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木兰县中医医院妇产科建卡要多少钱黑龙江省哈尔滨第七医院病房黑龙江省哈尔滨市第一医院费用 Finance and Economics;The world economy;Mountains to climb财经;世界经济;任重而道远August was a nerve-racking month for the world economy. September and October will be no better对世界经济来说,八月是伤脑筋的一个月,而九月和十月经济形势也不见得好转。Central bankers are not known for seeking solace in the heavens. But at their annual symposium in Jackson Hole, organised by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, the world’s leading monetary mavens could be found, after dinner, peering enthusiastically into telescopes set up by the local astronomy club. As he spied the M82 galaxy, 12m light-years away, one central banker remarked: “That puts our problems into perspective.”央行行长不是因向天空寻求安慰而出名,但是由堪萨斯城美联储组织召开的杰克逊霍尔年度研讨会上,世界首席货币专家们在晚宴后,通过当地天文学俱乐部设置的望远镜满腔热情地凝望着天空。一位央行行长在找到离地球1200万光年的M82星系时说:“这让我们全面看到我们的问题。”On the ground, though, those problems are as big as ever. Christine Lagarde, the new managing director of the IMF, voiced a collective sentiment when she said the world economy found itself in a “dangerous new phase”. Things could get riskier still in the coming weeks.尽管研讨会当场,那些问题像原来一样严重,当国际货币基金组织(IMF)新总裁克里斯蒂娜·拉加德(Christine Lagarde)认为世界经济处于“危险的新阶段”,她说出了集体的观点。在接下来的几周,经济形势有可能会更加危险。In America, the worry is dashed expectations. The Federal Reserve’s policy-setting committee next meets on September 20th and 21st and has scheduled an extra day’s discussion on its arsenal of unconventional monetary weapons. Wall Street hopes it will mark the onset of “QE3”, another big bout of bond-buying. The mood in Jackson Hole suggested that any action will be modest and incremental.在美国,对经济前景的担忧击垮了人们的期望。美联储政策制定委员会下一次的会议原定于9月20、21日召开,现会期额外增加一天,用于讨论其非常规的货币武器。华尔街希望这标志着再一次大量购买国债的第三轮量化宽松政策(QE3)的启动。杰克逊霍尔的气氛表明任何措施将会是适度的、递增的。Many central bankers, including Ben Bernanke, the Fed’s chairman, think it is time for fiscal policy to do more. He gave Congress a scolding at Jackson Hole, arguing that politicians need to address the medium-term fiscal mess while leaving room to cushion the economy now. Barack Obama is working on a jobs plan but the chances of a political rapprochement on issues like America’s payroll-tax cut, due to expire soon, remain uncertain. No deal implies sharply tighter fiscal policy.包括美联储主席本·伯南克(Ben Bernanke)在内的很多央行行长认为,到了财政政策发挥更大作用的时候了。伯南克在杰克逊霍尔大会上大肆责骂国会,认为政客们应该集中精力解决中期的财政混乱,同时给目前的经济留下缓冲的空间。奥巴马总统正着手于一项就业计划,但是在即将到期的美国减少工资税等问题上两党达成协议可能性仍然不确定。没有达成协议意味着更紧的财政政策。Far more serious danger lies in Europe. Policymakers there put great faith in an agreement they struck on July 21st, which promised more money for Greece as well as more resources and a broader remit for the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF). That expanded role is due to be ratified by euro-zone parliaments in the next few weeks. The European Central Bank (ECB) regards its recent decision to buy Spanish and Italian bonds as a stopgap until the expanded EFSF is up and running.欧洲则面临更加严重的危险。欧洲决策者极大地相信于7月21日紧急达成的协议,该协议保为希腊提供更多的资金,同时也保给予欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)更多的资源和更大的借贷范围。其扩大的范围应该在随后的数周内经过欧元区议会批准。在欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)借贷范围扩大并运转之前,欧洲中央(ECB)将其最近购买西班牙和意大利国债的决定视为权宜之计。But three shadows hang over the EFSF. First, the political timetable for its ratification could slip. Potential causes include Finnish demands for collateral against its contribution to the Greek bail-out and a vote by Germany’s constitutional court, due on September 7th, on the legality of the rescue package (see table).但是,欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)面临着三大障碍。第一,其借贷范围扩大得到批准的政治时间表有可能一拖再拖,可能的原因包括芬兰要求其对希腊紧急救助进行抵押,以及定于9月7日由德国宪法法院对其一揽子救援计划的合法性进行投票。(见图表)Second, there is growing confusion about what the revamped rescue fund should do. Europe’s central bankers are desperate for it to take over the bond-buying duties if markets stay skittish over Italy and Spain. Ms Lagarde is pushing another priority. She thinks Europe’s banks urgently need more capital to “cut the chains of contagion” and wants a mandatory recapitalisation, using public funds if necessary and the EFSF in particular. In effect, the IMF wants a repeat of what America’s Treasury did in 2008, when it bullied big banks into taking capital injections.第二,对于如何使用修订后的储备金的疑问越来越多。如果意大利和西班牙的市场保持活跃的话,欧洲的央行行长极度渴望欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)能够承担起购买国债的重担。拉加德正敦促优先考虑另一件事。她认为欧洲的急切需要更多的资金来阻断金融危机蔓延的趋势,而且需要对进行一次强制的资本重组,如果必要的话将使用公共基金,以及尤其是欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)提供的基金。实际上,国际货币基金组织想要重复2008年美国财政部的措施,当时美国财政部迫使大型注入资金。Many Europeans were furious at Ms Lagarde’s comments, denying any serious capital shortage and arguing instead that if there is a problem, it is one of attracting funding from skittish wholesale markets. Jean-Claude Trichet, the ECB’s president, tried to damp down even that concern, pointing out that banks could tap unlimited liquidity at the ECB and that they had ample collateral left to post in return.很多欧洲人对拉加德的大为光火,他们否认存在任何严重的资本短缺,同时争论如果存在问题的话,那也是如何从活跃的批发市场吸引资金的问题。欧洲中央行长让·克罗德·特里谢(Jean-Claude Trichet)试图消除这样的担心,他指出各能够从欧洲中央取得无限制的流动资金,反过来,欧洲中央则可以获得足够的保金。Mr Trichet is right, but only up to a point. The sheer scale of European’ banks’ funding needs (about 1.7 Euro trillion, or 2.5 dollor trillion, in the next three years) is daunting: an idea from Morgan Stanley, to use the EFSF to offer European guarantees on new bank debt, has gained traction recently. And illiquidity is a symptom of concerns about solvency. So Ms Lagarde is right that strengthening banks’ buffers is important. The July stress tests, which did not allow for sovereign defaults, offer scant guidance. Using the market price of sovereign bonds, the IMF thinks that European banks could have unrecognised losses of Euro200 billion, meaning lots more capital would be needed. The EFSF is one sensible source.特里谢说的没错,但也不完全如此。欧洲各的基金需求的绝对规模(在接下来的三年大概1.7万亿欧元,或2.5万亿美元)让人瞠目:根史坦利的想法是用欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)在新的债务上作为欧洲担保,最近该想法获得青睐。而且非流动性是对偿还能力担心的一个特征。因此,拉加德认为加强的缓冲是非常重要,这样的观点是正确的。7月份的压力测试,因为没有考虑到主权违约,缺乏指导意义。国际国币基金组织认为,如果采用国债的市场价格,欧洲看不到的损失将达到二千亿欧元,这意味着需要更多的资金。欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)则是一个明智的资金来源。The third and biggest reason to worry is that the EFSF is too small. The fund is being increased to Euro440 billion. But subtract the money aly committed to bail-outs as well as the extra Greece might need if “voluntary” private debt-restructuring falls short (see article), and only around Euro 200 billion may be left. At the ECB’s current pace of bond-buying (Euro 6 billion-22 billion a week), that will not last long, especially if some is also set aside for banks.第三,也是最主要的原因,欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)规模太小。基金已经增长到4400亿欧元。但是减去已经用于应急措施的资金,以及如果“自愿的”私有债务重组资金短缺时希腊可能需要额外的资金(见图表),那么大概只剩2000亿欧元。在目前欧洲中央购买国债的速度下(每周达60亿—220亿欧元),这笔资金将不会维持很长时间,特别是其中有些是为留着的。European politicians are unlikely to cough up more, so much discussion behind the scenes is about how to lever up the rescue facility. Daniel Gros of the Centre for European Policy Studies and Thomas Mayer of Deutsche Bank think the EFSF should be registered as a bank and allowed to borrow from the ECB, using the government bonds it buys as collateral. That kind of arms-length arrangement, they argue, would be much better than having the ECB buy bonds itself, and would give the EFSF huge firepower. Conservative central bankers worry that it would still break the rule that bans direct purchases by the ECB, in spirit at least.欧洲政客不愿意被迫付更多,秘密地讨论如何抬高救援额度。欧洲政策研究中心的丹尼尔·格罗斯(Daniel Gros)和德意志的托马斯·梅耶尔(Thomas Mayer)认为,欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)应该以资质进行注册并且能够将其购买的国债作为抵押从欧洲中央贷款。他们认为,这种保持距离的安排将比欧洲中央自己购买国债要好很多,而且将给予欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)更大的能力。保守的央行行长们担心这仍将会破坏禁止欧洲中央直接购买债券的规定,至少在精神上破坏了规矩。An alternative, quietly touted by some North American officials, is to tempt investors into buying bonds by giving them access to non-recourse loans from the ECB. The model is another American innovation from the financial crisis—the Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility, or TALF. Soft loans from the Fed were designed to tempt investors into buying securities; the Treasury promised to take the first tranche of any losses, thus protecting the Fed. In a European version, cheap, non-recourse loans would encourage investors to buy Italian or Spanish bonds and bring down yields. The ECB would provide leverage, but any initial losses would be borne by the EFSF. The facility’s resources would be magnified, private investors would be drawn in and the price of bonds would still be set by the market.还有种方式,一些北美洲的官员私底下大肆吹捧,就是通过让投资者得到欧洲中央的无追索权贷款来引诱他们购买债券。该模式是美国在金融危机中的另一项创新——定期资产持券贷款工具(TALF)。美联储提供的软贷款计划用于引诱投资者购买券。财政部许诺如果出现任何亏损将承担第一笔款项,从而保护美联储。在欧洲,低价、无追索权贷款将会鼓励投资者购买意大利或西班牙债券,而且减少收益。欧洲中央将会提供杠杆,但是任何前期损失将由欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)来承担。欧洲金融稳定机构(EFSF)的资源将扩大,私人投资者将被引诱进行投资,而且债券价格仍然由市场决定。Dusting off America’s crisis-management ideas makes sense: they were effective. But Europe’s task is far harder, not just because there are many more parties involved but because the end goal is so unclear. American officials were battling the temporary collapse of a financial system. European politicians need to create a new one, either with a more integrated fiscal union or a break-up of the current euro area. Without political leadership, the technocrats cannot solve the problem.复制美国的金融危机管理理念是说得通的,因为它们有效。但是,欧洲的任务更加艰巨,不仅仅是因为欧洲牵涉的党派较多,而是因为最终的目的还不明确。美国官员为了金融系统的临时崩溃而战斗。欧洲官员需要通过创建一个更加和谐的财政联盟,亦或将目前的欧元区分开来创造一个新的金融系统。没有政治领导,技术专家将无法解决这个问题。 /201301/222315黑龙江省哈尔滨四院可以做人流吗

哈尔滨第六医院在那Out for the Count失去知觉之后If youve ever had major surgery, you probably remember lying down and waking up—but nothing in between. Thanks to the anesthesiologist, during the actual surgery you were out of it: immobilized and insensitive to pain. But until recently scientists had little understanding of how anesthetics actually work on the cellular level.如果你曾经做过重大手术,那么你肯定只记得躺下去和醒来这么2个动作,而其间过程是浑然不知的。多亏了麻醉师,你才能在手术中无知觉地度过:不能动弹,也感觉不到疼痛。但是直到最近科学家们才多少了解到麻醉药是如何在细胞层面上工作的。Thats changed thanks to recent experiments performed by researchers at the University of Zurich, in Switzerland. They knew that anesthetics caused pain receptors in the brain to turn off by acting like most drugs do: anesthetizing drugs attach to particular sites on nerve cells and turn them off. The question was, where on nerve cells do these drugs attach?还得感谢瑞士苏黎世大学的研究员们最近做的实验,这一困惑才得以解开。他们弄清楚了麻药是通 过关闭大脑中的疼痛接收器才使人感觉不到疼痛,原理跟大多数药物一样:麻药附着在神经细胞上某个特殊位置,然后将感知功能关闭。问题是,麻药到底附着在什么位置呢?Nerve cell membranes have receptors for different kinds of chemicals produced by the brain. Gamma-amino butyric acid, or GABA, for example, is a chemical that shuts down nerve cells. The hypothesis was that general anesthesia works by binding to GABA receptors on a nerve cell, thereby activating the receptor and instructing the cell to shut down. So it made sense for the Zurich researchers to focus on GABA receptors.神经细胞膜有多个接收器来识别大脑产生的不同类别的化学物质。例如γ-氨基丁酸,或者简写为GABA,就是可以关闭神经细胞感知功能的化学物质。假设全身麻醉是将麻药和在神经细胞上的GABA接收器绑定在一起,从而激活接收器,然后再传达闭接收功能的指令关的。这样的假设就使苏黎世大学的研究员们明白,集中精力研究GABA接收器是关键所在。To do this they worked with mice that had been genetically engineered to have nerve cells with GABA receptors that wouldnt respond to anesthetics. And sure enough, when such mice were given anesthetic drugs they werent nearly as immune to pain as regular mice that had also been given pain-blocking drugs. Clearly, GABA receptor sites on nerve cells are part of what allows anesthetics to do their job.为了明这点,他们用基因改造过的老鼠做实验,这种老鼠身上的 GABA接收器对麻药免疫。毫无疑问,这样的老鼠在使用了麻药后,比起正常的用了麻药的老鼠,疼痛感几乎没有降低。显然位于神经细胞上的GABA接收器是让麻药起作用的原因之一。While the Zurich experiment fills in only one piece of the puzzle, it is an important step towards learning how these amazing drugs work, and how to make them even better.尽管苏黎世大学做的实验只解决了一小部分困惑,但是这对于了解这些神奇的药物如何工作的,以及怎样让它们发挥更好的效果是重要的一步。 /201208/193298哈市中医院怎么样好吗 哈尔滨市第五医院在线咨询

哈尔滨阳光四维彩超预约Science and Technology Animal obesity The fat cat cometh科技 动物肥胖 肥猫报到It is not just human beings that are getting fatter. Animals are, too不只人类正在变胖,动物亦然IN THEIR attempts to explain the global epidemic of obesity, researchers have often taken to fingering culprits beyond peoples direct control. It is now believed that increased levels of stress, climate change and even artificial light at night may contribute to expanding waistlines. However, if such factors affect humans, they ought, in principle, to have similarly nefarious effects on other creatures. This should hold especially true for species that are physiologically similar to people and live in proximity to them. Pet owners have long fretted that this may, indeed, be happening.在试图解释全球流行的肥胖时,研究人员往往指陈人们无法直接控制的元凶。人们现在认为,压力水平上升、气候变化、甚至连夜晚的人工照明都有助于扩大腰围。但是,如果这些因素影响人类,那么按理说它们对其它生物应该有同样的恶果。这种影响对那些在生理上与人类相似且靠近人群生活的物种应该尤其成真。宠物的主人们对此早就苦恼不已,的确这种影响有可能发生。Of course, anecdotal evidence carries little weight, so a group of researchers led by Yann Klimentidis, of the University of Alabama, decided to check whether animal obesity rates do in fact mirror the worrying trend among people. They published their findings this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.当然,道听途说不足为据,所以美国阿拉巴马大学的一组研究人员在扬?克利曼泰迪斯的领导下,决定核对核对动物的肥胖率是否跟人们的担忧趋势确实相符。他们在本周的《英国皇家学会会刊》上发表了他们的研究结果。Dr Klimentidis and his team set about their task by scouring online repositories of scientific papers, contacting fellow researchers and even petitioning pet-food companies for data on changes in animals bodyweights over the decades. They limited their search to mammals, whose bodies work much like humans do—and, specifically, to those mammals living with or around people in the rich world.克利曼泰迪丝士和他的小组着手完成任务,他们搜索网上的科学论文库、联系其它同道研究人员、甚至向宠物食品公司请阅近几十年来动物体重的变化数据。他们把搜索锁定在哺乳动物上,因为哺乳动物的身体跟人类的身体功能非常相似——而且特别把搜索锁定在那些富裕国家里与人共同生活或在人周边生活的哺乳动物上。The trawl threw up information on more than 20,000 animals from 24 distinct populations covering eight species. These included cats, dogs, mice, rats and several types of monkey. Some were bred in highly controlled research environments. Others lived in peoples homes or in the wild. None had their food intake artificially limited or, as with livestock, ramped up.这次搜罗从24个不同的群落中找出了八个物种2万余只动物的信息。这些物种包括猫、、小鼠、大鼠和几种猴。有些是在严格控制的研究环境下饲养的。其它的生活在人的家中或在野外生存。它们的食物摄入量均未人为限制或是象喂牲畜一样加料。For each population, Dr Klimentidis looked at the animals weight at an age corresponding to 35 human years. Middle adulthood was chosen to ensure the data were not fudged by the effects of either early development or old-age withering. Any animals that died within a year of this mid-life physical were also excluded.对于每个群落,克利曼泰迪斯士都调查了年纪相当于人类35岁的动物的体重。选择成年中期是为了确保数据既不受早期发育的影响也不受老年萎缩的影响而掺假。任何在这个中期体检年内死亡的动物也被排除。He then proceeded to calculate each populations average weight, as well as its obesity rate, for every decade of available data. The obesity rates were based on a bespoke indicator akin to the body-mass index that is used to gauge (roughly) whether a person is too rotund. This ploy permitted comparison between species in which weights have different meanings. (Nutritionists employ similar tricks to establish what is a healthy body-mass index for children in different age groups.)接着,他计算出每个群落的平均体重以及肥胖率,每十年取一个可用的数据。肥胖率的计算按预定的指标为基础上进行,预定指标类似于用来衡量(大约)一个人是否太圆的身体-质量指数。这项工作允许在体重意义不同的物种之间进行比较。(营养学家采用类似手法来确定不同年龄段儿童的健康身体质量指标是多少。)Subsequent number-crunching revealed a statistically significant increase in bodyweight in 11 of the 24 populations. The weights of the other 13 rose too, though not to an extent that was significant for any of the individual groups. Nevertheless, the fact that all of these insignificant changes were upward was, itself, statistically significant. Moreover, the obesity-rate indices followed a similar pattern. Dr Klimentidis reckons the odds of his data having come about by chance are about one in 10m for the weight gain and three in 1m for the rise in obesity.随后的数字处理揭示了24个群落中有11个体重显着增加。其它13个群落的体重也有增加,不过达不到对于任何个别群体来说都显著的程度。然而,这些微不足道的变化是向上增的这一事实本身就很显著。此外,肥胖率指数遵循了类似的模式。克利曼泰迪斯士估计,他的数据偶然出现的几率在体重增加方面大约是1000万分之一左右,在肥胖率上升方面大约是100万分之三。Most intriguingly, perhaps, the laboratory animals showed more pronounced gains than those living outside a lab. This is strange because the sorts of lab animals the researchers looked at tend to be given lots of food and left to nibble at leisure. This practice has not changed for decades. That the animals put on weight nonetheless suggests the phenomenon cannot be caused solely by pet owners appeasing their Garfields, or feral rats rummaging through refuse composed of ever larger quantities of calorie-rich processed food. Dr Klimentidis is unable to pinpoint any single mechanism that could account for his results. But this does not stop his data from lending exculpatory explanations for fat tummies more credence.或许最有趣的是,实验室动物比非实验室动物表现出更为明显的体重增加。这很奇怪,因为研究人员观察的各种实验室动物往往被给予大量食物,且让它们在闲暇时一点一点蚕食。这种做法几十年来都没有改变。尽管这样动物还在发胖,这说明发胖现象不可能是单由宠物的主人安抚他们的加菲猫引起的,或者单由野生鼠完全不吃大量富含高卡路里的加工食品引起的。克利曼泰迪斯士无法查明任何一种可以解释其研究结果的单一机制。但是,这并不妨碍借用他的数据对大腹便便作出开脱罪责的解释,而不是把罪责归于餐桌。 /201301/222532 黑龙江省军区医院预约电话大庆治疗妇科疾病多少钱



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