年产的红酒空瓶上。Another trick is to bribe the sommelier of a fancy restaurant to pass on empty bottles that once held expensive wine, along with the corks.另一个伎俩是贿赂高级餐厅的调酒师,将盛装过昂贵名酒的空瓶和瓶塞一起拿到手,These can be refilled with cheaper wine, recorked and resealed.然后将空瓶重新灌装廉价酒,重新装塞,重新密封就完成了造假过程。Empty Lafite and Latour bottles are sold on eBay for several hundred euros.在eBay网上,Lafite和Latour红酒的空瓶通常价值几百欧元。The margins are fruity.酒类伪造有可观的利润。A great wine may cost hundreds of times more than a merely excellent one.一瓶尊贵名酒的价格可能比一瓶单纯的优质酒贵上几百倍。Small wonder that oenophiles are growing more vigilant.难怪鉴酒专家们越来越趋于谨慎。Bill Koch, an energy tycoon and avid wine collector, currently has five lawsuits pending against merchants, auctioneers and other collectors.能源巨头比尔.科赫热衷于名酒收藏,他近来提起5宗涉及酒类的法律诉讼,分别状告酒商,拍卖师和其余酒类收藏家,案件至今未有裁决。His grape-related gripes began in 2006, when he filed a complaint against a German wine dealer who sold bottles of Lafite he claimed had once belonged to Thomas Jefferson.科赫先生对买红酒的抱怨始于2006年,当时他从一名德国酒商手中购买了很多据称是托马斯杰斐逊收藏过的红酒,后来发现有假而投诉了这名德国酒商,The case is unresolved.案子至今未果。There is a code of silence in the industry, says Mr Koch, who owns 43,000 bottles of wine and estimates that he has spent 4m-5m on fakes.科赫先生说:业界存在着一套潜规则,即买到假酒也要毫不声张。 他拥有43000瓶上好葡萄酒,但用于购买假酒的钱估计也在4-5百万美元左右。Some collectors are too proud to admit that they have been duped.有些收藏者觉得承认被骗不是件光的事。Others fear sullying a vintages reputation and thereby reducing the value of their own collections.另一些则担心玷污了葡萄酒的声誉会降低自己拥有葡萄酒的收藏价值。So instead of speaking out, they dump their fakes into auctions or sell them to other private collectors, says Mr Koch.因此他们不会将事情张扬,而是;将假酒转手到拍卖会或出售给其它私人收藏者;,科赫先生如是说。Wine merchants and auction houses say they are doing everything they can to filter out the fakes.酒商及拍卖行表示他们正尽一切所能筛选出假货。Simon Berry, the chairman of Berry Brothers amp; Rudd, a British wine merchant, says his firm never buys wines from before 2000 unless they come from its own cellars.英国酒商贝瑞兄弟与陆克文主席西蒙贝里称他的公司从来不购买2000年以前的葡萄酒,除非它们真的来自出产的酒窖。Christies, an auctioneer, says all the wines it auctions are inspected three times by different people, using detailed checklists for condition and authenticity.拍卖商佳士得称,它拍卖的所有名酒都要经过不同人反复检验三次,对他们出具的葡萄酒情况和真实度详单逐一对比验。Fear of fakery has not stopped the boom.对伪造名酒的担忧并没有阻止名酒的市场繁荣。But the wines that win the best prices at auction are those whose provenance is certain.在拍卖会上竞得高价的名酒其来源也是真实可靠的。In May, Christies sold an impériale of 1961 Latour for 6,000 in Hong Kong.五月份,佳士得在香港以21.6万美元拍售了一瓶1961产的impériale葡萄酒,It came directly from the cellars of Chateau Latour.它直接来自于产地Chateau Latour的酒窖。 /201305/241376Finance and economics财经商业India in trouble印度身陷困境The reckoning最后审判日Why India is particularly vulnerable to the turbulence rattling emerging markets为什么印度新兴市场特别容易受到震荡ON THE morning of August 17th most of Indias economic policymakers gathered in the prime ministers house in Delhi.8月17日上午,大多数印度经济政策制定者聚集在德里的总理府邸。They were there to launch an official economic history of 1981-97, a period which included the balance-of-payments crisis of 1991.他们聚集那里为了发布一项官方的1981年到1997年间的经济史,这个时期包括1991年的国际收危机。The mood was tense.氛围十分紧张。India, said Manmohan Singh, the prime minister, faced very difficult circumstances.总理曼莫汉·辛格说,印度面临十分困难的状况。Does history repeat itself? asked Duvvuri Subbarao, the outgoing head of the Reserve Bank of India.历史重演了吗?即将退休的印度央行行长苏巴拉奥问道,As if we learn nothing from one crisis to another?好像我们没有从一次经济危机到另一次经济危机中什么都没有学到?The day before Indian financial markets had had their rockiest session for many years.之前,印度金融市场最困难的时期持续了很多年了。The rupee sank and stockmarkets tumbled.卢比贬值,股市坍塌。Money-market rates rose.货币市场汇率上升。The shares of banks thought to be either full of bad debts or short of deposit funding fell sharply.人们认为满是坏账或者缺少存款资金的股份迅速贬值。The sell-off had been made worse by new capital controls introduced on August 14th in response to incipient signs of capital flight.为应对早期资金外流现象,8月14日实施的资本控制使得券抛售变得更糟糕。They reduce the amount Indian residents and firms can take out of the country.他们减少了印度居民和公司可以带出国家的资金量。Foreign investors took fright, fearful that India might freeze their funds too, much as Malaysia did during its crisis in 1998.外国投资者受到了惊吓,担心印度也会冻结他们的资金,就像马来西亚1998年经济危机的时候采取的措施一样。Indias authorities have since ruled that out.印度当局后来排除了那种可能。But markets keep sliding.但是市场持续下滑。On August 20th the RBI said it would intervene to try to calm bond yields.8月20日,印度央行称会试着稳定债券收益率。The rupee has dropped to over 64 to the dollar, an all-time low and 13% below its level three months ago.卢比已贬值至一美元64卢比,价值空前的低,比三个月前水平低13%。It is widely agreed the country is in its worst economic bind since 1991.人们普遍认为,这个国家处在自从1991年以来最糟糕的经济窘境中。India is not being singled out.印度不是被单挑出来的。Since May, when the Federal Reserve first said it might slow the pace of its asset purchases,investors have begun adjusting to a world without ultra-cheap money.从五月份以来,当美联储首次表明会放慢其资产收购的进程时,投资者已经开始适应没有超低息政策的世界。There has been a great withdrawal of funds from emerging markets, where most currencies have fallen by 5-15% against the dollar in the past three months.大量资金从新兴市场撤出,这些市场过去的三个月卢比对美元汇率下降了5-15%。Bond yields have risen from Brazil to Thailand.债券收益从巴西上升到了泰国水平。Some governments have intervened.一些政府介入了。On July 11th Indonesia raised its benchmark interest rate to bolster its currency.7月11日,印度尼西亚提升了其基准利率来加强货币。On August 21st its president said he would soon announce further measures to ensure stability.8月21日,印尼总统表明不久就会宣布进一步的措施来确保经济稳定。India, Asias third-biggest economy, is more vulnerable than most, however.印度,亚洲第三大经济,却比大多数国家更脆弱。Economic news has disappointed for two years, with growth falling to 4-5%, half the rate seen during the 2003-08 boom.经济新闻让人们失望了两年了,经济增长率降到4-5%,其中一半的经济增长率还是在2003-08年经济蓬勃时期发展起来的。It may fall further.经济增长率还会进一步下跌。Consumer-price inflation remains stubborn at 10%.消费物价上涨仍保持在10%。A drive by Palaniappan Chidambaram, the finance minister, to push through a package of reforms and free big industrial projects from red tape has not worked.由财务部长帕拉尼亚潘·奇丹巴南为从繁文缛节中通过一系列改革和免费的大型工业项目而发起的运动还没有效果。An election is due by May 2014, adding to uncertainty.选举在2014年5月,也增加了不确定性。Indias dependence on foreign capital is also high and has risen sharply.印度对外资的依赖程度也很高并且上升很迅速。The current-account deficit soared to almost 7% of GDP at the end of 2012, although it is expected to be 4-5% this year.往来账户逆差2012年底急升至将近GDP的7%,虽然今年预期逆差是4-5%。External borrowing has not risen by much relative to GDP—the ratio stands at 21% today—but debt has become more short-term, and therefore riskier.外债相对于GDP没有上升很多—现在比例在21%—但是债务更多是短期的,因此更危险。Total financing needs are 0 billion over the next year.财政需求总额下一年是2.5亿美元。Indias reserves are 9 billion, giving a coverage ratio of 1.1 times.印度的储备是2.79亿,是偿还能力系数的1.1倍。That has fallen sharply from over three times in 2007-08 and leaves India looking weaker than many of its peers.2007-08这个储备下降了3倍多,也使印度看起来比许多同样的国家看起来更弱。It is therefore vital that foreign equity investors stay put.因此,外资股权投资者留在原处很重要。They own perhaps 0 billion of shares at current prices.按现时价格计算,他们可能拥有2亿美元的股份。They have sold only about billion since May, but if they head for the exit India would have no defence.自从五月份以来,他们只卖了大约3百万股份,但是如果他们撤出,印度将失去所有的防御。This is not a repeat of 1991.这不是1991年的一种重复。When India last had a crisis Boris Yeltsin was about to stand on a tank in Moscow and Nirvana was hitting the big time.当印度最后一次经济危机的时候,鲍里斯·叶利钦在莫斯科正要上台,涅槃乐队正出名。Things have changed in financial terms, too.融资条件也发生了变化。Back then India had a fixed exchange rate, which the state almost bankrupted itself trying to defend—it had to fly gold to the Bank of England in return for a loan.当时,印度有固定汇率,这是即将破产的国家努力维护的,为了还贷款,它必须空运黄金给英格兰。Today India has a floating exchange rate and a government with almost no foreign-currency debt.今天,印度有浮动汇率,还有一个几乎没有外币债务的政府。A slump in the currency poses no immediate threat to the governments solvency.货币的贬值对政府的偿付能力没有直接的威胁。The pain will be felt in other ways.痛苦会以其他方式感受到。Private firms that owe most of Indias foreign debt will be under intense strain, particularly if the rupee drops further.欠了绝大多数印度外国债务的私人公司将会非常紧张,尤其是如果卢比进一步下跌。Some will go bust.有些公司会破产。Market interest rates will stay high, causing a liquidity squeeze.市场利率会居高不下,导致流动性短缺。All this makes life even tougher for Indias state-owned banks, which aly have sour loans equivalent to 10-12% of their loan books.这些情况使得印度国有的日子更难过,这已经恶化了等同于贷款账项的10-12%。Inflation will rise.通货膨胀会加剧。And the governments finances will be under strain as the cost of its subsidies on imported fuel gets bigger.政府财政会随着进口燃料补贴上升而承受巨大压力。There is probably little the authorities can do to shore up the currency in the short term.短期内,政府当局可能没有什么可以做撑货币。The rupee is one of the worlds most actively traded currencies and at least half the turnover is abroad.卢比是世界上最活跃的交易货币之一,至少有一半的营业额在国外。Privately, officials reckon the rupees fair value, taking into account Indias higher inflation and productivity over the past few years, is a little less than 60 per dollar, so the market has yet to overshoot wildly.私底下,考虑到近几年印度更严重的通货膨胀和生产率,官员认为卢比的公允价值低于1美元60卢比,所以市场还没有严重超过。Raghuram Rajan, the incoming governor of the RBI, is likely to take a hands-off approach.即将上任的印度央行管理人拉古拉姆·拉詹可能会采取不干涉的措施。That doesnt mean the government will—or should.这不意味着政府会或者必须这么做。On August 19th it banned the import through airports of duty-free flat-screen TVs, which Indians can often be seen heaving through check-in at Dubai.8月19日,印度禁止空运进口免税平板电视,经常可以看到印度人在迪拜办理登记手续处拖着这些东西。It may seek to raise duties further on gold imports, which Indians are addicted to in part because it is seen as a hedge against inflation.印度人在某种程度上沉迷于此因为这被看做是来抵消通过膨胀造成损失。Gross gold imports were 3% of GDP last year, blowing a huge hole in the external finances.去年黄金进口总值是GDP的3%,给外部融资带来了巨大的损失。History suggests the higher taxes on gold imports are, the worse smuggling gets.历史表明进口黄金税收越高,走私越严重。But India imports 800-odd tonnes of bullion a year. Thats a lot of gold to hide in suitcases.但是印度每年进口大约800公吨金条,那会有很多金子要藏在箱子里。The government will also try to persuade the Supreme Court to lift its ban on iron-ore exports, imposed after a series of corruption scams.在一系列腐败骗局发生后,政府也会试着说最高法院解除铁矿出口的禁令。At its peak this industry generated exports worth about 0.4% of GDP, although experts doubt that mothballed mines can be ramped up fast.在其全盛时期,这项工业出口价值约0.4%的GDP,虽然专家们怀疑封存矿山是否会增加很快。The government may also cut fuel subsidies.政府可能还会减少燃料补贴。That would reduce demand for imported fuel and help it hit a fiscal-deficit target of about 7% of GDP.这会减少对进口燃料的需求,并帮助达成GDP7%的财政赤字目标。The longer-term solution to the balance-of-payments problem may be to ramp up Indias manufacturing sector, and thus its industrial exports.国际收差额问题的长期解决措施可能是增加印度制造业以及其工业出口。But that will take a big improvement in the business climate, not just a cheap currency.但是那样会大幅改善商业环境,不仅仅是廉价的货币。Despite the rupees 27% tumble in the past three years there is scant sign of global manufacturers shifting production to India.虽然卢比价值在过去三年下跌了27%,有迹象表明全球制造商正将生产向印度转移。Indias position could still get worse.印度的处境可能仍然在恶化。But assuming things stabilise, when the official histories come to be written about 2013, what might they say?但是如果形势稳定下来了,当要记载2013年的官方历史时,他们会说什么呢?Most likely that the rupees slump caused a severe shock to the economy that made a recovery in growth rates even harder.最有可能的是卢比下跌对经济产生严重冲击,使得经济增长率恢复更加困难。But perhaps, also, that it prompted a more serious debate about the policies that India needs to become less vulnerable to the whims of an unforgiving world.但是也有可能会激起更严肃的讨论,关于印度要变得更能应对变化多端难以应付世界。 /201309/256143

  Science and technology科学技术Bionics仿生学I think Id like some coffee我想来点咖啡A paralysed woman gets herself a drink四肢瘫痪的女人也能自己喝咖啡HELPING yourself to a cup of coffee may seem like a small, everyday thing.给自己倒杯咖啡对普通人来说是一件再平常不过的小事,But not if you are quadriplegic.但对于一个四肢瘫痪的人来说就不是这样了,Unlike paraplegics, for whom the robotic legs described in the previous article are being developed, quadriplegics have lost the use of all four limbs.不像下身麻痹患者,前文中提到的机械腿已经发展得很成熟,但全身瘫痪的人四肢都不能使用,Yet thanks to a project organised by John Donoghue of Brown University, in Rhode Island, and his colleagues,现在多亏了罗德岛州布朗大学的John Donoghue和他同事发起的一项计划,they too have hope.四肢瘫痪者也有了希望。One of the participants in his experiments, a 58-year-old woman who is unable to use any of her limbs, can now pick up a bottle containing coffee and bring it close enough to her mouth to drink from it using a straw.在他的实验中有一位58岁的女患者,她四肢瘫痪,但她现在能够拿起一瓶咖啡并送到嘴边,再用吸管喝下,She does so using a thought-controlled robotic arm fixed to a nearby stand.她完成这个动作是靠思想控制固定在旁边的机械臂,It is the first time she has managed something like that since she suffered a stroke, nearly 15 years ago.这也是她15年前中风以来,第一次像这样掌控一些东西。Arms are more complicated pieces of machinery than legs, so controlling them via electrodes attached to the skin of someones scalp is not yet possible.由于手臂上的机械零件比腿更复杂,所以通过依附在头皮上的电极来控制它们不大现实,Instead, brain activity has to be recorded directly.而大脑活动是可以被检测到的。And that is what Dr Donoghue is doing.这就是Donoghue士所做的事情。Both his female participant and a second individual, a man of 66 also paralysed by a stroke, have worked with him before, as a result of which they have had small, multichannel electrodes implanted in the parts of the motor cortexes of their brains associated with hand movements.不仅那个女患者,还有一个66岁的男中风患者也参与了他的实验,Donoghue士先找到参与者大脑中控制手活动的区域,再把一些小型多波段电极植入该运动皮质。The womans implant was put there in 2005; the mans five months before the latest trial, described in a paper just published in Nature.根据刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上的论文,女患者在2005年就植入了,而男患者的最新植入才5个月。Dr Donoghue and his team decoded signals from their participants brains as they were asked to imagine controlling a robotic arm making preset movements.Donoghue士和他的团队先设定一个动作,让参与者想象通过机械臂去完成它,这个过程中大脑的信号就会被记录和破译出来。The volunteers were then encouraged to operate one of two robot arms by thinking about the movements they wanted to happen.然后Donoghue士再鼓励他们去控制其中一只机械臂去完成自己想要的动作,When the software controlling the arms detected the relevant signals, the arms moved appropriately.机械臂上的控制软件在检测到相关信号之后,机械臂就会进行相应的移动。The arm that the woman used to help herself to a drink is a lightweight device developed by DLR, Germanys Aerospace Centre, as part of its robotics programme.能让女患者自己喝水的这个轻量级机械臂来自于DLR,这也是机器人计划的一部分,The other, known as a DEKA arm, is being developed in America specifically as a prosthetic for those who have lost an arm.其他的还有DEKA的机械臂,该厂专为残疾人士提供假肢,并且在美国已经相当成熟。Normally, it is operated by the wearer moving his chest or moving his toes over buttons in a shoe.一般情况下,穿戴者会通过移动他们的胸部或者用脚趾按鞋子上的按钮来操作,The participants used it to reach and grasp a ball made of foam rubber.这样他们还可以抓起泡沫橡胶球。Dr Donoghue and his colleagues have thus shown that a mechanical arm can be controlled remotely by the brain of a person with paralysis.Donoghue士和他的同事明了瘫痪者可以通过大脑来控制较远的机械臂。Controlling a true prosthetic—an arm that is attached to the individuals body—will be trickier,要直接控制安装在身体上的假肢还是比较麻烦,即使理论上是可行的,但是现在把机械臂安装在轮椅上是一个更加实用的好事。but in time even that may be possible. In the meantime, a robotic arm attached to a wheelchair will be a real boon. For people who have little or no ability to move their arms Dr Donoghues work promises liberation in the form of idian action that the able-bodied take for granted.对于那些没有能力或者只有有限能力配他们手臂的患者来说,Donoghue士的成果解放了他们,让他们也能够完成那些我们认为理所当然的琐事。 /201307/247735

  Revamping Skopje重塑斯科普里Stones of contention竞争与炫示的雕塑Macedonia writes a new story for its capital马其顿首都的新篇章Colouring the future描画未来IN 2010 a computer-generated of plans for the Macedonian capital was released to journalists.2010年,一份电脑生成的视频规划被公布给记者,展示了马其顿首都未来的面貌。There were to be statues and monuments, new museums and civic buildings, a triumphal arch, even an eternal flame. After decades in hibernation Skopjes turbocharged planners seemed determined that the city should make up for lost time. While Nikola Gruevski, the prime minister, was in office they planned to erect as much public art as some European capitals have put up in three centuries. Many assumed it was some sort of joke.视频规划里的首都,有无数雕塑和纪念碑,簇新的物馆和市政大楼,壮丽辉煌的,以及熊熊不熄的火焰。规划者们野心勃勃,决意一扫几十年来斯科普里的寂寂无名。尼古拉格鲁耶夫斯基任总理后,计划在首都建造和陈列的公共艺术作品数目之巨,达到了欧洲一些首都三个世纪以来才缓慢积累起来的总量。起初,很多人认为这不过是痴人说梦而已。Three years later, the project is nearing completion and this corner of the Balkans is suffering the shock of the new. For this is more than just a city rejuvenation project. Almost every structure and statue is part of a wider ideological scheme to recast Macedonias identity. The heart is Skopjes central square, which for decades was a bleak and empty space. Now it has been crammed with statuary. There are 19th-century Macedonian heroes, the medieval Tsar Samuel and Justinian, a Byzantine emperor who was born near Skopje. Nearby are two saints, Cyril and Methodius, the fathers of the Cyrillic alphabet. Centre-stage goes to a giant bronze Alexander the Great. He is encircled by warriors, who in turn are surrounded by a fountain, with music, roaring lions and lights that change colour.然而三年之后,规划已近峻工。其影响和冲击席卷了这个位于巴尔干一隅的国家;因为它已经远远超越了单纯城市复兴工程的范畴—它是一幅意识形态宏图,旨在重塑马其顿身份;几乎每一座建筑,每一尊雕塑都是这幅巨图的一个符号。其核心是斯科普里广场。该地几十年来都荒凉破败,空旷无人,如今却雕塑林立,石碑处处。除了在此济济一堂的19世纪的马其顿英雄雕像外,还有中世纪的撒母尔,生于斯科普里附近、后成为拜占庭皇帝的查士丁尼以及创制最早斯拉夫字母的两位圣人,西里尔和迪乌斯。广场中心,被武士雕塑众星拱月般环绕着的,是亚历山大大帝的巨大青铜像。武士是音乐喷泉,怒狮塑像穿插其间,无数灯斑谰变幻。Ever since Macedonia became independent in 1991 Greece has fought a bitter diplomatic war with its northern neighbour. The new state, created from a former Yugoslav republic, it argued, was a thinly veiled territorial claim on its own northern region of Macedonia. Worse the Slav Macedonians, said the Greeks, were trying to steal their Hellenic history and culture.马其顿共和国1991年独立。自此之后,希腊与这位北部邻居外交倾轧不断。希腊称,这个由前南斯拉夫共和国独立出来的新国家,对于马其顿北面希腊领土的觊觎之意,简直是司马昭之心,路人皆知。更让人不齿的是,这帮斯拉夫-马其顿人居然肖想窃取希腊的历史与文化。Until Greece blocked Macedonias accession to NATO in 2008, the government in Skopje never really took the history bait from Greece. Since then, however, the nationalist ideologues have become louder.对于希腊人后一个控诉,马其顿从未与之一较长短。然而,2008年马其顿加入北约的意图被希腊挫败之后,马其顿国内的民族主义呼声愈发高涨。Far from the Macedonians being an invented nation, as the Greeks argue, Vangel Bozinovski, one of the architects working on Skopjes revamp says that it is in fact the Greek nation that was invented in the 19th century, and hence it is they who are stealing Macedonian history, including that of Alexander the Great. Just to make the point, a statue of Alexanders father, Philip of Macedon, has been erected and several of his mother, Olympia. A neoclassical archaeological museum is nearing completion and a new foreign ministry with a classical temple-style portico has just been completed.Vangel Bozinovski是参与重建斯科普里的建筑设计师。他说,希腊人一直指责马其顿是个虚构的民族,事实上,希腊才是个在19世纪被虚构出来的民族,并自此一直在盗用马其顿的历史,包括亚历山大大帝。为了昭示这一点,他们还雕刻了一座亚历山大的父亲腓力二世的塑像和好几座他母亲奥林匹娅斯的雕像。一座新古典主义风格的考古物馆已近完工。新建的外交部官邸则采用了古典圆形柱廊式的庙宇风格。Neoclassicism is not the only style being reused. Mr Bozinovski, who has built a “memorial house” to honour Mother Teresa, the Skopje-born nun who found fame caring for the dying in Kolkata, speaks of “eclecticism”. He is working on a plan for redeveloping a building which he says “is going to be real baroque”. In 1689 the then Ottoman city was torched by the Austrians. Mr Bozinovski claims that by building baroque he is only restoring this style to its rightful place; before the fire, he says, Skopje was as baroque as Prague.新古典主义不是唯一被重新使用的建筑风格。Bozinovski说这里的建筑风格是“兼收并蓄”式的。他曾建造过一座特蕾莎修女的纪念堂,用以铭记这位生于斯科普里,在印度加尔各答照顾垂死者的著名修女。目前,他正在着手重建一座巴洛克风格的建筑。在斯科普里还属于土耳其时,它和布拉格一样充斥着巴洛克建筑,然而在1689年它被奥地利人付之一炬。Bozinovski称,巴洛克风格的建筑将使城市恢复到大火前的面貌。But the city also wants to reclaim its more recent past. Close to the parliament building, on top of which new glass cupolas are now sprouting, is a war memorial for Macedonians killed fighting guerrillas from the countrys Albanian minority in 2001. Albanians make up at least a quarter of the population and many loathe what has been done to the capital. “I hate it,” says Lura Pollozhani, a young Macedonian-Albanian journalist. “I dont see me here.” By concentrating on ancient Macedonian themes, she believes, Albanians are being told: “We were on this land first.”当然,这座城市也想展示其更近的历史。议会大厦上崭新的玻璃穹顶正在施工,它的旁边就是一座战争纪念碑,用以铭记2011年在抵抗阿尔巴尼亚少数民族游击队入侵时牺牲的马其顿勇士们。作为占该国人口四分之一以上的少数民族,很多阿尔巴尼亚人憎亚斯科普里的大改造。“我恨这些。”一位年轻的阿尔巴尼亚族记者说,“在这里我找不到自己的民族。”她觉得改造过分集中于马其顿历史,好像在告诉阿尔巴尼亚人:“我们才是头一个来这儿的。”But Albanians have political clout in Macedonia and a new square in the predominantly Albanian part of the city is also being built. A statue of Skanderbeg, their medieval hero was aly here, and more monuments will follow. A 30-metre statue of Mother Teresa, an Albanian, is planned for the citys main square. The reconstruction of a church destroyed in 1963 was stopped as part of a vicious quarrel in which Albanians, for their part, demanded the reconstruction of a mosque.但是由于阿尔马尼亚人的政治影响力,在斯科普里的阿尔马尼亚人聚集区,一座广场也正在兴建。一座阿尔马尼亚中世纪民族英雄斯坎德培的雕像已然完工,更多的纪念碑将紧随其后。修女特蕾莎是阿尔巴尼亚人,她的雕像足有30米高,将被矗立在城市的主要广场上。一座焚毁于1963年的教堂的重建工作被迫叫停,因为阿尔巴尼亚人想重建一座清真寺。Macedonians have mixed feelings about the governments cultural aggrandisement. Something needed to be done, they say, and something has been done, even if sometimes it is over the top. But Macedonian liberals and the opposition feel aggrieved. Questions are being asked in parliament about how much the projects are costing. Saso Ordanoski, a veteran commentator, is especially critical. “It is a catastrophe. It is a Disneyland. They consider Macedonia to be the ancient cradle of civilisation and not a normal, small, modern European country. That would be below their standards.”对于政府好大喜功式的文化炫示,马其顿人喜忧参半。他们觉得有些事儿该做,也确实做了,虽然过头了些。但是马其顿自由主义者和反对派则心怀不满。有人在国会公然质疑该计划所费几何。一位叫Saso Ordanoski的资深员极为尖锐地指出:“这是一场灾难。这简直是个迪斯尼乐园。他们自诩马斯顿为文明的摇篮,却忘了它只是一个普遍的欧洲现代小国——仿佛承认这一点有损品格似的。 /201406/303766。

  Yael,What are you trying to do?雅埃尔,你在干嘛?Im trying to strike this match on the fire place,so I can start a fire.我正试图划燃火柴点燃壁炉,这样我就能有火了。Are you using the right kind of match?你用对火柴了吗?What do you mean?Isnt a match a match?你是什么意思?火柴不就是火柴吗?Nope,There are two different types: safety matches and strike-anywhere matches.大错特错,目前有两种不同的火柴:安全火柴,和那一种在哪里划一下都可以点燃的火柴。Safety matches are the kind that light only when struck on the striking surface on the side of a matchbox.所谓安全火柴,指的就是那种只有在火柴盒表面特定的,某一个可以划燃火柴的区域上才能点燃的火柴。A striking surface consists of sand, powdered glass, and a chemical called red phosphorus.这样的易燃表面是由沙子、玻璃粉、和一种叫做红磷的化学物质构成。The tip of a safety match is made of glass powder, sulfur, and an oxidizing agent–a chemical necessary to keep a flame burning.而火柴头是由玻璃粉,硫磺和一种氧化剂组成-这种氧化剂则是保持火苗能持续燃烧的必需化学物质。When a safety match scrapes against a striking surface, the glass powder on the striking surface and match head rub together, creating enough heat to turn a bit of the red phosphorus on the striking surface into white phosphorus.当你用一根安全火柴去擦这个易燃的表面时,表面的玻璃粉和火柴头相互擦,然后产生出了足够的热量,该热量可以使得易燃表面的红磷转化成为白磷。The white phosphorus ignites in air, passing ignition across to the match head.白磷在空气中会进行燃烧,然后就点燃了火柴头。Sounds like we have a chemical reaction thing going?听起来里面有些化学反应的门道?Thats right.的确如此。This starts a chemical reaction that uses the oxidizing agent on the match to produce oxygen gas.这个过程中引发了一场化学反应,在这个反应中火柴上的氧化剂产生了氧气。Combined with the heat, the oxygen gas causes the sulfur to catch fire, which then sps to the wood of the match.与足够的热量相混合后,氧气引发硫磺着火,之后火苗就会逐渐延伸到火柴另一端的木制部分。A strike anywhere match works almost the same way, except the red phosphorus is included in the match head.那种在任何地方都能点燃的火柴,和这种安全火柴的工作原理都是基本相同的,但是这种火柴的火柴头上就含有红磷。So, a strike anywhere match can be lit by striking the match against any hard surface.因此,只要将这种火柴的火柴头与硬物表面进行擦就可以燃烧。 /201310/259458

  

  

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