浦东新区人民中医院美容整形科时空典范

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月16日 21:03:45
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This is a Jew.这是个犹太人。And so is this.这位也是。This is a Jew, and this, and this. And so am I.这是犹太人,还有这位,这位。我也是。So, what, if anything we have in common?那么,我们有什么共同之处?Not the color of our skin,not the languages we speak, the tunes we sing, the food we eat.不是我们皮肤的颜色,不是我们所讲的语言,我们歌唱的曲调,我们吃的食物。Not our opinions where we fiercely argued a lot, not even the way we pray,assuming we do.不是我们强烈认为很多的意见,,甚至不是我们祷告的方式,我们所做的假设。What ties us together is a story, a story catching our heads and hearts, a story of suffering and resilience, endurance and creativity.将我们联系在一起的是一个故事,一个使我们使我们身心为之动容的故事,一个充满痛苦和恢复力,耐力和创造力的故事。Its the story that make me want tobe in the story in the first place,这是故事中的故事,让我想首先辗转反侧,for I understood but I was quite small that there were two special things about the Jews,that we had endured over 3,000 years in spite of everything that has been thrown at us,因为我明白了,但是我仍然非常渺小,因为两个犹太人的特殊事情,我们已经经历了3000多年,尽管诸事已经抛给我们的,and that we had extraordinary dramatic stories to tell and somehow that these two things were connected that we told our story to survive.我们有着戏剧性的故事,在某种程度上,这两个事物联系在了一起我们告诉我们的故事才能生存。We are our story.我们就是我们自己的故事。201402/277839

  

  Business商业报道German business德国商业Screwdrivers drawn拉锯战A shareholder stand-off in the Black Forest黑森林里的股东对峙IF YOU have ever struggled to assemble a flat-pack wardrobe, the chances are that its wooden pieces were cut, drilled and finished on machines made by Homag.你若曾奋力想组装起一个平板式包装的衣橱,那么该衣橱的木质组件很可能是由豪迈公司生产的机器切割、打孔、抛光而成的。Founded in 1960 in Schopfloch, in the Black Forest, Homag is one of those little-known world champions that are the backbone of the German economy.1960年,豪迈公司在黑森林深处的Schopfloch小镇成立。一些德国经济的柱企业是业内的世界领跑者,却很少为人所知,豪迈公司便是其中之一。But not all is well in Schopfloch. Gerhard Schuler,然而位于Schopfloch的豪迈公司的情况并非一切如意。one of its founders,now a sprightly 85, is at war with Deutsche Beteiligungs , a private-equity firm that was once his dream partner.公司创始人之一,现年85岁高龄,精神矍铄的舒勒正与他曾经的梦中情人—德意志参股上市公司闹不和。After buying into the company in 1997 DB built up a stake of 60%.私募股权公司DB于1997年入股豪迈公司,而后持有豪迈60%的股份。When Homag was floated on the stockmarket in 2007 it kept 33% and Mr Schuler stayed on as honorary chairman with a small stake.当豪迈公司2007年在券市场上市时,DB保留了33%的股份,舒勒先生则手持小额股份,以名誉总裁的身份留任。But business dipped in 2008 and the shares plunged.然而,2008年豪迈公司生意惨淡,股票跳水。Mr Schuler and his supporters, worried about the direction the company was taking, started buying.They built a blocking minority of 25.01%舒勒先生与众持者对公司的走向倍感堪忧,继而纷纷入股,他们买下25.0%的股权,成立了有否决权的少数股权。That did not stop DB kicking Mr Schulers three appointees off Homags supervisory board two years ago and replacing them with people who were more internationally minded.DB却对此置之不理,反而在两年前将舒勒任命的三名委员踢出豪迈的监事会,用两位更具国际化眼光的成员替代之。Since then, the two sides have been at screwdrivers drawn.自那时起,两方便进入拉锯相持阶段。At a stormy shareholders meeting last month things came to a head.在上个月硝烟四起的股东大会上,两方争斗达到了高潮。Mr Schuler and his allies accused DB of being a locust interested only inshort-term profit, and of selling out to a foreign buyer.舒勒及其盟友指责DB只关注眼前利益,向外国买家兜售的做法如蝗虫般贪婪。 地方员工希望长期担任豪迈公司技术总监的高斯先生恢复原职。Local staff want Achim Gauss, Homags long-standing technical director, who resigned abruptly for personal reasons on May 23rd, to be reinstated.今年5月23日,高斯先生突然以个人原因为由,辞去总监一职。高斯先生的离职同样引起了豪迈公司大客户,IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain and Homags biggest customer, also expressed concern at Mr Gausss departure.瑞典家具连锁公司宜家的堪忧。DB, one of Germanys oldest private-equity firms, is not obviously locust-like.DB是德国资历最老的私募股权企业之一,显然与蝗虫无半点相像之处。Its executives insist it is there for the long term. However, Homag is DBs biggest investment and its shares have not performed well.DB的主管们坚称,公司在为豪迈的长远利益着想。Half of DBs stake is owned by two of its investment funds, one of which is scheduled to wind up this year.不管怎样,豪迈是DB最大的一笔投资,而豪迈的股票的表现并不良好。DB所持的股份中,一半由其旗下两只投资基金操控,So a partial exit would be logical.而其中一只计划于今年停止运作。There is no reason for a forced sale,says a DB source:因而DB部分退出的做法合情合理。that would weaken DBs influence. Meanwhile, Mr Schulers crowd are looking for a white knight.DB的线人称,公司没道理强制抛股,这样做会削弱DB的影响力。与此同时,舒勒先生的团队正另寻救星。More happily, Homags business is on the rebound.更庆幸的是,豪迈的生意正开始反弹。Last years turnover of 800m was near the pre-crisis peak, and the closing of three German subsidiaries should cut costs.去年豪迈的营业额为8亿英镑,接近危机前的最高额,德国境内三家子公司的关闭应该能降低成本。Gordon Schonell of Bankhaus Lampe, a private bank, says that the managers are doing the right things.私人Bankhaus Lampe的舒奈尔说,管理层现今所做的是对的。But for Mr Schuler the shift from family firm to shareholder capitalism has gone too far.但是对于舒勒先生,从家族企业向股东资本主义转变的有点离谱了。 /201307/247187。

  

  Science and technology科学技术The military uses of space太空军事用途Spooks in orbit轨道间谍卫星The other space programme另类太空计划DESPITE its strong inheritance of military DNA,尽管美国航空航天局有着浓重的军事血统,NASA is a civilian agency,但它仍然是一间民用机构。set up that way in deliberate contrast to the military-run Soviet space programme.它的组建方式也刻意与苏联军事太空计划形成对比。In practice, the distinction is not always so clear-cut:但实际上,二者之间的界线通常并不那么分明:NASA has done plenty of work for the Pentagon.NASA也曾为五角大楼做过大量工作。But Americas armed forces maintain a separate space programme of their own,但美国军队却保持着自己独立的太空计划,largely out of the public eye.大多数不为公众所知。Although hard numbers are difficult to come by,尽管确切数字难以获得,it is thought that the military space budget has matched or exceeded NASAs every year since 1982.但据说自1982年以来,美国每年的军事空间计划预算一直等同或超过美国航空航天局的预算。All the signs are that it is roaring ahead.所有迹象表明,这个数字正在飙升。The air forces public space budget will increase by nearly 10% next year,明年,美国空军的公共空间预算将增加近10%,to .7 billion, with much of it going on a new generation of rockets.达到87亿美元,其中大部分资金将用于新一代火箭的研制。Bruce Carlson, director of the National Reconnaissance Office, the secretive outfit that runs Americas spy satellites,美国国家军事侦察局是运作美国间谍卫星的秘密机构,announced in 2010 that his agency was embarking on “the most aggressive launch schedule undertaken in the last 25 years”.其主管布鲁斯?卡尔森于2010年宣布他的机构已正着手实施“过去25年间所承担的最为积极的发射计划”。Much of the money goes on satellites—spy satellites for keeping tabs on other countries,大部分资金将用于卫星研制,包括用于监控其它国家活动的间谍卫星、communications satellites for soldiers to talk to each other, and even the Global Positioning System satellites,用于士兵交谈的通讯卫星,甚至包括为士兵和轰炸提供目标导航的全球定位系统卫星,designed to guide soldiers and bombs to their targets, and now expanded to aid civilian navigation.现在其应用范围已扩大到援助民用导航。But there are more exotic programmes.但也有着更多的特殊计划。The air force runs one for anti-satellite warfare, designed to destroy or disable enemy birds.美国空军实施了一项反卫星战计划,旨在破坏敌方卫星或令其失效。Another includes experimental aircraft, such as the X-37, a cut-down, unmanned descendant of the space shuttle.另一项计划则包括研制诸如X-37这样的实验飞机,它是美国航天飞机的简化及无人驾驶版本。The air force will not say what the X-37 is for.美国空军拒绝透露X-37的用途。One theory is that it is a spy plane, designed to catch savvy targets that know how to go to ground when spy satellites—which have predictable orbits—are overhead.有一种说法是X-37是一架间谍飞机,旨在捕获各种精明的目标。这些精明的目标发现间谍卫星位临上空时,能够知道如何隐蔽自己。Another is that it is intended to destroy satellites, or to drop bombs from orbit.另一种说法是X-37用于破坏卫星或从轨道上投掷炸弹。Other nations are flexing their muscles.其它国家也正显示着自己的军事实力。American commanders report that China regularly fires powerful lasers into the sky, demonstrating their ability to dazzle or blind satellites.美军指挥官报告说,中国定期向空中发射强力激光,展示他们有能力迷惑或致盲卫星。In 2007 a Chinese missile destroyed an old weather satellite, creating a huge field of orbiting debris.2007年,中国的导弹摧毁了一个旧的气候卫星,产生了巨大的轨道碎片区域。Afterwards, Russia spoke publicly about its anti-satellite weapons.随后,俄国公开谈论它的反卫星武器。This is one space race that is well under way.这场太空竞赛正在如火如荼地展开着。 /201304/236895Oh! Good to have buffet, I love buffets.今天要出去吃自助餐了,真是太好了。I like to get a taste of lot of different things.我喜欢吃自助餐,我喜欢品尝不同的美味,I like to nibble a little of this, and a little of that.喜欢吃吃这个,再尝尝那个。Who wants to eat a mass of potatoes when you canalso have chicken, corn and gravy and…吃自助餐最好的就是当你想要吃各种花样的土豆时还可以吃点鸡肉,啃根玉米,喝几口肉汤,还可以…Are you saying that if all you could eat were mash potatoes,youll get bored with them?你是在说如果你只能吃土豆泥你就会觉得厌倦?Exactly!没错!But dont you think youll eat more when there is a variety of things to eat?但是你有没有想过,如果你有更多吃的东西可以选择,你就会吃的更多?Well, maybe a little more. I dont know. What are you going in?嗯,可能会多吃那么一点点,我也不太清楚。你想说明什么呢?Well, like you said, studies suggest that when we eat a variety of foods, we are less likely to get bored.呃,就像你说的一样,有研究显示,如果有很多吃的东西可供选择,人们就不那么容易厌食。But therefore we are more likely to eat more.但是,这样的结果就是,人们很可能吃更多的东西。That might contribute to the current obesity problem in America-people like the taste of different foods and keep eating even after theyve hadenough.这也是造成美国当下肥胖问题的一大元凶—各种美食当前,有时即使是吃饱了,人们还会再继续吃。So eating meals with foods that are similar in taste, color, and shape could help you eatless.因此,吃东西的时候尽量吃色香味相近的东西有助于降低食欲,让人少吃一些。That sounds terrible!这也太夸张了吧!I just mention I thought variety was supposed to be good for you.我只是觉得保持饮食多样对身体好。You are right. Research shows that eating a variety of foods is the best way to get all thenutrients we need.这也是对的。研究表明,保身体摄入所需营养的最好方法就是保持饮食的多样性。And food is supposed to be enjoyed, not just tolerated.再说了,食物是用来享受的,可不是用来忍受的。So go ahead and enjoy your buffet…just be careful to take small portions.放放心心地去吃你的自助餐吧…只是要注意一点:少吃一点。Fill your plate only as much as you wouldnormally.你平时吃多少就吃多少就是了,盘子里不要装得太多了。Then eat slowly and savor each interesting taste!夹好菜后坐下来,细嚼慢咽,慢慢品尝各种美味吧! /201409/325415Business商业报道Apple in China苹果在中国Better days ahead明天会更好The tech giant can rebound from its recent misfortunes in China科技巨头将从最近在中国遇到的霉运中走出THINGS have not gone well for Apple in China of late.苹果近来在中国发展并不顺利。Earlier this year official news media orchestrated a series of attacks on the firm, following allegations that it had offered Chinese customers unsatisfactory guarantees for its products.今年早些时候,官媒策划了一系列对苹果进行责难的报道,称苹果对中国消费者所购产品的保修务令人不满。Apple ended up issuing a humiliating apology.此事以苹果耻辱性地道歉而告一段落。The Middle Kingdom is the worlds biggest market for both luxury goods and for smartphones.中国是世界上奢侈品和智能机的最大市场。That should have propelled Apples iPhones to the top of the heap.这本该将iPhone的销售推向了顶峰。But the firms market share languishes at around 8% of all handset sales, whereas Samsung commands just over a fifth of them.但是苹果所占手机市场份额只有8%左右,而三星超过了1/5。Apples fortunes are improving.苹果的运势在改善。The main reason the companys iPhones have fared poorly in China so far is that they are not offered on the inferior 3G network run by China Mobile, the countrys largest mobile operator.迄今为止苹果在中国进展缓慢,主要原因是iPhone并不持中国移动提供的较次的3G网络,而中国移动是中国最大的移动电话运营商。But the arrival of a new, whizzier network could change that. On December 4th the Chinese government authorised the countrys three main wireless-telecoms operators to go ahead with the next generation of network technology, known as 4G.但是新的更先进的网络将会改变这一状况。12月4日,中国政府授权中国三大主要无线通信运营商继续开发下一代的网络技术,即4G网络。The same day it emerged that later this month China Mobile—a state-owned giant that is also the worlds largest mobile-phone operator, with more than 700m customers—will unveil a 4G iPhone for the Chinese market.同一天,中国移动宣布,将在本月下旬发布面向中国市场的4G iPhone。R, an investment bank, suggests that sales of such a device could be worth 9 billion to 10 billion to Apple.投资加拿大皇家暗示该设备的销售可能为苹果公司带来90亿到100亿美元的收入。Anand Ramachandran of Barclays, another bank, is more cautious.巴克莱的安纳德?拉马钱德兰更加谨慎。He wants to see whether Apple is forced to yield to demands by China Mobile that it split the cost of its handset subsidies with customers.他想看看苹果公司是否会被迫向中国移动让步,与顾客一起分担手机补贴的费用。Investors are also wondering whether Apple will give in to pressure to return more of its giant cash mountain to shareholders through such things as share buy-backs.投资者还想知道苹果公司是否会屈于压力,通过股份回购返回更多现金给股东。Carl Icahn, a veteran shareholder activist, had been pressing the tech giant to hand back 150 billion immediately.资深股东维权人士卡尔伊坎一直逼迫这个科技巨头马上返还1.5亿美元。But this week Mr Icahn reduced his demand to 50 billion, which is still an eye-wateringly large amount of money.但是本周伊坎将要价减少到5000万美元,但这还是非常大的一笔钱。Ironically, greater success in China could lead to more friction if it puts even more cash in Apples aly overflowing coffers.讽刺的是,如果苹果公司本已过剩的现金流因此而增多,那么在中国市场的成功反而会令它面临更大的压力。 /201312/267956

  Feeling down? Youre not alone.你有感到很失落吗?不只你这样。If depression seems pretty common, it is.抑郁看起来很普遍,事实上也是如此。One in every ten adults suffers from depression.每十个成年人里就有一个会患有抑郁症。And thats what has scientists puzzled.这让科学家们感到不解。If depression is a detrimentalcondition, why is it so rampant in the population?如果抑郁对身体有害,那么为什么人群中抑郁症患者如此之多呢?Some scientists think they may have the answer.一些科学家认为他们已经找到了。Depression may have an evolutionary benefit.抑郁也许对进化有好处。It may improve ones chances of fighting off infection.它能提高人体免疫力。Scientists have known that depressed people display an immunoactive condition known as inflammation,一些科学家发现抑郁症人群体内会产生免疫活性,也就是炎症,even when they are not infected.即便他们未受到感染时也会如此。For several years they have been finding that genes linked to depression also affect the function of the immune system.几年来,科学家们逐渐发现与抑郁有关的基因也会影响免疫系统的功能。Stress, which can lead to depression, also modifies the immune system.同样会导致抑郁的压力因素也会改变免疫系统。These findings suggested that depression was somehow linked to the bodys ability to fight disease.从某种程度上讲,这些调查结果表明抑郁与人体免疫力有关。Some scientists now propose that depression might have had an evolutionary advantage in the days before modern medicine and antibiotics.一些科学家提出早在现代药物和抗生素出现之前,抑郁就可能能够给进化带来好处。Infection was a major cause of death in early human history.感染是人类早期历史中导致死亡的主要原因之一。Surviving those infections determined which genes were passed to the next generation.能够在这些感染中存活就决定了哪种基因能够传递给下一代。They suspect that depression helped people, especially children, survive infection.他们推测抑郁可能会帮助人们特别是儿童抵御感染的侵害。Fatigue leads toinactivity and less social contact which helps keep infection from sping.疲劳会让人不愿意运动,同时也会减少社交,由此便会阻止感染的传播。Shunning food helps avoid food sharing which can also sp infection.对食物没胃口就会避免与别人分 享食物,这也能够避免感染传播。Sleeplessness, which is associated with both depression and immune system activation,失眠与抑郁和免疫系统激活也存在联系,may have been a mechanism to keep a person alert to fight off predators after injury.失眠可能会产生一种让人在受伤后能对感染保持警觉的机制。If scientists are correct about this link, it could lead to new treatments for depression.如果科学家们对这些联系的猜测正确的话,那么它们将促成新的治疗抑郁症的方法产生。They are interested in drugs that treat conditions where the immune system attacks the persons ownbody, known as auto immune diseases.他们对用于治疗自体免疫症的药物很感兴趣。It is possible that medications known to treat auto immune disease may be successful in treating depression also.那些已知的用于治疗自身免疫性疾病的药物对治疗抑郁症可能同样有效。201403/281639

  Science and technology科学技术The military uses of space太空军事用途Spooks in orbit轨道间谍卫星The other space programme另类太空计划DESPITE its strong inheritance of military DNA,尽管美国航空航天局有着浓重的军事血统,NASA is a civilian agency,但它仍然是一间民用机构。set up that way in deliberate contrast to the military-run Soviet space programme.它的组建方式也刻意与苏联军事太空计划形成对比。In practice, the distinction is not always so clear-cut:但实际上,二者之间的界线通常并不那么分明:NASA has done plenty of work for the Pentagon.NASA也曾为五角大楼做过大量工作。But Americas armed forces maintain a separate space programme of their own,但美国军队却保持着自己独立的太空计划,largely out of the public eye.大多数不为公众所知。Although hard numbers are difficult to come by,尽管确切数字难以获得,it is thought that the military space budget has matched or exceeded NASAs every year since 1982.但据说自1982年以来,美国每年的军事空间计划预算一直等同或超过美国航空航天局的预算。All the signs are that it is roaring ahead.所有迹象表明,这个数字正在飙升。The air forces public space budget will increase by nearly 10% next year,明年,美国空军的公共空间预算将增加近10%,to .7 billion, with much of it going on a new generation of rockets.达到87亿美元,其中大部分资金将用于新一代火箭的研制。Bruce Carlson, director of the National Reconnaissance Office, the secretive outfit that runs Americas spy satellites,美国国家军事侦察局是运作美国间谍卫星的秘密机构,announced in 2010 that his agency was embarking on “the most aggressive launch schedule undertaken in the last 25 years”.其主管布鲁斯?卡尔森于2010年宣布他的机构已正着手实施“过去25年间所承担的最为积极的发射计划”。Much of the money goes on satellites—spy satellites for keeping tabs on other countries,大部分资金将用于卫星研制,包括用于监控其它国家活动的间谍卫星、communications satellites for soldiers to talk to each other, and even the Global Positioning System satellites,用于士兵交谈的通讯卫星,甚至包括为士兵和轰炸提供目标导航的全球定位系统卫星,designed to guide soldiers and bombs to their targets, and now expanded to aid civilian navigation.现在其应用范围已扩大到援助民用导航。But there are more exotic programmes.但也有着更多的特殊计划。The air force runs one for anti-satellite warfare, designed to destroy or disable enemy birds.美国空军实施了一项反卫星战计划,旨在破坏敌方卫星或令其失效。Another includes experimental aircraft, such as the X-37, a cut-down, unmanned descendant of the space shuttle.另一项计划则包括研制诸如X-37这样的实验飞机,它是美国航天飞机的简化及无人驾驶版本。The air force will not say what the X-37 is for.美国空军拒绝透露X-37的用途。One theory is that it is a spy plane, designed to catch savvy targets that know how to go to ground when spy satellites—which have predictable orbits—are overhead.有一种说法是X-37是一架间谍飞机,旨在捕获各种精明的目标。这些精明的目标发现间谍卫星位临上空时,能够知道如何隐蔽自己。Another is that it is intended to destroy satellites, or to drop bombs from orbit.另一种说法是X-37用于破坏卫星或从轨道上投掷炸弹。Other nations are flexing their muscles.其它国家也正显示着自己的军事实力。American commanders report that China regularly fires powerful lasers into the sky, demonstrating their ability to dazzle or blind satellites.美军指挥官报告说,中国定期向空中发射强力激光,展示他们有能力迷惑或致盲卫星。In 2007 a Chinese missile destroyed an old weather satellite, creating a huge field of orbiting debris.2007年,中国的导弹摧毁了一个旧的气候卫星,产生了巨大的轨道碎片区域。Afterwards, Russia spoke publicly about its anti-satellite weapons.随后,俄国公开谈论它的反卫星武器。This is one space race that is well under way.这场太空竞赛正在如火如荼地展开着。 /201304/236895

  What happend to bring these great civilization to an end.到底发生了什么使得这一伟大文明走向灭亡到底。What is the arrival of the first ever westers to visit the Tibet.到底发生了什么使得有史以来西方人首次前往西藏。Or what is the intense rivalry bewteen two brothers fighting for power.或者到底发生了什么使得两兄弟争夺权力进行激烈的竞争。Why was it completely abandoned.为什么它被完全遗弃。And whats silent secrets did these decapitated remains tell.还有这些沉默的秘密到底会告诉我们什么。To unravel this mistery a Tibetean historian.为了解开这个神秘,一位西藏历史学家。And an American archeologist traveled to the far reaches of Tibet.和一个美国考古学家动身前往遥远的西藏。To its four-hundred-year-old ruins,到达四百年历史之久的这片废墟,where they will discover the answers to what happend to the extraordinary Kingdom of GuGe.在那里他们会找到非凡的古格王国到底发生什么的。201311/264931。

  

  Books and Arts; Book Review;The end of the Soviet Union; Walking dead;文艺;书评;前苏联的末途;行尸走肉;The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》,奥利佛·布洛。Stagnation, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus (“Let our Fame be Great”), Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗·布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代——布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里·杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里·杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里·杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格(关押叛国罪罪犯的苦役监狱)而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里·杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里·杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里·杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里·杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里·杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里·杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里·杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里·杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔·索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里·杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里·杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里·杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里·杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201306/244713

  

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