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2019年11月21日 18:58:32|来源:国际在线|编辑:养心新闻
At the time, what they thought在那个时候,启蒙学者们认为distinguished science was a radical idea about things unseen, known as empiricism.科学的独特标志是一个关于不可见事物的激进看法,叫做经验主义All knowledge derives from the senses.认为所有的知识来自我们的感官Well, weve seen that that cant be true.呵呵,我们知道这样说有些偏颇It did help by promoting observation and experiment.但经验主义成就了科学观察与实验But, from the outset, it was obvious that there was something horribly wrong with it.然而乍一看之下,似乎很明显地经验主义存在着可怕的漏洞Knowledge comes from the senses.“知识源自感官”In what language? Certainly not the language of mathematics,那么感官得来的知识由什么语言承载呢?肯定不会是数学语言吧in which, Galileo rightly said, the book of nature is written.可伽利略却有此精辟一语,“自然之书乃数学著成”Look at the world. You dont see equations carved on to the mountainsides.看看这世界,你看不到山崖上刻着方程式If you did, it would be because people had carved them.就算碰巧看到了,那也是因为人们刻上去的By the way, why dont we do that?顺便问一句,我们干嘛不这样做呢?Whats wrong with us?这不是有毛病嘛?Empiricism is inadequate because, well,经验主义本身是不足的,这大概是因为scientific theories explain the seen in terms of the unseen.科学理论用不可见的来解释可见的And the unseen, you have to admit, doesnt come to us through the senses.而那些不可见的--你得承认--可不是从感官得来的We dont see those nuclear reactions in stars.我们可看不见恒星中的核反应We dont see the origin of species.看不见物种起源We dont see the curvature of space-time, and other universes.还有时空弯曲其他的平行宇宙But we know about those things. How?但我们知道这些。我们是怎么做到的呢?Well, the classic empiricist answer is induction.经验主义的经典的是“归纳法”The unseen resembles the seen. But it doesnt.认为不可见的与可见的相似。其实不然You know what the clinching evidence was that space-time is curved?你能找到一个决定性的反例。比如:时空是弯曲的这一事实It was a photograph, not of space-time,我们知道它的据是一张照片,不是关于时空本身but of an eclipse, with a dot there rather than there.而是拍摄的一次日食,上面有个小点在这儿而不在那儿And the evidence for evolution?至于物种起源的据呢?Some rocks and some finches.一些岩石和雀类化石And parallel universes? Again: dots there, rather than there, on a screen.平行宇宙的据何在啊?又是屏幕上这儿有些点,而不是那儿What we see, in all these cases,这些事例中我们眼睛观察到的bears no resemblance to the reality that we conclude is responsible和事实没有什么相似之处,所以前面的“相似说”不成立only a long chain of theoretical reasoning and interpretation connects them.只有一条长长的理论推导与解读的链条,把它们连在一起;Ah!; say creationists.于是那些神创论者就说:“啊哈!”;So you admit its all interpretation.“所以你承认这些科学理论都只是某种解读No one has ever seen evolution. We see rocks.没人知道是什么。我们都看得见石头You have your interpretation. We have ours.你有你的理解,我们有我们的Yours comes from guesswork, ours from the Bible.;你的理解来自理论猜测,我们的来自圣经。”But what creationist and empiricists both ignore is that, in that sense,可是有一点神创论者和经验主义者同时忽略了,那就是,从先前的那种意义上看no one has ever seen a bible either,没有人真正切实“观察”到一本圣经that the eye only detects light, which we dont perceive.眼睛只是探测到阳光,而我们无法有意识地感知它Brains only detect nerve impulses.大脑只侦测神经脉冲And they dont perceive even those as what they really are, namely electrical crackles.但却无法感知它们究竟本身是什么,而它们其实是带电粒子“小爆破”So we perceive nothing as what it really is.如此说来我们无法感知任何事物的现实究竟是什么201606/450869Writing biography is a strange thing to do.撰写传记是一件不可思议的事情Its a journey into the foreign territory of somebody elses life,记下别人的一生就如异国旅程一样a journey, an exploration that can take you places you never dreamed of going这段旅程让你探索那些从未想过的地方and still cant quite believe youve been, especially if, like me, youre an agnostic Jew即使曾去过那里,你自己都不敢相信,尤其当你像我一样,是一位不可知论者、一位犹太人and the life youve been exploring is that of Muhammad.而你所探索的旅程就是“穆罕默德”的生平Five years ago, for instance,举例来说,五年前I found myself waking each morning in misty Seattle to what I knew was an impossible question:当每天在晨雾弥漫的西雅图醒来时,我常想到一个很困难的问题What actually happened one desert night, half the world and almost half of history away?隔着半个地球,半页历史,在沙漠中某个夜晚到底发生了什么事?What happened, that is, on the night in the year 610公元610年的某个夜晚,when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Koran on a mountain just outside Mecca?当穆罕默德在麦加郊外一处山上第一次领受古兰经启示时,到底发生了什么事?This is the core mystical moment of Islam, and as such, of course, it defies empirical analysis.这是伊斯兰教最关键的神秘时刻,那当然啦,是无法对其进行实例分析的Yet the question wouldnt let go of me.然而这问题挥之不去I was fully aware that for someone as secular as I am, just asking it could be seen as pure chutzpah.我完全了解像我这样的非宗教人士,问这样的问题真是放肆无礼And I plead guilty as charged, because all exploration, physical or intellectual,我承认这一点,因为肉体上或精神上的任何探索is inevitably in some sense an act of transgression, of crossing boundaries.都无法避免地有亵渎且冒犯之意201609/466923【学习提示】第一步:先听,理解句子;第二步:看原文模仿!【原声模仿】1. Oh, what happen to you? Last time I saw you, you were a toddler.2. Hey, I was sorry I’m late . I was working on this baby and I kind of lost track of time. 3. Seems like, uh, I gotta tune it up every third fire. /200606/7388

英语会话800句 75 /200609/9385

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