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时间:2019年07月16日 08:26:15

We all know what makes for good character in soldiers. We#39;ve seen the movies about heroes who display courage, loyalty and coolness under fire. But what about somebody who sits in front of a keyboard all day? Is it possible to display and cultivate character if you are just an information age office jockey, alone with a memo or your computer?我们都知道,对士兵而言,何为优秀品质的要义。我们看过的一些电影所刻画的英雄人物,在炮火中表现出了勇气、忠诚和冷静。但对一天到晚坐在键盘前的人而言,又是什么呢?如果你仅仅是信息时代里的一个写字楼职员,成天与备忘录或电脑相伴,那你还有机会展现和培养自己的品质吗?Of course it is. Even if you are alone in your office, you are thinking. Thinking well under a barrage of information may be a different sort of moral challenge than fighting well under a hail of bullets, but it#39;s a character challenge nonetheless.当然可以。即便是独自待在办公室里,你也在思考。和在林弹雨下好好战斗相比,面对大量信息时好好思考可能是一种截然不同的道德挑战,但它仍然不失为对品性的一种挑战。In their 2007 book, ;Intellectual Virtues,; Robert C. Roberts of Baylor University and W. Jay Wood of Wheaton College list some of the cerebral virtues. We can all grade ourselves on how good we are at each of them.贝勒大学(Baylor University)的罗伯特·C·罗伯茨(Robert C. Roberts)和威顿学院(Wheaton College)的W·杰伊·伍德(W. Jay Wood)在2007年出版的《智识美德》(Intellectual Virtues)一书中,列出了一些智识上的美德。我们可以逐项给自己打分,看看自己做得怎么样。First, there is love of learning. Some people are just more ardently curious than others, either by cultivation or by nature.第一条是爱学习。后天养成的也好,天生的也罢,有些人就是比另外一些人具有更强烈的好奇心。Second, there is courage. The obvious form of intellectual courage is the willingness to hold unpopular views. But the subtler form is knowing how much risk to take in jumping to conclusions. The reckless thinker takes a few pieces of information and leaps to some faraway conspiracy theory. The perfectionist, on the other hand, is unwilling to put anything out there except under ideal conditions for fear that she could be wrong. Intellectual courage is self-regulation, Roberts and Wood argue, knowing when to be daring and when to be cautious. The philosopher Thomas Kuhn pointed out that scientists often simply ignore facts that don#39;t fit with their existing paradigms, but an intellectually courageous person is willing to look at things that are surprisingly hard to look at.第二条是勇气。智识的勇气有一种明显的表现形式,即乐于持有不受欢迎的观点。但它还有一种更微妙的表现形式,那就是知道急于下结论会带来多大的风险。莽撞的思考者会撷取少量信息,迅速推导出虚无缥缈的阴谋论。完美主义者则与此相反,如果条件不完备,她是不愿意下任何定论的,因为担心自己可能出错。罗伯茨和伍德说,智识的勇气是一种自律,知道在什么时候该大胆、在什么时候该谨慎。哲学家托马斯·库恩曾指出,科学家们常常简单粗暴地忽略掉跟既有范式不相符的事实;但一个人如果具有智识的勇气,会乐于去研究那些异常难于接受的事情。Third, there is firmness. You don#39;t want to be a person who surrenders his beliefs at the slightest whiff of opposition. On the other hand, you don#39;t want to hold dogmatically to a belief against all evidence. The median point between flaccidity and rigidity is the virtue of firmness. The firm believer can build a steady worldview on solid timbers but still delight in new information. She can gracefully adjust the strength of her conviction to the strength of the evidence. Firmness is a quality of mental agility.第三条是坚定。你肯定不想做一个听到些许反对的声音就放弃自己观点的人。另一方面,你肯定也不愿罔顾所有据,死抱着一个观点不放。坚定这一美德就存在于软弱和顽固的中间点上。坚定地持有某些观念的人,可以用可靠的素材搭建起稳固的世界观,但仍然乐于接触新信息。她能够根据据的力度,优雅地调整自己对某个观点的相信程度。坚定也是一种机敏。Fourth, there is humility, which is not letting your own desire for status get in the way of accuracy. The humble person fights against vanity and self-importance. He#39;s not writing those sentences people write to make themselves seem smart; he#39;s not thinking of himself much at all. The humble researcher doesn#39;t become arrogant toward his subject, assuming he has mastered it. Such a person is open to learning from anyone at any stage in life.第四条是谦逊,有了它,你就不会让对地位的渴望妨碍自己做出准确的判断。谦逊的人会与虚荣和自大做斗争。他的笔下不会出现人们常写的那些让自己看起来很聪明的句子;他根本不是自视甚高的人。谦逊的研究人员不会在其研究领域妄自尊大,想当然地认为自己精通一切。无论处于人生的哪个阶段,这样的人都愿意向他人学习。Fifth, there is autonomy. You don#39;t want to be a person who slavishly adopts whatever opinion your teacher or some author gives you. On the other hand, you don#39;t want to reject all guidance from people who know what they are talking about. Autonomy is the median of knowing when to bow to authority and when not to, when to follow a role model and when not to, when to adhere to tradition and when not to.第五条是自主。你肯定不想盲从于导师或哪个作家表达的任何观点。另一当方面,你肯定也不愿将那些内行人士的所有指导拒之门外。自主的美德在于,知道在什么时候该从权威,什么时候该坚持己见;什么时候该向榜样学习,什么时候该摆脱榜样;什么时候该遵循传统,什么时候该予以摒弃。Finally, there is generosity. This virtue starts with the willingness to share knowledge and give others credit. But it also means hearing others as they would like to be heard, looking for what each person has to teach and not looking to triumphantly pounce upon their errors.最后一条是慷慨。这种美德的起点是愿意分享知识,并给予他人应有的承认。不过,慷慨也意味着,在别人希望发出声音时予以倾听,寻找每个人能为人师表之处,不去洋洋自得地在他人身上纠错。We all probably excel at some of these virtues and are deficient in others. But I#39;m struck by how much of the mainstream literature on decision-making treats the mind as some disembodied organ that can be programed like a computer.在这些美德中,我们可能都是在某些方面出色,在另一些方面有所欠缺。但让我感触的是,居然有那么多关于制定决策方面的主流文章将思想当成某种脱离个人的东西,能像台计算机那样按编好的程序操作。In fact, the mind is embedded in human nature, and very often thinking well means pushing against the grain of our nature — against vanity, against laziness, against the desire for certainty, against the desire to avoid painful truths. Good thinking isn#39;t just adopting the right technique. It#39;s a moral enterprise and requires good character, the ability to go against our lesser impulses for the sake of our higher ones.实际上,思想蕴含在人性之中,而在很多情况下,好好思考意味着战胜我们的本性——抗击虚荣、懒惰、对确定性的渴求、对避免痛苦事实的渴望。好的思维不仅仅是采用正确的技巧。它是一种道德勇气,需要良好的品性,是克低等冲动来获取更高尚目标的能力。Montaigne once wrote that ;We can be knowledgeable with other men#39;s knowledge, but we can#39;t be wise with other men#39;s wisdom.; That#39;s because wisdom isn#39;t a body of information. It#39;s the moral quality of knowing how to handle your own limitations. Warren Buffett made a similar point in his own sphere, ;Investing is not a game where the guy with the 160 I.Q. beats the guy with the 130 I.Q. Once you have ordinary intelligence, what you need is the temperament to control the urges that get other people into trouble.;蒙田曾写道,“即使我们可以凭借别人的知识成为学者,但要成为哲人,却只能靠我们自己的智慧。”这是因为,智慧并非大量信息的简单集合。它是一种知晓如何应对自身局限性的道德品质。沃伦·巴菲特(Warren Buffett)曾在其领域中发表过类似的见解,“投资不是智商160的家伙打败智商130的人。只要你智力正常,你只需要自己的性情能够控制住让别人陷入麻烦的冲动。”Character tests are pervasive even in modern everyday life. It#39;s possible to be heroic if you#39;re just sitting alone in your office. It just doesn#39;t make for a good movie.即便是在当代日常生活中,对个人品质的考验也无处不在。就算你只是独自坐在办公室里,也可能成为英雄。只不过,这拍不成一部劲爆的电影。 /201409/325534

Loneliness is a feeling I know very well. I live in an apartment with no one but my dog, and I don’t get a whole lot of company because most of my friends have moved to another town, got married and had a family, or simply lost touch due to life happening. As someone who considers himself a loner, I loved the peace and quiet at first, but I found myself feeling very lonely within a few months.我对孤独有着切身体会:一人一室一,少有陪伴。许多朋友都搬到了其他城市,结婚生子过日子,有些也因生活变迁而失去了联系。我自认为是个独行侠,刚开始也很享受平和与安静;可接下来几个月,我发现自己常常感到孤独。My space went from clean to chaos, my productivity crashed and burned, my thoughts took a turn for the worse, and I couldn’t find much interest in anything more than watching movies on Netflix. After living a few months in a haze of sloth, I realized I had a serious problem and decided to learn how to live a happy life alone. This article tackles six key things I learned along the way.房间开始变得凌乱不堪、效率低下、情绪低落,除了在Netflix上看电影,我对任何事都提不起兴趣。过了几个月的混沌日子后,我感到自己很有问题,必须学会一个人也能过得开心才行。下面就是我领悟到的六个方法。1. Take Care of Your Home保持房间整洁When you’re not around other people, it is easy to lose interest in tidying up your home. You might find yourself with a sky high pile of dishes and mountains of clutter everywhere you turn if you’re not careful. Even if you don’t have a roommate or company that frequently walks in your door, it is in your best interest to clean house at least once per week.一个人生活时,很容易马虎应付房间整理。如果得过且过,家里很快就堆了成叠的盘子和杂物。哪怕很少有室友或朋友来串门,每周至少也得打扫一次房间。If your home is a disorganized wreck, expect to feel stressed out as soon as you walk in the door. A clean home free from clutter will help you feel happy and organized.要是家里乱七八糟,一进门肯定会感到头大。干净整洁的房间才会使你井然有序、心情愉悦。2. Find Beauty in the Ordinary从平凡中发现美好If you don’t see beauty in your world, you’re not looking hard enough. If you’re home alone and feeling down, walk outside and spend some time with nature. Watch the birds fly and admire their elaborate flight formation. Listen to dogs barking at each other in the neighborhood and think to yourself, “I wonder what they could possibly be talking about?”觉得自己的世界毫无美好可言?那你肯定没用心发掘。当你独自蜗居在家、感到心情抑郁时,何不出门多接触大自然?看小鸟掠过天空,感叹它们高超的飞翔技术;听邻里儿相互吠叫,猜测“这些家伙都在讨论啥?”Look at that big, old tree that is the size of a giant (and if you’re feeling limber, why not try to climb it?). Plant some flowers, a vegetable garden, or a small tree in your back yard. Go to the park, walk on a nature trail, clear your thoughts, listen to the sounds of the forest, and be in awe of the beauty that’s right in front of you.仰望那棵硕壮老树,想象它是一个巨人,要是身手灵活,还可以试试爬上去;在后园种点花草蔬菜或小树;去公园散散步,边聆听森林呼吸边整理思绪,为眼前美景而惊叹。3. Watch Out for Noisy Thoughts谨防胡思乱想Your thoughts can be your best friend and worst enemy. Have you ever noticed that if you find yourself thinking even a single negative thought, it inevitably spirals out of control until you have a nasty chorus of Mental Monsters taking over your brain? If you find yourself thinking, “I feel so lonely right now,” it’s easy to keep that thought process going in the wrong direction until thoughts like, “I will always be alone,” or “no one will ever love me,” creep up on you.思想既是益友又是劲敌。你注意到没有:只要脑中闪过一丝消极念头,就会引起恶性循环,直到自己完全被心理恶魔打倒才罢休?当你自认为“我此刻很孤独”时,消极想法便很容易蔓延,最后你甚至觉得“我永远都会这么孤单”或“永远也不会有人爱上我”。Be aware of what you’re thinking about and stop your negative thoughts before they grow into Mental Monsters that are much harder to control. If you find yourself stressing out, do something that relaxes you. Light some candles or incense, take a nice hot bubble bath, perform some gentle yoga poses, or play soothing music.因此,你必须留意自己的想法,谨防消极念头演变成无法控制的心理恶魔。紧张烦躁时,去做点能让自己放松的事情。点上蜡烛熏香,泡个热腾的泡泡澡,练练瑜伽,或奏一曲舒缓的音乐。4. Reduce Mindless Consumption减少漫无目的的损耗Being aware of world events is totally okay, but becoming addicted to the news is a sure-fire way to sink your mood. Limit your news consumption to a small handful of articles per day because there is no reason to bury yourself in depressing news stories for hours on end.了解世界新闻无可厚非,但完全沉浸其中无疑是自讨无趣。每天限制只读几篇新闻报道,毕竟,没必要把时间浪费在众多负面新闻中。Watching television is fine in moderation, but spending all of your free hours in front of the tube will do nothing to help you grow or feel better. Read a classic novel you adored in high school, go to a local community theater to enjoy a racy comedy or Shakespearean tragedy, and exercise at least every other day to keep your mind and body at the top of their game.适当看看电视也挺不错,但若把所有闲暇时间都耗在电视机面前,既不利于成长,也影响情绪。不如读一本高中就喜欢的经典小说,去社区剧院看一场欢乐喜剧或莎翁悲剧,隔天锻炼健身,让身心永远保持良好状态。5. Create Something of Value创造价值The best way to feel happy alone is to spend your time creating something that brings you joy. You could write a novel or self-help book and self-publish it on Amazon, start a blog about a topic that fascinates you, go the the park and paint a landscape to hang on your wall, or learn a new language, like German or Spanish.单身想要过得开心,最好的办法就是创造能给自己带来快乐的东西。你可以尝试写小说或自助读本,然后在亚马逊上出版;或针对喜欢的话题开一栏客,去公园写生并把画作挂在墙上,学一门新语言(例如德语或西班牙语)。Sometimes it is hard to motivate ourselves to get to work creating at home, so if you’re feeling a lack of inspiration, pack up your notebook and laptop for a field-trip to a park, coffee shop, or downtown bench. A simple change of scenery can do wonders for your productivity.有时一个人在家往往缺乏主动创新的动力,所以,要是觉得没灵感,可以带上电脑和笔记本,去公园、咖啡馆或市内长椅坐坐。简单的环境改变也能大大提高效率。6. Treat Yourself to a Hot Date与自己约会Who says you can’t go to a movie or eat out by yourself? I love treating myself to hot dates because I can choose to go wherever I desire without considering anyone else’s opinion. Going out by yourself will help you become comfortable with being alone.谁说单身就不能看电影或吃大餐了?我就很喜欢和自己约会。因为我可以随心选择自己喜欢的地方,不必顾虑他人想法。一个人出行可以让你更自在地享受单身状态。Have you ever felt so lonely that you didn’t know what to do with yourself?有时候,你是不是觉得自己特孤单,真不知道该怎么办?If so, what did you do about it? Having friends and family is great but we all need to learn how to live a happy life alone. Please share any tips you have for the single folks who are ing this!这时你是怎么做的呢?身边有亲人朋友陪伴固然美好,但我们也应该学会一个人也能过得开心。如果你有什么建议给单身朋友,请分享吧! /201310/260332

Loneliness is a feeling I know very well. I live in an apartment with no one but my dog, and I don’t get a whole lot of company because most of my friends have moved to another town, got married and had a family, or simply lost touch due to life happening. As someone who considers himself a loner, I loved the peace and quiet at first, but I found myself feeling very lonely within a few months.我对孤独有着切身体会:一人一室一,少有陪伴。许多朋友都搬到了其他城市,结婚生子过日子,有些也因生活变迁而失去了联系。我自认为是个独行侠,刚开始也很享受平和与安静;可接下来几个月,我发现自己常常感到孤独。My space went from clean to chaos, my productivity crashed and burned, my thoughts took a turn for the worse, and I couldn’t find much interest in anything more than watching movies on Netflix. After living a few months in a haze of sloth, I realized I had a serious problem and decided to learn how to live a happy life alone. This article tackles six key things I learned along the way.房间开始变得凌乱不堪、效率低下、情绪低落,除了在Netflix上看电影,我对任何事都提不起兴趣。过了几个月的混沌日子后,我感到自己很有问题,必须学会一个人也能过得开心才行。下面就是我领悟到的六个方法。1. Take Care of Your Home保持房间整洁When you’re not around other people, it is easy to lose interest in tidying up your home. You might find yourself with a sky high pile of dishes and mountains of clutter everywhere you turn if you’re not careful. Even if you don’t have a roommate or company that frequently walks in your door, it is in your best interest to clean house at least once per week.一个人生活时,很容易马虎应付房间整理。如果得过且过,家里很快就堆了成叠的盘子和杂物。哪怕很少有室友或朋友来串门,每周至少也得打扫一次房间。If your home is a disorganized wreck, expect to feel stressed out as soon as you walk in the door. A clean home free from clutter will help you feel happy and organized.要是家里乱七八糟,一进门肯定会感到头大。干净整洁的房间才会使你井然有序、心情愉悦。2. Find Beauty in the Ordinary从平凡中发现美好If you don’t see beauty in your world, you’re not looking hard enough. If you’re home alone and feeling down, walk outside and spend some time with nature. Watch the birds fly and admire their elaborate flight formation. Listen to dogs barking at each other in the neighborhood and think to yourself, “I wonder what they could possibly be talking about?”觉得自己的世界毫无美好可言?那你肯定没用心发掘。当你独自蜗居在家、感到心情抑郁时,何不出门多接触大自然?看小鸟掠过天空,感叹它们高超的飞翔技术;听邻里儿相互吠叫,猜测“这些家伙都在讨论啥?”Look at that big, old tree that is the size of a giant (and if you’re feeling limber, why not try to climb it?). Plant some flowers, a vegetable garden, or a small tree in your back yard. Go to the park, walk on a nature trail, clear your thoughts, listen to the sounds of the forest, and be in awe of the beauty that’s right in front of you.仰望那棵硕壮老树,想象它是一个巨人,要是身手灵活,还可以试试爬上去;在后园种点花草蔬菜或小树;去公园散散步,边聆听森林呼吸边整理思绪,为眼前美景而惊叹。3. Watch Out for Noisy Thoughts谨防胡思乱想Your thoughts can be your best friend and worst enemy. Have you ever noticed that if you find yourself thinking even a single negative thought, it inevitably spirals out of control until you have a nasty chorus of Mental Monsters taking over your brain? If you find yourself thinking, “I feel so lonely right now,” it’s easy to keep that thought process going in the wrong direction until thoughts like, “I will always be alone,” or “no one will ever love me,” creep up on you.思想既是益友又是劲敌。你注意到没有:只要脑中闪过一丝消极念头,就会引起恶性循环,直到自己完全被心理恶魔打倒才罢休?当你自认为“我此刻很孤独”时,消极想法便很容易蔓延,最后你甚至觉得“我永远都会这么孤单”或“永远也不会有人爱上我”。Be aware of what you’re thinking about and stop your negative thoughts before they grow into Mental Monsters that are much harder to control. If you find yourself stressing out, do something that relaxes you. Light some candles or incense, take a nice hot bubble bath, perform some gentle yoga poses, or play soothing music.因此,你必须留意自己的想法,谨防消极念头演变成无法控制的心理恶魔。紧张烦躁时,去做点能让自己放松的事情。点上蜡烛熏香,泡个热腾的泡泡澡,练练瑜伽,或奏一曲舒缓的音乐。4. Reduce Mindless Consumption减少漫无目的的损耗Being aware of world events is totally okay, but becoming addicted to the news is a sure-fire way to sink your mood. Limit your news consumption to a small handful of articles per day because there is no reason to bury yourself in depressing news stories for hours on end.了解世界新闻无可厚非,但完全沉浸其中无疑是自讨无趣。每天限制只读几篇新闻报道,毕竟,没必要把时间浪费在众多负面新闻中。Watching television is fine in moderation, but spending all of your free hours in front of the tube will do nothing to help you grow or feel better. Read a classic novel you adored in high school, go to a local community theater to enjoy a racy comedy or Shakespearean tragedy, and exercise at least every other day to keep your mind and body at the top of their game.适当看看电视也挺不错,但若把所有闲暇时间都耗在电视机面前,既不利于成长,也影响情绪。不如读一本高中就喜欢的经典小说,去社区剧院看一场欢乐喜剧或莎翁悲剧,隔天锻炼健身,让身心永远保持良好状态。5. Create Something of Value创造价值The best way to feel happy alone is to spend your time creating something that brings you joy. You could write a novel or self-help book and self-publish it on Amazon, start a blog about a topic that fascinates you, go the the park and paint a landscape to hang on your wall, or learn a new language, like German or Spanish.单身想要过得开心,最好的办法就是创造能给自己带来快乐的东西。你可以尝试写小说或自助读本,然后在亚马逊上出版;或针对喜欢的话题开一栏客,去公园写生并把画作挂在墙上,学一门新语言(例如德语或西班牙语)。Sometimes it is hard to motivate ourselves to get to work creating at home, so if you’re feeling a lack of inspiration, pack up your notebook and laptop for a field-trip to a park, coffee shop, or downtown bench. A simple change of scenery can do wonders for your productivity.有时一个人在家往往缺乏主动创新的动力,所以,要是觉得没灵感,可以带上电脑和笔记本,去公园、咖啡馆或市内长椅坐坐。简单的环境改变也能大大提高效率。6. Treat Yourself to a Hot Date与自己约会Who says you can’t go to a movie or eat out by yourself? I love treating myself to hot dates because I can choose to go wherever I desire without considering anyone else’s opinion. Going out by yourself will help you become comfortable with being alone.谁说单身就不能看电影或吃大餐了?我就很喜欢和自己约会。因为我可以随心选择自己喜欢的地方,不必顾虑他人想法。一个人出行可以让你更自在地享受单身状态。Have you ever felt so lonely that you didn’t know what to do with yourself?有时候,你是不是觉得自己特孤单,真不知道该怎么办?If so, what did you do about it? Having friends and family is great but we all need to learn how to live a happy life alone. Please share any tips you have for the single folks who are ing this!这时你是怎么做的呢?身边有亲人朋友陪伴固然美好,但我们也应该学会一个人也能过得开心。如果你有什么建议给单身朋友,请分享吧! /201310/260332

Everyone gets tired now and then but if you constantly feel worn out or your tiredness is severe, it could be a sign of a more serious health problem.每个人都会时不时的感到劳累,但如果你一直感到筋疲力竭或累的很严重,它可能是更多严重的健康问题的标志。We reveal 11 health conditions that are known to cause fatigue.我们将揭示11种引起疲劳的健康状况。 /201409/329838


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