原标题: 青羊区第五人民医院泌尿科咨询飞社区
Ladies and gentlemen,Never before have we had so many different ways to talk to one another.In the distant past, written documents would be carried by hand across thousands of miles from China to Western Europe.Today, we access knowledge from all over the world, through our mobile phones, at the tap of a key.Wherever you are watching this programme – whether in this hall, at work, with your friends, or at home with your families;Xièxiè. [Thank you.]Hen gaoxing he ni jianmian. [Im pleased to meet you.]Thank you for welcoming me into your homes.Many of the most important conversations we have in our lives, take place in the family home.The home is where we learn from our parents and grandparents, teach our own children, and share our stories and hopes for the future. It is where many of our ideas and values are first kindled.In that spirit, there is one subject I believe we have to discuss, around our family tables and across the generations.It concerns the future, and I know the Chinese are a far-sighted people.It concerns particularly the environment, and I know that protecting Chinas rich and beautiful natural heritage is important to all Chinese families.It is the mass destruction and trafficking of iconic endangered species;And it is time to talk about the growing human demand for illegal wildlife products that drives the trade and makes it profitable.Today, we face an unprecedented surge in the brutal slaughter of iconic animals by poachers.In South Africa, for example, one rhino was killed every month until 2005. But last year, three rhinos were killed every single day.In the 33 years since I was born, we have lost around 70 percent of Africas elephant population. Of those that are left, 20,000 are being killed every year – that is 54 elephants killed every single day.At this rate, children born this year – like my daughter Charlotte – will see the last wild elephants and rhinos die before their 25th birthdays.Those who suffer the most from this loss are some of the poorest people on our planet.They are the families who feel powerless as the wildlife around them disappear; who face being trapped in poverty forever without the income that should be brought in by tourism, a cornerstone of the economy in many developing nations.They are the children whose parents risk their lives in the fight against poachers. In the last few days, three rangers and one member of the Armed Forces were killed by poachers in one incident in central Africa; leaving behind 14 children between them.201510/404694The Chinese economy is of course much smaller than the ed States; with a smaller motor, the world economy is likely to move forward at a slower pace. But within these limits a tectonic shift is taking place between the ed States and China with third parties reorienting themselves to the source of positive impulses. The shift may not be permanent or irreversible, but at the present moment, it constitutes the most predictable and significant trend in the global political economy and China is pulling its trading partners like Brazil and some African and Asian counties along with it. India is also doing well based on domestic growth.中国的经济总量显然要比美国小得多;马达变小了,世界经济发展可能会放慢步伐。 但是,由于这些限制,美国与中国之间正在发生结构性的变化,别的国家也在重新调整自己的方向以找到发展的原动力。这个变化也许不会是永久的或不可逆转的,但在目前,这是全球政治经济可预测和显著的趋势。中国正在带动像巴西这样的贸易伙伴和一些非洲、亚洲的国家向前发展。印度立足于国内,经济增长势头良好。The success of Chinese economic policy cannot be taken for granted. The infrastructure investment in the Chinese hinterland may or may not generate self-sustaining economic growth. Under the Chinese system, the return on new investments is generally very low because investment decisions are dictated by political rather than commercial considerations. On the previous two occasions, the relaxation of bank credit produced a spate of bad loans.我们也不能想当然地认为中国经济政策必定会成功。在中国内地,政府对基础设施的投资会不会使经济保持自我持续的增长还是个未知数。在中国的体制下,因为投资决策是出于政治而非商业考虑,所以新投资的回报率通常很低。前两次信贷的宽松导致了大批不良贷款。201409/331392It’s great to be in Brighton. AndI want to start by thanking somebody from the bottom of my heart for thekindest of words. Not Justine …oh, I would like to thank her, a round ofapplause for Justine please, ladies and gentlemen. Not my mum … but a womancalled Ella Philips. It was local election day, Ella rode past me on her bike,she fell off …it’s not funny! I helped her up and afterwards she called mesomething I had never been called before: she said I was an “action hero”. Whyare you laughing? She said I was an action hero “who mysteriously appeared outof nowhere”. And she said, “What added to all the confusion was that Ed wasactually attractive and not geeky at all”. I promise you, she did say that. Shesaid, “Even the way he appeared was suave”. I don’t know why you find this sofunny, friends. “He was dressed casually, but he had style”. Sounds quite me,doesn’t it? Now I was pretty pleased with this, as you can tell, until somethingdawned on me: Ella was concussed. She was badly concussed. In fact, she herselfsaid, “I was seeing things because I was still in quite a daze”. Well, Ella,you are not kidding. But let me say, Ella, if you are watching today, thankyou, you have made my year.I want to start today with thesimplest of thoughts. An idea that has inspired change for generations. Thebelief that helped drive us out of the Second World War and into that greatreforming government of 1945. An ambition that is more important now than ithas been for decades. An emotion that is felt across our country at kitchentables every night. A feeling that is so threatening to those who want to keepthings as they are. Words that are so basic and yet so powerful, so modest andyet so hard to believe. Six simple words that say: Britain can do better thanthis. Britain can do better than this; we are Britain, we are better than this.Are you satisfied with a country where people are working for longer for less,year after year? Are you satisfied with a country divided losing touch with thethings we value the most? Are you satisfied with a country that shuts out thevoices of millions of ordinary people and listens only to the powerful? Are yousatisfied with a country standing apart as two nations? Well I am notsatisfied. We are Britain, we are better than this. And we have to rebuild anewOne Nation. An economy built on your success, a society based on your values, apolitics that hears your voice – rich and poor alike – accepting their responsibilitiestop each other. One Nation, we are going to make it happen, and today I amgoing to tell you how.I want to start with leadership.Leadership is about risks and difficult decisions. It is about those lonelymoments when you have to peer deep into your soul. I ran for the leadership ofthis party, it was really hard for my family, but I believed that Labour neededto turn the page and I was the best person to do it. I when I became leader Ifaced a decision about whether we should stand up to Rupert Murdoch. It wasn’tthe way things had been done in the past, but it was the right thing to do so Idid it. And together we faced them down. And then the other week I faced aneven bigger decision about whether the country should go to war. The biggestdecision any leader faces, the biggest decision any Parliament faces, thebiggest decision any party faces. All of us were horrified by the appallingchemical weapons attacks in Syria, but when I stood on the stage three yearsago, when I became your leader, I said we would learn the lessons of Iraq. Itwould have been a rush to war, it wasn’t the right thing for our country. So Isaid no. It was the right thing to do. You see, the real test of leadership isnot whether you stand up to the weak, that’s easy; it’s whether you stand up tothe strong and know who to fight for. And you know I am reminded of a storyback when I was starting out, standing to be an MP in Doncaster, with a womancalled Molly Roberts. Molly was in her seventies, and there I was candidlytrying to get her vote, sitting in her front from sipping a mug of tea. And shesaid to me, “How can you, who weren’t brought up in this area, possiblyunderstand the lives of people here, their hopes and their struggles?” It wasthe right question, and here is the answer. For me it lies in the values I wasbrought up with. You see in my house it was my mum that taught me these values.About the importance of reaching out a listening to people, of understandingtheir hopes and their struggles. She is the most patient, generous person Ihave met in my whole life. And she taught me never to be contemptuous ofothers, never to be dismissive of their struggle. Now she was teaching me alesson of life. And some people will say, ah yeah but you have to leave decencybehind when it comes to politics. Well I say they are wrong, because only ifyou reach out and listen can you do the most important thing a leader can do,the most important qualification in my view for being Prime Minister. Only thenwill you have the ability to walk in the shoes of others and know who to fightfor, whoever your opponent, however powerful they are, guided by the only thingthat matters: your sense of what is right. This is what I believe, this iswhere I stand, this is the leadership Britain needs.And when I think about who weneed to fight for I think about all the people I have met over the last year. Ithink of the people Britain and their enormous and extraordinary spirit. Ithink of our troops, serving so bravely all around the world. Let us paytribute to them today. You know I have seen in Afghanistan those young men andwomen, young men and women who are young enough to be my son or daughterserving our country, and it is a truly humbling experience. And the events of thelast few days in Kenya remind us of the importance of being ever-vigilantagainst terrorism at home and around the world. I think of the brave men andwomen of our police force, who serve with so little credit each and every dayfor our country. Let us thank them for what they do. And then I think of allthe people I have met over the last year. During the local election campaign Idid something unusual. I went to town centres, market squares and high streetsand I stood on a pallet – not a soapbox, but a pallet. And I talked to peopleabout their lives. I remember this town meeting I had in Cleverly. It was justcoming to the end of the meeting and this bloke wandered up. He was incrediblyangry. It’s a family show so I won’t exactly repeat what he said. He was soangry he wouldn’t give me his name, but he did tell me his story about how hespent the last ten years looking after his disabled wife, and then another fouryears looking for a job and not finding one. He was angry about immigration andsome people in the crowd booed him. But actually he wasn’t prejudiced, he justfelt the economy didn’t work for him. And then I think about the two markettraders I met in Chesterfield, standing by their stalls, out in all weathers,working all hours, and they said look this country just doesn’t seem to berewarding our hard work and effort. There seem to be some people gettingsomething for nothing. This society is losing touch with our values. And then Ithink about this beautiful sunny spring day I spent in Lincoln. And the face inthe crowd, this young woman who said she was an ambulance controller. So proudto be working for our National Health Service. And so proud too of her youngson. Because she was a single parent, nineteen years old, and what she said tome was, “Why does everybody portray me as a burden on the system? I am not aburden on the system, I am going out, I am doing the right thing for thecountry, why doesn’t anyone listen to my voice?” And then I think about thisscaffolder I met just around the corner from where I live. I was just comingback from a local café I’d been at. He stopped in me the street, he said to me,“Where’s your bodyguard?” I said I don’t have one, but that’s another story. Hetold me his story. And what he said to me was “look, I go out, I do the work, Igo all around the country, again out in all weathers, I earn a decent wage, butI still can’t make ends meet”. And he said to me, “Is anyone ever going to doanything about those gas and electric bills that just go up and up, faster thanI can earn a living?” He wanted someone to fight for him. Now if you listen tothese stories – four of millions of the stories of our country – and you haveyour own, and your friends and family, what do you learn? All of these peoplelove Britain, they embody its great spirit, but they all believe that Britaincan do better than this. Today I say to them and millions of others you’reright, Britain can do better than this, Britain must do better than this,Britain will do better than this with a government that fights for you.But for Britain to do better thanthis we’ve got to understand why we got here, why things are so tough at themoment even while they tell you there is a recovery and why unless we putthings right it will only be a recovery for the few. Now what I’m about to tellyou is the most important thing I’m going to say today about what needs tochange about our country. For generations in Britain when the economy grew themajority got better off. And then somewhere along the way that vital linkbetween the growing wealth of the country and your family finances was broken.This is, this goes beyond one party or one government. It is more important toyou than which party is in power, even more important than that. You see, when Iwas growing up in the 1980s, I saw the benefits of growing prosperity, peopleable to buy a house, a car, even a second car, go on a foreign holiday theirgrandparents would never have dreamed of. Not spend all their hours at work,able to spend time with kids, not working all the hours that god sends, have asecure pension in retirement and also believe that their kids would have abetter life than them. That feels a long way away from where Britain is todaydoesn’t it and that is because it is. You see, somewhere along the way thatlink got broken. They used to say a rising tide lifts all boats, now the risingtide just seems to lift the yachts. Now I say this to the people of Britain. IfI were you I wouldn’t even take a second look at a political party unless theymake this their central defining purpose because your future depends on it.Your children’s future depends on it. Britain’s future depends on it. I say weare Britain we can do better than this.Now I have got a question for youladies and gentlemen, do the Tories get it?[Audience: No]Oh come on, I didn’t hear you, dothe Tories get it?[Audience: No]201412/350417

You know, if you havent got an argument thats that strong,你知道,如果你还没有比这一个说法更强的论点,then just dont waste my time, is what I say.那么就不要浪费我的时间。这是我的看法。Now, there is one argument话虽如此,有一种观点有些人认为,that some people do think really is that strong, and here it is.确实是很强,我们就在这儿讨论一下。People worry about overpopulation; they say,人们担心人口过多,他们说,;Well, if we fix aging, no ones going to die to speak of,“好吧,如果我们战胜老化,没有人类死亡可言,or at least the death toll is going to be much lower,或至少是死亡人数变得低得多,only from crossing St. Giles carelessly.变得只有不小心越过圣吉尔斯河而死。And therefore, were not going to be able to have many kids,因此,我们不需要有很多孩子,and kids are really important to most people.;可是孩子对多数人很重要。”And thats true.这是事实。And you know, a lot of people try to fudge this question,你知道,很多人试图捏造这个问题,and give answers like this.并给予这样的。I dont agree with those answers. I think they basically dont work.我不同意这些。我认为它们根本行不通。I think its true, that we will face a dilemma in this respect.我认为这是真的,我们会在这方面面临两难。We will have to decide whether to have a low birth rate,我们将必须决定是否有一个低生育水平,or a high death rate.或者高死亡率。A high death rate will, of course, arise from simply rejecting these therapies,拒绝这些战胜老化治疗,死亡率就会变高,in favor of carrying on having a lot of kids.当然,在这种情况下我们就能生许多孩子。And, I say that thats fine --我觉得这没问题 –the future of humanity is entitled to make that choice.人类的下一代,有权做出这个选择。Whats not fine is for us to make that choice on behalf of the future.不正确和不应该的是我们现在就替下一代的做出这个选择。If we vacillate, hesitate,如果因为我们犹豫,and do not actually develop these therapies,而不开发这些疗法,then we are condemning a whole cohort of people --那么我们就等于判了我们的子孙一个不能永远活着的命运。who would have been young enough and healthy enough本来因为他们够年轻,够健康,to benefit from those therapies, but will not be,可以获益于这些疗法。because we havent developed them as quickly as we could --但因为我们的犹豫,没有尽快开发这些疗法 –well be denying those people an indefinite life span,我们等于不让这些人有更长的寿命,and I consider that that is immoral.我认为这是不道德的。Thats my answer to the overpopulation question.这是我对人口过多的问题的回应。Right. So the next thing is,好,接下来的是,now why should we get a little bit more active on this?为什么我们应该在这一方面积极点?And the fundamental answer is that最根本的是,the pro-aging trance is not as dumb as it looks.亲老化恍惚并不像它看起来的那么笨。Its actually a sensible way of coping with the inevitability of aging.它其实是在应对无法避免的老化时的一个很明智的办法。Aging is ghastly, but its inevitable, so, you know,老化是可怕的,但它是不可避免的,所以,weve got to find some way to put it out of our minds,我们必须想尽办法把这想法从我们头脑中忘记,and its rational to do anything that we might want to do, to do that.理性地去做我们想要做的事情来改变。Like, for example, making up these ridiculous reasons例如,人类会想出这些荒谬的原因why aging is actually a good thing after all.来解释其实老化是件好事。But of course, that only works when we have both of these components.当然,这些荒谬的原因的起因有两个连接部分And as soon as the inevitability bit becomes a little bit unclear --只要命中注定那个部分在我们的脑海中没那么的肯定,and we might be in range of doing something about aging --我们就可以开始对战胜老化采取行动,this becomes part of the problem.这是老化问题的一部分。This pro-aging trance is what stops us from agitating about these things.这亲老化恍惚常常妨碍人们解决老化这个问题。And thats why we have to really talk about this a lot --这就是为什么我们一定要继续提出以及谈论这个课题,evangelize, I will go so far as to say, quite a lot --我甚至会说 –in order to get peoples attention, and make people realize为了吸引人们的注意力,使人们认识到,that they are in a trance in this regard.他们在这方面的恍惚,So thats all Im going to say about that.关于这个话题我就说到这里。Im now going to talk about feasibility.我现在要谈的是第三点,打败老化的可行性。And the fundamental reason, I think, why we feel that aging is inevitable其根本原因,我想,为什么我们认为老化是不可避免的,is summed up in a definition of aging that Im giving here.是可以用我在这儿给老化的定义作为总结。A very simple definition.这是一个非常简单的定义。Aging is a side effect of being alive in the first place,老化是一种活着的副作用,which is to say, metabolism.也就是说,新陈代谢的副作用。This is not a completely tautological statement;这并不是一个完全同义重复的声明,its a reasonable statement.它是一个合理的声明。Aging is basically a process that happens to inanimate objects like cars,老龄化基本上是一个过程,发生在无生命的物体如汽车,and it also happens to us,也发生在人类的身上,despite the fact that we have a lot of clever self-repair mechanisms,尽管我们的身体有很多聪明的自我修复机制,because those self-repair mechanisms are not perfect.因为这些自我修复机制还不完善。So basically, metabolism, which is defined as基本上,新陈代谢,就是说basically everything that keeps us alive from one day to the next,所有为了让我们能够每一天活着所维持的种种化学过程,has side effects.有副作用。Those side effects accumulate and eventually cause pathology.这些副作用会不断的积累,最终导致病理。Thats a fine definition. So we can put it this way:这是一个不错的定义。因此,我们可以这样表达,we can say that, you know, we have this chain of events.我们可以说,大家都知道,我们有着这一系列事件。And there are really two games in town,而且根据大多数人,对于推迟衰老,according to most people, with regard to postponing aging.只有两种方法。Theyre what Im calling here the ;gerontology approach; and the ;geriatrics approach.;这两种方法就是老年学和老年医学。201508/392002Hi, everybody.This Monday, Im heading to Alaska for a three-day tour of the state.大家好!下周一,我将前往阿拉斯加州进行为期三天的访问。Ive been looking forward to this for a long time.Not only because Alaska is one of the most beautiful places in a country thats full of beautiful places-but because Ill have several opportunities to meet with everyday Alaskans about whats going on in their lives.Ill travel throughout the state, meeting with Alaskans who live above the Arctic Circle, with Alaska natives, and with folks who earn their livelihoods through fishing and tourism.And I expect to learn a lot.对此次行程我期待已久。不仅仅因为阿拉斯加州是这个充满美景的国度里最美的州之一,更因为我将有机会正式面对阿拉斯加人民每天生活中需要面对的问题。我将走遍全州,与生活在北极圈内的阿拉斯加人民、阿拉斯加原住民以及以渔业和旅游业为生的人们进行交流。我期待能有丰厚的收获。One thing Ive learned so far is that a lot of these conversations begin with climate change.And thats because Alaskans are aly living with its effects.More frequent and extensive wildfires.Bigger storm surges as sea ice melts faster.Some of the swiftest shoreline erosion in the world-in some places, more than three feet a year.据我所知,大量此类的交流都是从气候变化问题开始的。因为阿拉斯加人民的生活已经受到影响。包括森林火灾越来越频繁和严重,风暴也更汹涌,海冰融化速度加快。海岸线也在快速的受到侵蚀,在有的地方,这种侵蚀速度达到了每年三英尺。Alaskas glaciers are melting faster too, threatening tourism and adding to rising seas.And if we do nothing, Alaskan temperatures are projected to rise between six and twelve degrees by the end of the century, changing all sorts of industries forever.阿拉斯加的冰川融化速度也在加快,威胁到当地的旅游业发展并导致海平面上升。如果我们无动于衷,阿拉斯加的气温将在本世纪末升高6至12度,这将对各行各业造成不可逆转的影响。This is all real.This is happening to our fellow Americans right now.In fact, Alaskas governor recently told me that four villages are in “imminent danger” and have to be relocated.Aly, rising sea levels are beginning to swallow one island community.这都是现实。正在影响着我们每一位同胞。实际上,阿拉斯加州长最近告诉我说,已经有四个村庄面临严重威胁而不得不进行搬迁。而且不断上升的海平面正在吞没一个有居民的海岛。Think about that.If another country threatened to wipe out an American town, wed do everything in our power to protect ourselves.Climate change poses the same threat, right now.请大家想一想。如果是其他的国家威胁要让美国的某个城镇消失,我们会动用我们的一切力量来保护我们自己。而气候变化现在正在形成同样的威胁。Thats why one of the things Ill do while Im in Alaska is to convene other nations to meet this threat.Several Arctic nations have aly committed to action.Since the ed States and China worked together to set ambitious climate targets last year, leading by example, many of the worlds biggest emitters have come forward with new climate plans of their own.And thats a good sign as we approach this Decembers global climate negotiations in Paris.因此,在阿拉斯加的时候我会做一件事情,呼吁其他国家来共同应对这一威胁。多个极地国家都已承诺要付诸行动。自从美利坚合众国和中国在去年共同制定宏伟的气候应对目标后,受榜样的影响,全球很多碳排放大国都积极跟进,重新制定了各自的气候应对计划。这对于今年12月在巴黎召开的气候谈判会议来说是一个好消息。Now, one of the ways America is leading is by transitioning away from dirty energy sources that threaten our health and our environment, and by going all-in on clean, renewable energy sources like wind and solar.And Alaska has the natural resources to be a global leader in this effort.当前,美国引导全球努力应对气候变化的途径之一就是逐步从使用威胁人类健康和环境的污染能源向全面的清洁、可再生能源过渡,例如风能和太阳能。而阿拉斯加在这些工作上具有先天的资源优势,可以成为全球的领导者。Now even as we accelerate this transition, our economy still has to rely on oil and gas.As long as thats the case, I believe we should rely more on domestic production than on foreign imports, and we should demand the highest safety standards in the industry-our own.Still, I know there are Americans who are concerned about oil companies drilling in environmentally sensitive waters.Some are also concerned with my administrations decision to approve Shells application to drill a well off the Alaskan coast, using leases they purchased before I took office.I share peoples concerns about offshore drilling.I remember the BP spill in the Gulf of Mexico all too well.尽管我们在加快这一过渡进程,但我们的经济发展依然要依赖石油和天然气。在这种情况下,我认为我们应该更多使用国内生产的而不是依赖进口,我们应该在这一行业坚持我们自己的更高的安全标准。当然,我知道还有很多人很关心一些石油公司在环境脆弱水域的钻探事宜。人们也很关心对于壳牌公司利用我上任前购买的租约在阿拉斯加近海钻探油井的申请,政府的最终决定。我与大家一样,对近海钻探也很关心。我对BP公司在墨西哥海湾的石油泄漏事故记忆犹新。Thats precisely why my administration has worked to make sure that our oil exploration conducted under these leases is done at the highest standards possible, with requirements specifically tailored to the risks of drilling off Alaska.We dont rubber-stamp permits.We made it clear that Shell has to meet our high standards in how they conduct their operations-and its a testament to how rigorous weve applied those standards that Shell has delayed and limited its exploration off Alaska while trying to meet them.The bottom line is, safety has been and will continue to be my administrations top priority when it comes to oil and gas exploration off Americas precious coasts-even as we push our economy and the world to ultimately transition off of fossil fuels.准确的说,正因如此,本届政府一直在努力确保这些已经完成租约签订的石油勘探工作尽可能在最高标准要求下进行,对阿拉斯加近海的钻探更是量身制定规范,防范风险。我们不当橡皮图章,滥发许可。我们明确要求,壳牌公司在施工作业上必须满足我们的高标准,这种约定体现了我们执行这些标准的严格要求,为了满足这些标准,壳牌公司在阿拉斯加近海的勘探工作已经推后并缩小了范围。我的底线是,安全现在是,将来也是本届政府应对在美国珍惜的海岸进行石油和天然气开采工作上的最高准则,即便我们在推动经济发展和引导世界最终舍弃化石燃料的过渡阶段依然如此。So Im looking forward to talking with Alaskans about how we can work together to make America the global leader on climate change around the globe.And were going to offer unique and engaging ways for you to join me on this trip all week at WhiteHouse.gov/Alaska.Because whats happening in Alaska is happening to us.Its our wakeup call.And as long as Im President, America will lead the world to meet the threat of climate change before its too late.因此,我期待着与阿拉斯加人民交流,介绍我们如何共同努力,让美国成为在全球范围内应对气候变化的领导者。我们将为大家提供独特、互动的参与方式,让大家在Whitehouse.gov/Alaska网站上全面参与我一周的行程。因为在阿拉斯加发生的情况也将发生在大家身边。这为我们敲响了警钟。只要我担任总统,美国就将继续领导全世界,在情况变得不可控之前,应对气候变化带来的威胁。Thanks, and have a great weekend.谢谢大家,祝周末愉快!201509/397151

Here is a computer simulation.这是计算机模拟。And we need a way to simplify it.我们需要简化它的方法。Well, I like to think about this using an analogy.我会用一个类比来理解。If I want to understand the sinking of the Titanic,如果我想了解泰坦尼克号的沉没,the most important thing to do is not to model the little positions of every single little piece of the boat that broke off.最重要的事情不是去模拟每一片断裂的小碎片的每一个位置。The most important thing to do is to track the two biggest parts.最重要的是抓住断裂的两半船体的位置。Similarly, I can learn a lot about the universe at the largest scales by tracking its biggest pieces and those biggest pieces are clusters of galaxies.同样,我可以通过追踪宇宙的最大的部件来学到宇宙大尺度的很多信息,而这最大的部件就是星团。So, as I come to a close,现在我即将结尾,you might feel slightly cheated.你可能觉得有点受骗上当。I mean, I began by talking about how galaxy clusters are useful,我的意思是,刚开始我说星团非常有用,and Ive given some reasons,我也给了一些理由,but what is their use really?但是他们真正的用处在哪里?Well, to answer this,为了回答这个,I want to give you a e by Henry Ford when he was asked about cars.我将引用亨利·福特的一句话,当他被问到汽车时。He had this to say:If I had asked people what they wanted,they would have said faster horses.他说,如果我之前问人们他们想要什么,他们只会说更快的马。Today, we as a society are faced with many, many difficult problems.我们社会在现今面临很多很困难的问题。And the solutions to these problems are not obvious.这些问题的解决之道并不明显。They are not faster horses.解决之道不会是更快的马。They will require an enormous amount of scientific ingenuity.要解决问题,要求有非常多的科学才能。So, yes, we need to focus,是的,我们需要集中注意力,yes, we need to concentrate,我们需要专心,but we also need to remember that innovation, ingenuity, inspiration,these things come when we broaden our field of vision when we step back when we zoom out.但我们也要记得创造力、新颖的主意、灵感,这些是在我们开阔眼界时产生的,当我们退后一步,当我们把画面拉远And I cant think of a better way to do this than by studying the universe around us. Thanks.我想不出更好的办法做这件事,除了研究我们头顶的宇宙。谢谢。201512/416639Now in a sense, when we think about the effect of games on the brain,从某种意义上来说,我们可以认为对于大脑的影响its very similar to the effect of wine on the health.和酒对于健康的影响很相似。There are some very poor uses of wine.喝酒可能会造成很糟糕的结果,There are some very poor uses of games.玩也是。But when consumed in reasonable doses, and at the right age,但是如果在年龄合适的时候适当地喝一些,wine can be very good for health.酒可以很有利于健康。There are actually specific molecules that have been identified in red wine as leading to greater life expectancy.实际上,红酒已经被鉴定出含有能让人延年益寿的分子。So its the same way, like those action games have a number of ingredients that同样的,动作里也有能对大脑的可塑性,are actually really powerful for brain plasticity, learning, attention, vision, etc.学习,注意力,视力等方方面面有非常有力影响的成分。and so we need and were working on understanding what are those active ingredients所以我们现在需要做也正在做的就是了解这些积极的成分,so that we can really then leverage them to deliver better games,然后为了教育或病人的复原either for education or for rehabilitation of patients.真正地利用它们开发出更好的游戏。Now because we are interested in having an impact for education or rehabilitation of patients,既然我们关注的是对于教育和病人复原造成影响,we are actually not that interested in我们并不太关心那些how those of you that choose to play games for many hours on end perform.连续玩很多个小时的人的表现。Im much more interested in taking any of you我更感兴趣的是从你们中随便选一个人and showing that by forcing you to play an action game,然后明强迫你玩动作游戏I can actually change your vision for the better,能提高你的视力,whether you want to play that action game or not, right?不管你到底想不想玩动作游戏。Thats the point of rehabilitation or education.这也是医疗康复和教育的重点。Most of the kids dont go to school saying,大多数孩子不会上学的时候说;Great, two hours of math!;;太棒了!能上两个小时的数学课!;So thats really the crux of the research, and to do that, we need to go one more step.这也是做研究的难题,为了解决它,我们要往前再进一步。And one more step is to do training studies.而这往前的一步就是训练研究。So let me illustrate that step with a task which is called mental rotation.让我通过一个叫做“心智旋转”的任务告诉大家这一步到底是什么。Mental rotation is a task where Im going to ask you,心智旋转是一个要你们观察这个形状的任务,and again youre going to do the task, to look at this shape.这一次也需要大家都参与进来,Study it, its a target shape,看着它,这是我们的目标形状。and Im going to present to you four different shapes.现在我给你们看四个不同的形状。One of these four different shapes is actually a rotated version of this shape.这四个中的一个是由这个形状旋转得到的。I want you to tell me which one:我希望你们能告诉我是哪一个。the first one, second one, third one or fourth one?第一个,第二个,第三个还是第四个?Okay, Ill help you. Fourth one.好吧,这次我先公布,是第四个。One more. Get those brains working. Come on.再来一次。让你们的脑子动起来。Thats our target shape.这个是我们的目标形状。Third. Good! This is hard, right?第三个。很好!这有点难是吗?Like, the reason that I asked you to do that is because you really feel your brain cringing, right?我让大家做这个小游戏,就是因为它能让你们感到头脑在打结。It doesnt really feel like playing mindless action games.这和玩不需要动脑子的动作感觉不太一样。Well, what we do in these training studies is, people come to the lab,我们在训练研究中做的就是让来实验室的人they do tasks like this one,完成和这个任务类似的任务,we then force them to play 10 hours of action games.然后我们强迫他们玩十个小时的动作游戏。They dont play 10 hours of action games in a row.不是连续玩十个小时而是分散地玩,They do distributed practice, so little shots of 40 minutes several days over a period of two weeks.比如说在两周内的几天里每天花上40分钟。Then, once they are done with the training,然后等他们完成了训练,they come back a few days later and they are tested again on a similar type of mental rotation task.几天后再到实验室,并被测试相似类型的心智旋转任务的完成情况。201512/416864

People on my team quit and revolt 我的团队成员都开始退出和反抗But acting fast 不过迅速反应facing up to the problem 直面问题making a decision buying YouTube and then investing heavily in it 购买YouTube并对其进行大量投入was also one of the best decisions that weve ever made 也是我们所做的最正确的决定之一Today YouTube has over 1 billion users around the world 今天 YouTube在全球有超过10亿的用户with 180 hours uploaded every single minute 每分钟有180小时的视频上传Its been used to develop stars like Michelle Phan 它造就了诸多明星 例如米歇尔·方Smosh SmoshMachinima Machinimaand Justin Bieber 还有贾斯汀·比伯although we wont dwell on that one for too long 这个我不打算详述Its helped grow companies 它帮助了公司的成长like VICE 例如VICEGoPro GoProAnd its shined light on political strife 它还为政治斗争提供了光明in places like Egypt, Venezuela and most recently Ukraine 比如在埃及 委内瑞拉 以及最近的乌克兰The global community share songs like Pharrells Happy 全球都在分享各种音乐 例如法瑞尔的;快乐;and s, like well, like this one 还有视频 例如这个Thats a shortened version 这是删节版Thats in the library 这在库中Anyway, you guys are talented, very talented 总之 你们很有才华Thats really good shaking 摆动很有感觉YouTube over a relatively short period of time has YouTube在比较短的时间里become the primary platform for people to entertain 成为了人们的主要平台dance just like that 人们像那样跳舞sing, laugh, love, learn 歌唱 大笑 热爱 学习201512/414386However, to me, the 500 is但是对我来说这500个(遗产)really just the first 500.只是一个开始In order to sustain our work into the future,为了在将来把我们的工作持续下去we use technology centers我们通过与技术中心where we partner with和当地高校local universities and colleges合作to take the technology to them,授权他们使用我们的技术whereby they then can help us帮助我们with digital preservation of their heritage sites,进行遗产数字化保存的工作and at the same time, it gives them同时这也给了他们the technology to benefit from in the future.可以长远获益的技术Let me close with another short story.让我以另一个小故事结尾Two years ago, we were approached两年前by a partner of ours to digitally preserve一个遗产数字化保存工程的合作伙伴an important heritage site,为一个重要的遗迹找到我们a UNESCO heritage site in Uganda,这是一个位于乌干达的联合国教科文组织认的遗迹the Royal Kasubi Tombs.卡苏比皇陵The work was done successfully in the field,保存工作很成功and the data was archived所有的数据都收集归档and publicly disseminated并通过CyArk网站through the CyArk website.对外发布并开放Last March,去年三月we received very sad news.我们听到一个不幸的消息The Royal Tombs had been destroyed卡苏比皇陵已经被纵火嫌疑犯by suspected arson.毁掉了A few days later, we received a call:几天后,我们接到一个电话:;Is the data available“收集的数据and can it be used for reconstruction?;能用于重建吗?”Our answer, of course, was yes.我们的当然是肯定的Let me leave you with a final thought.最后留给各位一个想法Our heritage is much more than我们的遗产our collective memory --不仅是我们的共同记忆-its our collective treasure.更是我们共同的珍宝We owe it to our children,我们要留给我们的our grandchildren and the generations子孙还有we will never meet永远见不到的后代to keep it safe我们要保护好它们and to pass it along.使它们代代相传Thank you.谢谢(Applause)(掌声)Thank you.谢谢Thank you.谢谢Thank you.谢谢Well, Im staying here because我还在台上we wanted to demonstrate to you是因为要向各位展示一下the power of this technology这项技术的力量and so, while Ive been speaking,在我刚才说话的时候you have been scanned.你们已经被扫描了(Laughter)(笑声)The two wizards that I have我的两名正在幕后的that are behind the curtain助手will help me bring将在屏幕上the results on the screen.把结果呈现给我们(Applause)(掌声)This is all in 3D and of course这些都是三维的you can fly through the cloud of points.你可以用自由视角观察这些数据点集合You can look at it from on top,你能从天花板的角度from the ceiling.俯瞰它You can look from different vantage points,也可以从不同的高度看but Im going to ask Doug to zoom in我可以让道格拉近画面on an individual in the crowd,看看人群里的某一个人just to show the amount of detail让你们看到我们能达到的that we can create.细节程度So you have been digitally preserved你们在四分钟的时间内in about four minutes.全部被数字化保存了(Laughter)(笑声)Id like to thank the wizards here.我要谢谢我的助手We were very lucky to have我们很幸运two of our partners participate in this:有两个合作伙伴参与:the Historic Scotland,苏格兰文物局and the Glasgow School of Art.和格拉斯哥艺术学院Id like to also thank personally我个人想向the efforts of David Mitchell,大卫·米切尔致谢who is the Director of Conservation他是苏格兰文物局的at Historic Scotland.文物修复主管David. 大卫(Applause)(掌声)And Doug Pritchard, whos the Head of还有道格·普里查德Visualization at the Glasgow School of Art.他是格拉斯哥艺术学院视觉艺术的主任Lets give them a hand.让我们致以掌声(Applause)(鼓掌)Thank you.谢谢201409/329620

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