时间:2019年09月23日 11:25:42

Graduate tax to replace tuition fees: CableBusiness Secretary Vince Cable is to propose agraduate taxlinked to post-university earnings, replacing the current system of tuition fees, as part of major reforms to higher education.Under the plans the government would pay tuition fees directly to universities, instead of lending to students.Graduates would repay the cost of their degree once they start working, with higher earners paying more.;We want to investigate an option which is clearly fairer and related to peoples ability to pay,; Dr Cable told the Bs Today Programme, ahead of a speech at Londons South Bank University.Two-year degrees and more flexible, part-time courses are also expected to be suggested in the plans, as a means of cutting the cost of higher education.The proposals will be investigated by Lord Browne in a sweeping review of higher education, to be published in the autumn.The Higher Education Funding Council for England (Hefce) -- which was ordered by the government to slash its budget -- has written to universities confirming cuts of #163;200 million for this year, including #163;82 million from teaching grants.The Universities and College Union (UCU), which represents lecturers, warned the government against ;increasing the financial burden on the individual;.UCU general secretary, Sally Hunt, said: ;If the government thinks it can get the public to swallow higher fees as some sort of graduate tax it isliving in a dream world.Tuition fees were introduced by the Labour government and first paid by students in 1998. Overall, students pay up to #163;3,225 a year, which must be paid back when graduates start earning more than #163;15,000 a year.Vocabulary:graduate tax:毕业税live in a dream world:像做梦一样背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/109344

The defence industry国防工业The last manned fighter最后一代有人驾驶战斗机It is the most expensive military project ever. It is plagued by delays and menaced by budget cuts. Will the F-35 survive? 作为有史以来造价最高的军事项目,一再被推迟并饱受预算削减威胁的F-35战机会有一线生机吗?Jul 14th 2011 | from the print edition LEON PANETTA is under no illusions about what Barack Obama moved him from the CIA to the Pentagon to do. The wily Mr Panetta, who took over from Robert Gates as defence secretary at the beginning of the month, is everyone’s idea of a safe pair of hands. But his greatest claim to fame (other than presiding over the plan to kill Osama bin Laden) is as the director of the Office of Management and Budget who paved the way to the balanced budget of 1998. Mr Panetta has inherited from his predecessor the outlines of a plan to reduce military spending by 0 billion by 2023. But America’s fiscal crisis (and the lack of any political consensus about how tackle it) makes it almost certain that Mr Panetta will have to cut further and faster than Mr Gates would have wished.对于奥巴马将自己从中情局调往五角大楼的意图,莱昂帕内塔可谓心知肚明。月初刚刚接替罗伯特盖茨成为国防部长的帕内塔为人老练,是个公认的值得信赖之人。帕内塔最露脸的一次(竟然不是主导刺杀本拉登的那次行动)是在担任管理和预算办公室主任期间领导有方,实现了1998年度财政收平衡。帕内塔将继续实施其前任的计划,即到2023年削减4000亿美元的军费开,但由于美国当前的财政危机(以及缺乏如何解决该危机的政治共识),帕内塔几乎肯定会用比盖茨原计划更有过之而无不及的力度和速度来削减军费。That could be bad news for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the most expensive military-industrial programme in history, and its lead contractor, Lockheed Martin. The plane is expected to come into service six years late (in 2016) and wildly over-budget. The Pentagon still plans to buy 2,443 F-35s over the next 25 years, at a cost of 2 billion. But in a parting shot, Mr Gates gave warning that although he did not think the F-35 faced cancellation, “the size of the buy” might have to be cut. 这对于F-35联合作战战斗机及其首席承包商Lockheed Martin来说可是个坏消息,F-35是历史上耗资最多的军工项目。F-35开始役的时间预计比原计划推迟6年之久(到2016年),且已经严重超出预算。五角大楼仍准备在未来25年内购买2443架F-35战机,总价达到3820亿美元。然而盖茨在离任时警告说,虽然他认为购买F-35一事虽不至于彻底没戏,但“采购规模”也许不得不缩小。201107/145804

In recent years, medical evidence has pointed to the harmful physical effects of second-hand smoke. Now, a new study adds to evidence that non-smokers who live or work around smokers can experience psychological harm as well.Dr. Mark Hamer of University College London says previous research found that smokers have a higher rate of mental illness, specifically depression. "The problem with that body of research is that it's difficult to interpret because obviously people with existing mental health problems use cigarettes to self-medicate," he says.In this study, Hamer and his colleagues combined measurements of tobacco exposure with interviews focused on mental health issues. They found that nonsmokers exposed to tobacco smoke were more likely to experience psychiatric distress, and that the mental health issues increased along with the tobacco exposure."We found that people with high exposure to second hand smoke had increased levels of depression and anxiety," says Hamer.They also found that people exposed to second-hand smoke - like smokers - were more likely to be admitted to a hospital for a psychiatric illness than people without the exposure to tobacco smoke.To accurately assess the level of second-hand smoke exposure, researchers tested for cotinine, which is produced when nicotine is metabolized. But they also asked the people in the study where they were exposed to tobacco smoke. Perhaps surprisingly, says Hamer, the answer wasn't at work, restaurants, or pubs."The people that are at the highest level of passive smoke are actually the ones reporting exposure in their own homes. So in other words, if you live with a smoker, you really are at very high risk of demonstrating high levels of second-hand smoke exposure."随近几年来,医学据显示了二手烟对身体的害处。现在,新的研究又明,在吸烟者环绕的环境里生活或工作的人,可能还会遭受心理上的伤害。 英国伦敦大学学院的马克·哈默医生说,早先的研究发现,吸烟者患精神疾病的比率较高,特别是抑郁症。 “那一类研究的问题在于很难解释这个现象。因为原本心理健康有问题的人,显然会靠吸烟来寻求自我抒解。” 在新的研究中,哈默医生和同事们综合考量研究对象接触香烟烟雾的程度和心理健康问题。他们发现,不吸烟的人处在吸烟环境之中,更可能有心理上的压抑感。而越多地处于吸烟环境中,心理压抑感越严重。 哈默医生说:“我们发现,高度曝露于二手烟之中的人,抑郁和焦虑程度会增加。” 哈默医生说,他们还发现,曝露于二手烟之中的人,和吸烟者一样,比不接触二手烟的人,更有可能因为精神问题而进医院。 为了精确评估接触二手烟的程度,研究人员对可铁宁进行检测。可铁宁是尼古丁经过新陈代谢之后产生的。研究人员同时也询问研究对象,他们是在什么地方接触到二手烟的。出人意料,既不是工作场所,也不是餐馆或酒吧。 哈默医生说:“那些被动吸烟最多的人说,他们实际上是在自己家中接触二手烟的。” 伦敦大学学院哈默医生的研究报告,刊登在美国医学协会的期刊中。201007/109075

The world of adolescence年青人的世界The best days of their lives?他们人生中最美好的时光?What drives the young是什么因素驱使着年青人成长Sep 17th 2011 | from the print edition Lost in Transition: The Dark Side of Emerging Adulthood. 迷失于转型之途:成年早期的黑暗面CHRISTIAN SMITH is a well-known sociologist of religion. That alone may deter the more deeply secular from ing his book, “Lost in Transition”, which explores the moral map of 18- to 23-year-olds in America. This would be a shame, as it is intensely and uncomfortably thought-provoking. It deserves consideration on both sides of the Atlantic, particularly from the parents of that generation.克里斯汀史密斯是一位著名的宗教社会学家。仅仅因为那样也许会使更深入世俗的人们不读他写的书“迷失于转型之途”,这本书探究18至23岁的美国人的道德地图。这将是一件憾事,因为这本书会引起人们强烈地、不自在地深思。而且也值得大西洋两岸的人们思考,尤其是那一代人的父母。A note about method first. Mr Smith (a professor at the University of Notre Dame) and his co-writers have been following the emerging adults on whom this study is based since 2001, when they were just young sprats. The authors have repeatedly surveyed a “nationally representative” sample of over 3,000 and personally interviewed a smaller number. This book relies primarily on intensive interviews in 2008 with 230 of the original group, many of them then in college or university.本书的首页是关于调查方法的注释。自2001年以来,史密斯先生(一位圣母大学的教授)和他的合著者一直研究新一代的成年人,当时他们两位也仅仅是初出茅庐的小子。他们两位作者反复调查3000多个全国有代表性的人物,还亲自访问一些人。这本书主要信赖2008年访问的230个最初的小组,大部分人当时还在学院或大学就读。Mr Smith starts from the observation, which few would dispute, that adolescents are slower to emerge into adulthood these days: they study for longer, they depend on their parents for longer and they marry later, if at all. The world of real work they eventually enter is not the world of stable, long-term jobs that previous generations knew. During that long transition they have unprecedented freedom—from unwanted childbearing, for example—and no particular reason to rush into commitments of any sort. Moral boundaries are less clear than they were; many young adults have been taught not just to tolerate other people’s views and behaviour but to see them all as equally valid.史密斯先生从观察开始,观察表明如今的年轻人进入成年期的速度较慢,这一观点几乎没有异议:如果条件允许的话,他们求学的时间长,依靠父母的时间长以及结婚晚。他们最终的工作并不是上一代人认为的稳定、长期的工作。在这段漫长的转型时期,年轻人享受着前所未有的自由,例如,不用考虑生育,没有理由去仓促地做任何承诺。道德的界限也不太清晰;很多年轻的成年人被教育不仅仅要忍受他人的观点和行为,而是平等正当地对待他人。201109/154826

冰岛火山灰云团迫使欧洲空域关闭,近10万架次航班被取消或者延误。国际航空运输协会说,这场危机给航空业造成超过17亿美元的损失,并使已经遭遇困境的航空业雪上加霜。英国航空公司CEO 威利·沃尔什说,空域关闭期间英航每天的损失在2000万美元到3000万美元之间。The closure of airspace over Britain, Northern Europe and Scandinavia is having economic repercussions around the world. It has halted the transport of goods, stranded hundreds of thousands of passengers and dealt a severe economic blow to the airline industry.Nearly 100,000 flights were canceled or delayed as volcanic ash forced the closure of European airspace. The International Air Transport Association says the crisis has cost airlines more than .7 billion and is devastating an aly beleaguered industry.British Airways Chief Executive Willie Walsh says his company lost between million and million a day."My personal belief is that we could have safely continued operation for a period of time," said Walsh. "I think there were occasions when the decision to close airspace could have been justified."Walsh says canceling everything was unnecessary and that after the unprecedented delays and cancelations there will still be complications with air travel."I think to get back to normal levels of operation, from an industry point of view, I think will take weeks," he noted.About 20 percent of airline revenues comes from air freight. Aramex logistics company managing director Jim Armour says the shutdown cost his company about a quarter of its daily revenue. The real problem is the uncertainty he says."If someone said this was going to last for two weeks like a strike, you could make your plans, you could think about what you do with your people. I think the concern is the unknown really," said Armour.Armour says the implications are not just economic."[There are] terrible impacts. [For example,] you want to move blood plasma around and you need it badly, you want to move kidneys around… There [are] some disastrous consequences apart from the economic ones," he explained.Flower growers in Kenya and Israel have had to destroy tons of roses and other flowers that are too wilted to have any economic value. Fruit and vegetable producers have also lost crops that could not travel to Europe. Jo Tanner, with Britain's Freight Transport association says there are lots of untold costs."The impact economically is really difficult to judge at this stage, because we do not know how much has been able to be salvaged, how much extra cost there has been in terms of the contingency planning, so moving stuff to particular hubs by air and then picking up the rest of the journey by road, rail or sea," said Tanner.Airlines are asking European governments for financial and logistical compensation to help alleviate some of their losses. Many businesses will not have the same option and it may take some time before the full economic impact of the volcanic ash cloud is known.201004/102108

Why did U.S. abstain on Gaza? War rages despite the Security Council vote. CNN's Richard Roth reports on the reasoning behind the U.S. abstention. It was the raised American hand that raised eyebrows. Why did US Secretary of State Rice abstain on a UN Gaza ceasefire resolution she worked so hard to craft with European allies, and whose goals she announced she agreed with? Publicly, Rice says the Egyptian peace proposal by President Mubarak should be given more time. Rice was a whirlwind during the resolution debate with Arab nations, shuttling between meetings. But there was a delay before the vote and Rice could be seen huddling with Arab foreign ministers. The State Department Press Corps searching for other reasons pressed Rice's spokesman. I think she explained it, look, it's a nuanced assignment. I understand that. But we did as we tried to come up with what we thought was the best possible solution. I can only offer you first-hand accounts. You're welcome to your interpretations here in the real mind.Elsewhere, a US official indicated the decision to abstain came from higher-ups in Washington and not from Rice who wanted to vote yes on the resolution. But at the end of the day, you may get instructions to do something a little bit different than what you thought you were really starting to do at the outset. We've all encountered that, er, from time to time. And at the end of the day, the shots are called in the Capitol. Arab diplomats were not surprised and were just glad to avoid the ed States blocking the resolution, a ceasefire call neither Israel or Hamas is complying with. Of course, it's extremely disappointing that so far, it has been ignored by both sides.A US official was not surprised the Security Council resolution has been ignored. He said it will work over time, just not immediately. The US supports the resolution's concepts if not inside the Security Council chamber. Richard Roth, CNN ed Nations.01/61167

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