原标题: 广州封闭抗体阴性治疗那个医院最好中华社区
Several banks, including Barclays, Citi and Royal Bank of Scotland, have banned the use of most group chat rooms in moves that highlight how global probes into alleged benchmark manipulations are driving a radical reform of trading floors. 包括巴克莱(Barclays)、花旗(Citi)以及苏格兰皇家(Royal Bank of Scotland)在内的几家已经禁止大部分群聊天室的使用,此举突显了针对基准操纵指控的全球调查正如何推动交易厅的彻底改革。 Investigations into the Libor interbank lending rate manipulation scandal prompted RBS sometime last year to ban unmonitored chat rooms where traders used to discuss market topics with rivals, two people familiar with those measures said. 两位消息人士说,对伦敦同业拆借利率(Libor)操纵丑闻的调查,促使苏格兰皇家在去年某个时候禁止了非监控聊天室的使用。交易员曾利用此类聊天室与竞争对手讨论市场话题。 “The bank clamped down on this big time. I think we were even going slightly overboard on this,” one senior banker said. 一位高级家说:“在大力取缔聊天室。我认为我们甚至做得有点过火了。” Citi two months ago banned traders’ chat rooms with multiple banks, restricting instant messages to conversations with traders at one bank at a time. Barclays, which like the other two banks declined to comment, made similar reforms last year. Executives at JPMorgan are also examining whether conversations on so-called “multi-dealer” chat rooms cannot be carried out bilaterally over the phone. 两个月前,花旗禁止交易员与多家同时聊天,将即时消息限制于每次与一家的交易员对话。去年,巴克莱做出了类似的改革。与另外两家一样,巴克莱也拒绝对此发表。根大通(JPMorgan)的高管也在评估,所谓的多交易商聊天室对话,能否被一对一的电话联系替代。 Banks are re-evaluating their messaging systems as they grapple with the fallout from the Libor scandal and a global probe into alleged manipulation of the .3tn a day foreign exchange market, the latest in a series of benchmark-related rate-rigging investigations. 各在重新评估各自的消息系统,他们需要努力克Libor丑闻的冲击波以及对每天5.3万亿美元的外汇市场操纵指控的全球调查,后者是一连串基准利率操纵调查的最新一项调查。 At least eight regulators in the UK, US, Switzerland and Hong Kong are involved in investigating more than 15 banks. That has so far triggered the suspension of at least a dozen traders across the globe amid suspicions that chat rooms were used to share sensitive client information. 英国、美国、瑞士以及香港至少有八家监管机构参与了对超过15家的调查。由于涉嫌利用聊天室分享敏感客户信息,目前全球至少已经有十几名交易员被停职。 /201311/265710

A doughnut created in a lab and made of silk on the outside and collagen gel where the jelly ought to be can mimic a basic function of brain tissue, scientists have found.科学家发现,实验室里制造的一个类似甜甜圈的东西,可以模仿脑组织的一项基本功能。这个圆圈的环状部分由丝材料制成,圈里面填的是胶原蛋白凝胶。Bioengineers produced a kind of rudimentary gray matter and white matter in a dish, along with rat neurons that signaled one another across the doughnut’s center. When the scientists dropped weights on the material to simulate traumatic injury, the neurons in the three-dimensional brain model emitted chemical and electrical signals similar to those in the brains of injured animals.生物工程师在培养皿中制成了相当于原始灰质和白质的材料,其中用了大鼠神经元,这些神经元能通过圆圈中间的物质相互交换信号。当科学家让重物掉到这个圆圈上,以模拟创伤性损伤时,这个三维大脑模型中的神经元释放出了化学信号和电信号,与受伤动物的大脑释放的信号类似。It is the first time scientists have been able to so closely imitate brain function in the laboratory, experts said. If researchers can replicate it with human neurons and enhance it to reflect other neurological functions, it could be used for studying how disease, trauma and medical treatments affect the brain — without the expense and ethical challenges of clinical trials on people.专家们表示,这是科学家首次能在实验室里如此逼真地模仿大脑功能。如果研究人员能用人的神经元重建这个模型,并提升到足以反映其他一些神经系统功能的水平,那么这个模型或可用于研究疾病、创伤和治疗如何影响大脑,从而避免人体临床试验的高费用和伦理问题。;In terms of mechanical similarity to the brain, it’s a pretty good mimic,; said James J. Hickman, a professor of nanoscience technology at the University of Central Florida, who was not involved in the research. ;They’ve been able to repeat the highest level of function of neurons. It’s the best model I’ve seen.;“从与大脑的机械相似性来看,这是一个相当不错的模仿,”詹姆斯·J·希克曼(James J. Hickman)说。他是中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida)的纳米科学与技术教授,没有参与这项研究。“他们能够复制出最高水平的神经元功能。这是我看到过的最好的模型。”The research, led by David Kaplan, the chairman of the bioengineering department at Tufts University, and published Monday in the journal PNAS, is the latest example of biomedical engineering being used to make realistic models of organs such as the heart, lungs and liver.该研究由塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)生物工程系主任戴维·卡普兰(David Kaplan)主持,于周一发表在《美国科学院院刊》(PNAS)上。这是用生物医学工程手段制造器官——比如心脏、肺和肝脏——仿真模型的一个最新例子。Most studies of human brain development rely on animals or on brain slices taken after death; both are useful but have limits.研究人类大脑发育的工作大多依赖于动物实验,或人死亡后获取的大脑切片;两者都有用,但都具局限性。Brain models have been mostly two-dimensional or made with a three-dimensional gel, said Rosemarie Hunziker, program director of tissue engineering and biomaterial at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which funded Dr. Kaplan’s research.美国国家生物医学成像和生物工程研究所(National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering)的组织工程与生物材料项目主任罗斯玛丽·亨齐克(Rosemarie Hunziker)称,以前的大脑模型大多是二维的,或是用三维凝胶制作。该研究所资助了卡普兰的工作。None of those systems replicate the brain’s gray or white matter, or how neurons communicate, Dr. Hunziker said. ;Even if you get cells to live in there, they don’t do much,; she said.亨齐克还表示,过去的系统都没有复制大脑的灰质或白质,也没有复制出神经元如何传导信号。“就算你能让细胞在模型中存活,它们基本上也做不成什么。”Dr. Kaplan’s team found that a spongy silk material coated with a positively charged polymer could culture rat neurons, a stand-in for gray matter. By itself, silk did not encourage neurons to produce axons, branches that transmit electrical pulses to other neurons.卡普兰的研究小组发现,一种涂有带正电聚合物的海绵状丝制材料可以培养大鼠神经元,用以替代灰质。丝制材料本身并不能让神经元产生轴突,也就是把电脉冲传递给其他神经元的突出部分。The researchers formed the silk material into a doughnut and added collagen gel to the center. Axons grew from the ring through the gel — the white matter substitute — and sent signals to neurons across the circle.这些研究人员将丝制材料做成一个圆圈,在其中心添加了胶原蛋白凝胶。轴突从圆圈的一边长出来,通过替代白质的凝胶,把信号发送给圆圈另一边的神经元。They got ;these neurons talking to each other,; Dr. Hunziker said. ;No one’s really shown that before.;亨齐克说,他们让“这些神经元互相交流。以前没人真正做到了这一点。”By adding nutrients and growth factors, scientists kept the brainlike tissue alive in an incubator for two months, at which point they experimented on it.通过添加营养物质和生长因子,科学家把这个类似脑的组织放在孵化器中,让其存活了两个月,然后开始在它上面做试验。Adding a neurotoxin essentially killed the neurons, as it would in a real brain. To simulate traumatic brain injury, they dropped weights from different heights.添加一种神经毒素基本上会把神经元杀死,就像在真正的大脑中那样。为了模拟脑外伤,他们从不同高度让重物掉到模型上。Dr. Kaplan said the brain-in-a-dish ;didn’t go splat,; but reacted like ;a kitchen sponge, and it would compress down and then partially spring back up.;卡普兰称,这个培养皿中的大脑“没有四处飞溅”,其反应更像是“厨房里的海绵,先是向下压缩,然后部分反弹起来。”He said measurements of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that surges in injury, showed that ;the more severe the damage, the higher the spike; in glutamate.他说,大脑受伤会导致神经递质谷氨酸激增,而对模型中谷氨酸的测量显示,“受伤越重,激增的峰值越高。”Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, a biomedical engineering professor at Columbia who has worked with Dr. Kaplan on other studies, described the model as a kind of ;Lego approach,; a ;modular structure; that can be expanded and made more complex.哥伦比亚大学生物医学工程系教授戈尔达娜·乌尼亚克-诺瓦科维奇(Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic)曾与卡普兰在其他研究上有过合作。她称这个模型的建造有点像“乐高用的方法”,是一种“模块结构”,可以扩展成更复杂的形态。;It is the first proof of principle that something like this can be achieved outside of the body,; she said.她说,“这是首次在原理上明,类似这样的东西可以在体外实现。”Dr. Hickman said future experiments would need to study other cells and regions in the brain. ;They’ve set up an architecture so some clever person in the future could then do it,; he said. Dr. Kaplan said his team was working on sustaining the brainlike tissue for six months — and with human neurons created from stem cells. He plans to add a model of the brain’s vascular system, so researchers can study what happens when drugs cross the blood-brain barrier.希克曼表示,还需要有未来的实验来研究大脑的其他细胞和区域。他说,“他们已经建立了一个构架,将来会有聪明人用它来做工作。”卡普兰称,他的研究小组正在努力让这个类似脑的组织存活六个月,还要用上从干细胞生成的人类神经元。他打算加建一个大脑血管系统的模型,让研究人员得以观察当药物通过血脑屏障时会发生什么。Ultimately, he hopes the bioengineered model can be used ;to study everything from drugs to disease to surgical effects to electrode implants,; he said. ;I mean, the list is endless.;他的最终目标,是让生物工程模型能被用于“所有的研究,从药物,到疾病,到手术效果,再到植入电极,”他说。“我的意思是,可做的研究多得没完没了。” /201409/325542

With 50 million users, Evernote is the pack#39;s leader. The service, available on iOS and Android, has most everything users need like the ability to organize information into individual notebooks and share with others. To avoid having to type notes, Android users can use an automated transcription service that turns speech into text -- at least in theory. However, there is no built-in equivalent for iOS users. Evernote#39;s free service limits uploads to 60 MB per month. A premium version with up to 1 GB of uploads per month costs annually. Earlier this month, Evernote suffered a black eye when it revealed that hackers had infiltrated its computer system. As a result, it had to reset all user passwords.印象笔记(Evernote)是笔记软件领域的领军者,用户高达5,000万。这款应用在iOS和安卓上都能找到。它拥有用户所需要的几乎所有功能,比如把信息组织成个人化的笔记并与他人分享。为了让用户不用手写输入笔记,安卓用户可以用它提供的自动抄录功能把讲话变成文本——至少在理论上是可行的。不过,iOS用户就无法享用同样的内置功能。印象笔记每月免费上传量是60MB。只要每年付45美元,就能享用尊享版,每月上传上限为1GB。本月初,印象笔记透露曾有黑客入侵其电脑系统。结果,它不得不重新设定了所有用户的密码。A close rival of Evernote, Simplenote offers many of the same kinds of features, but limited to iOS devices and the Web. Unlike the others, Simplenote#39;s free service comes with ads. A premium version without ads and extra features like synching with Dropbox, the online storage service, is annually. In a sign of how hot the note-taking field is, Automattic, the company behind WordPress blogging software, acquired Simplenote#39;s parent earlier this year.作为印象笔记的死对头,Simplenote的很多功能都和印象笔记类似,但它仅限于iOS设备和网络使用。跟其他务不同的是,Simplenote的免费务含有广告。而不含广告、并提供可与在线存储务Dropbox同步这类功能的尊享版则每年收费20美元。今年年初,客创建软件WordPress的母公司Automattic收购了Simplenote的母公司。笔记务领域的竞争达到何种白热化程度,这个例子可见一斑。Notability is known as a palette for annotating notes and files stored on the service. Users can highlight text, write using their finger on documents including PDFs and draw pictures. Annotated files can be saved and shared. Notability is available only as an iPad app, which costs . Because of its limited compatibility, the service is not for everyone. Schools and people in creative professions may find it highly useful (and fun).Notability是一个调色板式的软件,能为存储在内的笔记和文件添加注解,并以此而著称。用户可以让文本高亮显示,用手指在包括PDF在内的各种文件上写字、画画。加注的文件可以存储、分享。它是个只能用于iPad的应用,售价2美元。由于其兼容性有限,它并不适合所有人。而教育行业和创意行业人士可能会觉得它非常有用(而且有趣)。Catch covers most of the bases necessary in note taking service. Text, audio and photo notes can be organized into folders and tagged so that they can be easily found. Users can also create checklists, share information privately and collaborate, with each contribution listed so you know who added what. Catch#39;s free service, which limits uploads to 70 MB per month, is available on Android and iOS devices along with the Web. Premium versions with bigger uploads and extra sharing -- aimed largely at business customers - cost and 5 annually.Catch拥有笔记务所必需的大多数基本功能。文本、音频和照片笔记可整理到文件夹里,还能做好标签,以便查找。用户还能创建清单,私下分享信息,开展协作。而每个信息来源都有标注,这样就能知道谁创建了什么内容。Catch允许用户每月最多免费上传70MB内容,有安卓版、iOS版和网络版。更大上传容量和额外分享功能的尊享版主要面向商业用户,年费是45美元和145美元。Basic is the best word to describe Google#39;s foray into note taking, which is part of its Drive online storage service. Keep has a simple design and offers voice to text transcription and sharing. But compared with some rivals, it lacks some functions like the ability to categorize notes and set an alarm for reminders. It is also only available on Android 4.0 devices or higher and through the Web. Google has a reputation for introducing skeletal products and then improving them over time. But more recently, it has also developed a reputation for killing products that don#39;t work out, which doesn#39;t exactly build confidence among users who have been burned. In fact, this is Google#39;s second try at note taking after killing a previous effort, Notebook, last year.“基础之作”这个词用来形容谷歌这次挺进笔记务领域推出的产品最合适不过。 Keep是谷歌在线存储务Drive的组成部分,设计简洁,有语音文本转化和分享功能。但和一些对手相比,它缺少一些功能,比如给笔记分类,设置提醒。而且只有安卓4.0或更高版本的设备在网上才能使用。谷歌一向以推出乞丐版产品,随后不断改进而著称。不过最近,它还有了另外一个名声,就是毙掉那些不好用的产品,搞得用户焦头,信心涣散。实际上,这已经是谷歌第二次试水笔记领域了。就在去年,它刚废掉Keep的上一代产品Notebook /201303/232492

The NSA and its British counterpart are tapping popular smartphone apps such as Angry Birds to peek into the tremendous amounts of very personal data those bits of software collect -- including age, location, sex and even sexual preferences, according to new reports from the New York Times and The Guardian.Citing confidential documents provided by whistleblower Edward Snowden, the reports detail efforts to supplement data collection from cell phone carriers and smartphones by tapping into “leaky” apps themselves.“Some apps, the documents state, can share users#39; most sensitive information such as sexual orientation – and one app recorded in the material even sends specific sexual preferences such as whether or not the user may be a swinger,” the Guardian said.That information can come from a user profile, which may contain martial status -- options included ;single,; ;married,; ;divorced,; ;swinger; and more, the report said.Both spy agencies showed a particular interest in Google Maps, which is accurate to within a few yards or better in some locations and would clearly pass along data about a phone owner#39;s whereabouts.《愤怒的小鸟》堪称史上最火的手机应用程序,但也成为“泄露”用户个人数据的源头。综合外国媒体1月27日报道,英美两国情报机构通过“潜伏”于智能手机中流行的应用程序,获取所需的用户个人信息。报道援引美国“监控门”事件揭秘者爱德华?斯诺登最新披露的机密文件称,美国国家安全局(NSA)和英国政府通讯总部(GCHQ)利用“有漏洞”的手机应用程序,例如《愤怒的小鸟》、谷歌地图、脸谱网(Facebook)、推特(Twitter)等,大量收集包括年龄、位置乃至性取向等用户的个人信息。“文件显示,一些手机应用程序可以分享用户最隐秘的信息,比如性取向。还有一款程序,甚至能发送用户是不是乱搞男女关系的人等特殊内容。”英国《卫报》报道称,这些信息来自用户个人资料,其中通常包含婚姻状况,选项包括“单身”、“已婚”、“离异”、“可换偶”等等。“It effectively means that anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system,” s a secret 2008 report by the NSA#39;s sister spy agency, according to the New York Times.More surprising is the wide range of apps that the agencies cull for data, including innocent-seeming apps such as Angry Birds. One document in particular from GCHQ listed what information can be extracted from which apps, citing Android apps but suggesting the same data was available from the iPhone platform.Angry Birds maker Rovio said it had no knowledge of any NSA or GCHQ programs or mechanisms for tapping into its users’ data.During a Monday press conference, White House press secretary Jay Carney stressed that same position.;As the president said in his Jan. 17 speech, to the extent data is collected by the NSA, through whatever means, we are not interested in the communications of people who are not valid foreign intelligence targets and we are not after the information of ordinary Americans,; he said.其中,由于“谷歌地图”能够在一定范围内准确显示并传输用户所处位置,英美两国情报机构对这款手机应用程序兴趣极高。美国《纽约时报》指出,“这实际上意味着,任何在智能手机上使用谷歌地图的人其实都在持英国政府通讯总部的情报搜集系统”。此外,手机上传照片也为情报机构搜集信息提供了丰富的资源。英美两国情报机构可通过挖掘照片元数据,了解用户几乎全部的私隐信息。据悉,英国政府通讯总部内部还存有一份文件,其中清楚列明从哪些手机应用程序中可获取哪些信息,并写道不论智能手机搭载的是安卓还是iOS系统,获取信息都是“可行的”。《愤怒的小鸟》开发商芬兰Rovio公司表示,他们对于情报机构利用该公司出品的游戏搜集用户数据一事毫不知情。而美国白宫发言人卡尼27日回应称,国安局并不针对一般的美国民众,“美国国安局收集情报的对象是有效的外国情报目标,而非一般美国民众,我们不是在追踪普通美国人的信息”。 /201402/274929

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