成都查输卵管通而不畅医院69网

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 成都查输卵管通而不畅医院99指南
Are You Losing Your Life To Television? Few people realize the number of issues that television causes in our life.你是不是把生活浪费在看电视上吗?很少有人会意识到看电视给生活带来的种种弊端。While many people will argue that a little bit of TV never hurt anyone, the amount of a “little bit” is constantly in debate. A Neilson report found that the average American watches more than 34 hours of television each week.很多人会反驳说看小会儿电视无伤大雅,但关于“一小会儿”是多久存在争议。尼尔森报告指出,美国人平均每周看电视的时间超过34个小时。If that number doesn’t shock you I don’t know what will. If you’re now thinking “Those people are crazy—I’d never watch that much” then I invite you to do your own maths. Simply write down all the shows you watched this week and how long they were (including commercials if it was live) plus movies, YouTube s, etc. and work out roughly how much time you spent in front of the screen.如果这个数字没有让你感到震惊,我不知道还有什么能让你惊呆。如果你现在在想“这些人太疯狂了,我可不要看那么久”,那么我请你自己算算。写下这周你看过的电视剧,你看了多久(包括直播的广告时间),还可以算上看过的电影、YouTube视频等等,然后大概计算出你在电视前驻留了多久。That number is how many hours you’re losing each week to television. This is time that could be spent with your family, friends or relaxing in other ways. Today we’ll look at some more reasons why you should stop watching television, and how it will improve your life.那个数值就是你每周浪费在看电视上的时间。你可以把这些时间用在陪伴家人、朋友,以及进行其它方式的放松。今天,我们会说说其它更多不看电视的理由,以及不看电视可以如何提升你的生活质量。11个原因告诉你 不要再看电视了!1. Wasting Time浪费时间It’s pretty obvious that when you’re watching TV you’re not doing anything else. Time spent watching television is similar to being asleep. The question is whether you want to spend even more time in your precious day asleep.很显然,当你在看电视时,你就做不了任何其它事。花时间看电视,类似于把时间用在睡觉上。问题在于,你是否想花更多的时间在前一天的睡觉上。2. Missing Out on Social Interaction错失社交活动Every hour you spend in front of the TV is another hour you’re not making the most of your life. You could be playing with your family, hanging out with friends or doing an activity you enjoy. Connection is one of the basic human needs we all have and it will never be fulfilled by your television set.你花在看电视上的每一个小时就是你没能活出精生活的另一个小时。你可以和家人一起玩耍,和朋友一起出门闲逛,或是做你喜欢做的事。联系,是我们拥有的一个基本的人类需求,而看电视是无法满足的。3. Programming Yourself with Negativity给自己灌输了负面情绪Just about every television show, from comedies to drama to reality TV and the news, is negative. If you look at almost any TV show there is a complete lack of positive redeeming messages. While there are exceptions to this rule they are few and far between, so choose carefully what you decide to spend your time watching.每一档电视节目都带有负面因素,从喜剧和戏剧,到真人秀节目和新闻。如果你把每一档节目都看遍,你会发现电视节目里完全缺失了正面积极的讯息。虽然也存在例外,但例外是少之又少,因此,请慎重选择你决定要花时间观看的节目。4. TV Poisons Your Belief Systems电视毒害了你的信念In comedies, we laugh at the stupid/overweight/socially awkward/different people. The news is filled with stories of pain/suffering/disaster/death, and arguing and drama has to be about problems in order to create the drama. All of this is affecting your outlook on life and the way you see the world.在喜剧里,我们嘲笑那些愚蠢的、肥胖的、有社交障碍的、以及各色人群。故事里充满了苦痛、灾难和死亡,为了创造戏剧效果,争论和剧情都是围绕这些问题开展的。所有的这一切都在影响你的人生观,以及你看待世界的方式。5. It Creates Unrealistic Expectation它萌发了不切实际的期望Television distorts our understanding of reality. It’s filled with beautiful people doing amazing things and having great adventures every show. Ask any TV or movie star with half a brain and they’ll tell you that the images you see of them on the screen and magazine covers are completely fake.电视节目扭曲了我们对现实的理解。在每一部电视剧里,都有帅哥靓女,他们做着令人惊喜的事情,经历着伟大的冒险之旅。问问任何一位电视或电影明星,只要他们头脑还算清醒,他们会告诉你,你在屏幕上和杂志封面看到的形象完全是假的。6. Feelings of Inadequacy生活不满足感Life is never going to be like a TV show and this can make people very disillusioned when they compare it with their real life. The messages within television imply on a regular basis that we’re not pretty/smart/funny enough. Our lives can feel quite empty when compared to the perfection of the TV world.生活永远不会像一档电视节目一样,当人们把电视节目与他们的现实生活做过比较之后,他们的幻想就会破灭。电视里传达的讯息是基于常态之上的,它暗示着我们不够漂亮、不够聪明、不够风趣。跟电视世界里的完美相比,我们会感觉生活过得很空虚。7. Subliminal Programming and Advertising隐性暗示和隐性广告Make no mistake that there is only one reason why television exists, and that is to sell products. Every single part of every single TV program is designed to keep you in front of the TV and prepped to buy the advertised products through traditional advertising or product placements.毫无疑问,电视的存在只为一个原因,那就是销售产品。每一档电视节目的每一个环节都是为了让你驻留在电视机前,准备通过传统的广告方式或植入式广告让你购买广告中的产品。Television is designed to make you feel bad so you will buy products that make you feel better. It’s the ultimate in mind control systems. Companies figured out how to get us to voluntarily brainwash ourselves for their benefit.电视就是为了让你感觉不舒,所以你就会购买让你感觉良好的产品。这是控制思想系统的最终原则。那些公司想出了如何让我们心甘情愿地为了他们的利益而对自己洗脑。8. It Degrades Your Self Control and Discipline它会减弱你的自制和自律Thanks to the incredible psychological hooks that television uses, it’s very hard to stop watching it. We lose our self control and cannot turn off the television even though we may want to. As this continues, our self control and discipline decrease even further and the harder the battle becomes.正是由于电视节目利用了难以置信的心理钩子,做到不继续观看是很难的。即使我们可能想要这样做,我们也会失去自制力,从而没能关掉电视。这样持续下去,我们的自制和自律会进一步减弱,这场战役也就变得更加艰难。9. The Health Effects of Sitting Down坐着对健康的影响We now live a more sedentary life than ever before with most people having jobs behind a desk. We compound this problem when we go home and sit down in front of the TV as well, because the electrical activity in our muscles stops when we’re sitting. Research is showing even the most basic movement of walking or moving our bodies in subtle ways can make a big difference to our health.比起从前,现在的我们坐得更久,因为我们大多数的工作都是坐在办公室的办公桌后完成的。当我们回家了,坐在电视机前,我们又在重复这一生活方式,因为当我们坐着的时候,我们肌肉里的脉冲活动会停止。研究显示,即使是最基本的走路或是轻微地移动我们的身体也能对我们的身体产生很大的影响。10. We Teach Our Children These Habits我们教会了我们的孩子这些习惯Children are now being trained to watch TV and live a sedentary lifestyle. There is a lot of research showing the negative effects on a child’s development due to both inactivity and the influence of television. Your children will imitate your lifestyle. so any choice you make will be echoed in the generations that follow.孩子们被你训练出接受看电视和久坐不动的生活方式。大量的研究显示,不运动和看电视带来的影响将对孩子的发展产生负面作用。你的孩子会模仿你的生活方式。所以你做的任何一个选择将会被下一代效仿。11. Is It Really Relaxing?这真的是放松吗?My personal argument for watching TV is that it’s easy. You stop working for the day and get to relax and turn off your brain for a while, but the reality is that what is easy for us is hardly ever the best thing.我个人关于看电视的观点是简单的。你停止工作,寻求放松,让你的大脑清闲一会儿,但现实是对我们来说容易的事几乎没有是最好的。I also get to relax when I’m out at a kung fu or dance class. I get to relax when I’m hanging out with friends or spending time with my girlfriend. I also get to relax when ing a book, listening to uplifting audio or even watching uplifting s (like TED talks or educational materials).当我参加功夫或舞蹈课时我也可以放松。当我与朋友外出或者花时间陪我的女朋友时,我也可以放松。当我阅读书籍,听让人开心的音频文件甚至是看令人振奋的视频(像TED演讲或教育类题材时),我也可以放松。We get one life to live and it’s up to us to make the most of it. Every hour of the day is an investment that pays off right now and in our future. Invest wisely and your life will actually be filled with truly beautiful people doing amazing things and having great adventures.我们只活一次,让我们来充分把握它。一天中的每一个小时都是一份投资,它会在现在或是在将来给你回报。明智地投资,那么在你的生活里也会出现帅哥靓女,他们做着令人惊喜的事情,经历着伟大的冒险之旅。 /201309/255489

Two stars of the Paris dining scene now have a pied-à-terre in Hong Kong. Last August, Fred Peneau, formerly the business partner of I?aki Aizpitarte at Le Chateaubriand, and the chef Christophe Pelé joined with the interior designer Charles Pelletier to open Serge et le Phoque, a contemporary French restaurant in the heart of the Wan Chai district. (The restaurant was named both after and by Mr. Peneau#39;s young son, Serge, who thought that le Phoque, French for ;the seal,; would be a good companion to Le Dauphin, or ;the dolphin,; another of Mr. Peneau#39;s ventures.)巴黎美食界的两大明星现在已进驻香港。去年8月,巴黎小酒馆(Le Chateaubriand)伊纳基·艾兹皮塔特(I?aki Aizpitarte)的前商业伙伴弗雷德·佩诺(Fred Peneau)和主厨克里斯托弗·珀莱(Christophe Pelé),与室内设计师夏尔·佩尔蒂埃(Charles Pelletier)联手在湾仔中心地带开了一家现代风格的法式餐厅——塞尔日与海豹(Serge et le Phoque)。(佩诺年幼的儿子塞尔日[Serge]以自己的名字为餐厅命名。在法语中,le Phoque是海豹的意思。Le Dauphin是海豚的意思,也是佩诺另一家餐厅的名字。塞尔日觉得“海豹”会是“海豚”的好伙伴。)With its product-focused cooking, natural wines and artfully unkempt waiters, this restaurant would easily feel at home in eastern Paris. The service is eager to please, if occasionally distracted. ;I have to keep telling them to stop looking in the mirror,; said Mr. Pelletier, who runs the floor.这家餐厅注重在烹调时突出食物自身的美味和天然葡萄酒,务生刻意显得不修边幅。这一切让人觉得这仿佛就是巴黎东部的一家餐厅。务员极力想让顾客满意,即便他们偶尔会分心。负责管理餐厅的佩尔蒂埃说,“我得不停地告诉他们不要照镜子。”He also designed the room. That irresistible mirror covers the back wall, reflecting a whitewashed space furnished with pale plywood tables and mint green banquettes. Plate-glass windows bring a lively street scene indoors. (One oddity: A trip to the bathroom means visiting the parking garage next door.)房间也是由他设计的。令人无法抗拒的镜子遮住了后墙,反射出一个刷成白色的房间,里面摆有白色胶合板餐桌和薄荷绿色的长凳。大玻璃窗映射出热闹的街道景象。(奇怪的地方:去洗手间要去旁边的停车场。)The changes regularly. Many of the ingredients are Japanese or European, including the meat, which comes from the Parisian butcher Hugo Desnoyer.菜单会定期更换。很多原料都来自日本或欧洲。比如,肉是由巴黎肉商雨果·德努瓦耶(Hugo Desnoyer)提供的。Like the room, Mr. Pelé#39;s presentations are stark and modern — but that belies their bold flavors. Sauces and starches are rare. Elements are assembled more than combined, but the results are generally cohesive and often delicious. On my last visit, a pure pea gazpacho was enriched by a quivering hen#39;s egg, garnished with paper-thin rice wafers black with squid ink. Raw yellowtail was thickly cut and seasoned by salty bottarga, peppery radish and throat-tickling olive oil. Mackerel was shrouded by lardo di colonnata and crowned with squeaky enoki mushrooms. Rare lamp chops sat atop charred eggplant, a piece of herring perched on the rim. Ruby beet sorbet brought out the bitterness in a thick caramel sauce.就像房间一样,珀莱装盆的方式非常简约、现代——但这掩盖了他们大胆的口味。他们很少用调味汁和芡粉。各种原料放在一起,但并不相互融合,但结果却通常很和谐,而且美味可口。我上一次去这家餐厅时,厨师在一碗纯豌豆冷汤中加入了弹性十足的鸡蛋,上面配有浸沾了墨鱼汁的薄米饼。生黄尾鱼被切成厚片,并用咸鱼子、辣萝卜和让人嗓子发痒的橄榄油调制。鲭鱼外面裹了腌猪白肉,上面覆盖着咬起来咯吱作响的金针菇。烤茄子上放了一块半熟的羊排,旁边还配有鲱鱼片。红色的甜菜冰糕上淋了厚厚一层焦糖酱,吃起来有点苦。With all this mixing-and-matching, a board of ripe cheeses from Alléosse, a fromager in Paris, settles any doubt as to whether this is a French restaurant, as does the butter on the table, straight from Brittany.这样的混合与搭配,再加上来自法国巴黎Alléosse奶酪店的熟干酪,还有桌上摆的来自布列塔尼的黄油,会打消你有关这是否是一家法国餐厅的任何怀疑。 /201410/336092To shield any future children from the fear she harbors of getting breast cancer, Katie Dowdy underwent a controversial procedure to select embryos of hers that were free of a genetic mutation linked to the disease. 为了不让孩子将来像自己一样害怕患上乳腺癌,凯蒂·道迪(Katie Dowdy)做了一项充满争议的检查,以挑选出不携带一种被认为与乳腺癌相关的基因突变的胚胎。Deciding to have the procedure, called preimplantation genetic diagnosis, or PGD, wasn#39;t easy, says Ms. Dowdy. Her husband initially #39;worried about playing God,#39; she says. #39;I thought, if I could have a healthy baby who doesn#39;t have to worry about the same thing I did, why wouldn#39;t I?#39; says the 34-year-old, who hasn#39;t had cancer. The couple, who live in Castle Pines, Colo., now have two young girls, both born using PGD. 道迪说,决定做这项名叫“着床前遗传学诊断”(简称PGD)的检查并不是一个容易的过程。她说,起初丈夫“担心自己是在扮演上帝的角色”。现年34岁、没有得过癌症的她说:“我想,如果我能有一个健康的孩子,不需要担心我所担心的事情,那我为什么不做呢?”夫妇俩家住科罗拉多州派恩堡,现有两个年幼的女儿,都是在做了PGD之后出生的。Preimplantation genetic diagnosis has long been available during IVF, or in vitro fertilization, to eliminate the risk of passing on severe disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and cystic fibrosis. Now, fertility clinics say they are seeing a small but increasing number of women choosing PGD to avoid giving birth to children who carry mutations in the BRCA genes, which increase the risk for breast and other cancers. 防范于未然着床前遗传学诊断(PGD)检查胚胎有没有某种可能会从父母身上遗传而来的遗传缺陷。以下是PGD检查的一些疾病:#39;It#39;s on the rise because more people are becoming aware that there#39;s a genetic component to breast cancer,#39; says Mark Hughes, founder of Genesis Genetics, in Plymouth, Mich., which offers reproductive-genetics-diagnosis services to fertility clinics nationwide. 囊性纤维化Critics fear genetically vetting embryos can be used to create so-called designer babies. Embryos with the gene mutation may be discarded, which some critics also oppose. Gender selection is one form of embryo-testing that stirs ethical questions. Some clinics will agree to select for a specific sex only for health reasons -- to avoid a disease such as hemophilia, for example, which typically is passed only to boys. Opponents of PGD for breast cancer also say that having a BRCA-gene mutation doesn#39;t mean a person will necessarily get the disease and that there are options for detecting and treating the cancer. 血友病A parent with a mutation on the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes has a 50-50 chance of transmitting it to the next generation. Between 45% and 65% of women with the mutations are expected to be diagnosed with breast cancer by age 70, according to the National Cancer Institute. That compares with about 12% of women in the general population. 亨廷顿氏舞蹈症BRCA mutations, which also increase the risk for ovarian, prostate and other cancers in men and women, are relatively rare, accounting for 5% to 10% of all breast cancers. Some women undergo prophylactic mastectomy to reduce their chances of getting the disease. 马方氏综合征In Ms. Dowdy#39;s family, the specter of breast cancer hovers. Her paternal grandmother died in 1979, five months before Ms. Dowdy was born. Several of her grandmother#39;s sisters also got breast cancer. Ms. Dowdy#39;s father had a genetic test and found he had inherited the BRCA1 mutation. When she was 27, a test showed Ms. Dowdy also had the mutation. 肌肉萎缩After her aunt, who shares the same mutation, had a prophylactic mastectomy, Ms. Dowdy researched her options and learned about PGD. Ms. Dowdy says she and her husband had struggled to conceive. Figuring they would need fertility assistance, also doing PGD to avoid passing on the BRCA mutation seemed like an obvious precaution. 地中海贫血The PGD process begins with standard IVF. After two weeks of hormonal stimulation, eggs are retrieved, fertilized and left to multiply for five days. Then a laboratory scrutinizes several cells, looking for gene mutations. The analysis isn#39;t believed to harm the embryo. Embryos without BRCA mutations are earmarked for transfer into a woman#39;s uterus. 黑蒙性白痴Two of Ms. Dowdy#39;s seven embryos were BRCA-mutation free. Both were transferred to her uterus. One implanted and grew to become a daughter, Reagan, born in 2010. Ms. Dowdy and her husband opted for PGD again to conceive another child, Mackenzie, born in March. 脊髓性肌萎缩Only recently have some doctors started discussing PGD with women who have a breast-cancer mutation. More often, BRCA-positive women learn about the procedure on their own. #39;We write about it in our newsletter and we#39;ve done webinars on it, but not everyone knows about it,#39; says Sue Friedman, executive director of Force, a nonprofit patient-support group focused on hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. 镰状细胞贫血For women who have no trouble conceiving, the choice to do PGD involves the added hassle of fertility treatment. PGD can add about ,000 to the price of IVF, which runs at least ,000, depending on the clinic, plus thousands of dollars more for medications. 资料来源:纽约大学生殖中心(NYU Fertility Center)很久以来,在试管受精的操作过程中,都可以通过着床前遗传学诊断来消除将脊髓性肌萎缩、囊性纤维化等严重缺陷遗传下去的风险。而现在,据生殖医院说,数量不大但越来越多的女性都在选择做PGD以避免生下携带BRCA基因突变的孩子。BRCA基因突变会增加患乳腺癌和其他癌症的风险。#39;It#39;s by no means 100% [of eligible women] who are choosing to do it,#39; says William Schoolcraft, medical director of the Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine in Lone Tree, Colo., and Ms. Dowdy#39;s doctor. Dr. Schoolcraft says he has done about 10 PGD procedures to eliminate a BRCA mutation in the past three years. He has heard some patients say #39; #39;My grandma had it, my aunt had it, my mom had it. I want to stop this train.#39; Others have the attitude that if my baby turns out like me, so be it.#39; 密歇根州普利茅斯堡的Genesis Genetics为全国生殖医院提供生殖遗传学诊断务。创始人马克·休斯(Mark Hughes)说:“之所以数量在上升,是因为越来越多的人懂得乳腺癌包含遗传成分。”Even after an embryo selected through PGD is successfully implanted, some doctors recommend an amniocentesis or another prenatal test called CVS to make sure there isn#39;t a BRCA-gene mutation. 批评者担心,经过遗传学检查的胚胎有可能被用于制造“定制婴儿”(designer baby)。含有基因突变的胚胎可能被抛弃,这也是一些批评者所反对的。性别选择是激起伦理争议的胚胎检查形式之一。一些医院只会同意出于健康原因而选择某个性别,比如说规避常常只遗传给男孩的血友病等。乳腺癌PGD反对者还说,携带BRCA基因突变并不意味着人一定会得这种病,而且乳腺癌的侦测和治疗还有其他方法。#39;You have to think of it from the perspective of a woman whose life has been turned upside down by breast cancer and the guilt associated with choosing to have a baby that could have those same problems,#39; says James Grifo, director of the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at NYU Fertility Center. 携带BRCA1或BRCA2基因突变的父母有50%的概率将它遗传给下一代。根据国家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)数据,45%到65%携带这些突变的女性预计会在70岁之前被诊断出乳腺癌。相比之下,一般女性的这个概率在12%左右。Bonnie RochmanBRCA突变也会增加男性和女性罹患上卵巢癌、前列腺癌等癌症的风险。这类突变相对少见,占所有乳腺癌的5%到10%。有些女性通过做预防性乳房切除术来降低患乳腺癌的风险。 /201404/291935

It isn#39;t just the beer that contributes to beer bellies. It could also be the extra calories, fat and unhealthy eating choices that may come with moderate drinking. 啤酒肚的形成并不只是因为啤酒本身。饮酒会使人摄入额外的卡路里和脂肪、选择不健康的饮食,这些也都是形成啤酒肚的帮凶。 A recent study found that men consume an additional 433 calories (equivalent to a McDonald#39;s double cheeseburger) on days they drink a moderate amount of alcohol. About 61% of the caloric increase comes from the alcohol itself. Men also report eating higher amounts of saturated fats and meat, and less fruit and milk, on those days than on days when they aren#39;t drinking, the study showed. 近期一项研究发现,男性在饮酒量适中的情况下,会额外摄入433卡路里热量(相当于一个麦当劳双层吉士汉堡)。约61%的多余热量来自酒类本身。研究还表明,男性在饮酒时会比平日摄入更多饱和脂肪和肉类,而减少水果和牛奶的食用量。 Women fared a bit better, taking in an extra 300 calories on moderate-drinking days, from the alcohol and eating fattier foods. But women#39;s increase in calories from additional eating wasn#39;t statistically significant, the study said. 女性的情况略好,适量饮酒时会多摄入300卡路里,来源于酒和油腻食物。研究也指出,从数据上来看,女性因食物摄入量增加而造成的热量摄入增加并不显著。 #39;Men and women ate less healthily on days they drank alcohol,#39; said Rosalind Breslow, an epidemiologist with the federal National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and lead author of the study. #39;Poorer food choices on drinking days have public-health implications,#39; she said. 流行病学家罗莎琳德#12539;布雷斯洛(Rosalind Breslow)说:“男性和女性喝酒的时候吃得都不太健康。”她是这项研究的带头人,效力于美国国家酒精滥用及酗酒问题研究所(National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)。她说:“是饮酒时的食物选择不当给公众健康造成了隐患。” The findings dovetail with controlled lab studies in which participants generally eat more food after consuming alcohol. Researchers suggest that alcohol may enhance #39;the short-term rewarding effects#39; of consuming food, according to a 2010 report in the journal Physiology amp; Behavior that reviewed previous studies on alcohol, appetite and obesity. 研究发现与实验室对照实验相吻合,在实验中,参与者往往在喝酒之后食量更大。《生理学与行为学》(Physiology amp; Behavior)期刊在2010年发表了一项关于酒精、食欲与肥胖的报告,研究者认为酒精会增进摄入食物时的“短期奖赏效应”。 But other studies have pointed to a different trend. Moderate drinkers gain less weight over time than either heavy drinkers or people who abstain from alcohol, particularly women, this research has shown. Moderate drinking is considered having about two drinks a day for men and one for women. 但是其他研究的结果却截然相反。一项研究表明,长期以来,适量饮酒的人体重增长比酒量大或者滴酒不沾的人更慢,特别是在女性群体中。适量饮酒指的是,男性每天大约喝两杯酒,女性为一杯。 #39;People who gain the least weight are moderate drinkers, regardless of [alcoholic] beverage choice,#39; said Eric Rimm, an associate professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard Medical School and chairman of the 2010 review of alcohol in the federal dietary guidelines. The weight-gain difference is modest, and #39;starting to drink is not a weight-loss diet,#39; he said. 埃里克#12539;利姆(Eric Rimm)说:“体重增长最少的人都是适量饮酒的人,无论选择的是何种(酒精)饮料。”他是哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)流行病学与营养学副教授,也是2010年美国饮食指南酒类的主席。他说,体重增长的差异并不显著,所以“开始喝酒并不是个减肥办法。” The various research efforts form part of a long-standing debate about how alcohol affects people#39;s appetites, weight and overall health. Researchers say there aren#39;t simple answers, and suggest that individuals#39; metabolism, drinking patterns and gender may play a role. 各种各样的研究促成了持久的争论:到底酒精是如何作用于人的食欲、体重和整体健康的。研究者们说并不是单一的,每个人的新陈代谢、饮酒方式和性别都会有一定的影响。 Alcohol is #39;a real wild card when it comes to weight management,#39; said Karen Miller-Kovach, chief scientific officer of Weight Watchers International. At seven calories per gram, alcohol is closer to fat than to carbohydrate or protein in caloric content, she said. Alcohol tends to lower restraint, she notes, causing a person to become more indulgent with what they#39;re eating. Weight Watchers International首席科学官卡伦#12539;米勒-科瓦奇(Karen Miller-Kovach)说,酒精的确是“控制体重时的一个未知数” 。她说,以每克七卡路里来计算,酒精的卡路里含量比起碳水化合物和蛋白质更接近脂肪。她还提到,酒精会减弱人们的自制力,这使得人在吃东西时更加放纵自己。 Research bolstering the role of moderate drinking in helping to control weight gain was published in 2004 in the journal Obesity Research. That study followed nearly 50,000 women over eight years. An earlier study, published in the American Journal of Epidemiology in 1994, followed more than 7,000 people for 10 years and found that moderate drinkers gained less weight than nondrinkers. Studies comparing changes in waist circumference among different groups have yielded similar results. 《肥胖研究》(Obesity Research)期刊在2004年发表的一项研究肯定了适度饮酒在帮助控制体重增长中的作用。这项研究在八年间追踪了近50,000名女性。更早的一项研究发表于1994年的《美国流行病学杂志》(American Journal of Epidemiology),该研究对7,000人进行了10年的追踪,并发现适量饮酒的人比不喝酒的人体重增长得更少。两项研究都对不同组别腰围的变化进行了比较,并得出了相似的结论。 Dr. Rimm said it isn#39;t clear why moderate drinking may be protective against typical weight gain, but it could have to do with metabolic adjustments. After people drink alcohol, their heart rate increases so they burn more calories in the following hour. 利姆说适量饮酒者似乎可以抵抗一般的体重增长,其原因尚不明确,但可能与代谢调节有关。人们饮酒后,心跳加快,所以他们会在接下来的一小时里燃烧更多卡路里。 #39;It#39;s a modest amount,#39; he said. #39;But if you take an individual that eats 100 calories instead of a glass of wine, the person drinking the glass of wine will have a slight increase in the amount of calories burned.#39; “这一消耗量并不算高”,他说。“但是如果一个人吃了100卡食物,而另一个人喝了一杯酒,喝酒的人消耗的卡路里会略多一些。” Food choices could also play a role. Some studies suggest that women who drink alcohol eat fewer sweet foods, possibly because alcohol stimulates the same pleasure center in the brain as sweets, said Dr. Rimm. That isn#39;t seen as consistently in men. 酒后对于食物的选择也有一定影响。利姆说,一些研究表明,女性在饮酒后较少吃甜食,很可能是由于酒精与甜食一样刺激了脑部愉悦中枢。这一点在男性身上并无明显规律。 Men have more of the alcohol dehydrogenase group of enzymes that metabolize some alcohol in the stomach than women, said Andrea N. Giancoli, spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a professional organization. 安德烈娅#12539;N#12539;詹科利(Andrea N. Giancoli)说,相较于女性,男性体内拥有更多乙醇脱氢?,可将胃里的酒精分解代谢。她是专业机构营养与饮食学会(Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)的新闻发言人。 One theory for what this might mean is that women#39;s bodies divert alcohol not being broken down in the stomach to a different metabolic pathway that results in more calories being burned, said Ms. Giancoli, a registered dietitian near Los Angeles. As a result, fewer calories from alcohol may be stored in women as fat, she said. 这位身处洛杉矶附近的营养学家詹科利还说,有一个理论可以解释这种说法,女性的身体会将酒精转移,而不是在胃里分解输送到不同的代谢通道,这会导致消耗更多卡路里。她说,结果是,较少的来自酒类中的卡路里会被转化为脂肪储存于女性体内。 Another factor is drinking patterns. A 2005 study in the American Journal of Epidemiology looked at data from 45,896 drinkers. It found that as the quantity of drinking increased from one to four drinks in a day, the subjects#39; body-mass index increased. 另一个影响因素是饮酒习惯。《美国流行病学杂志》2005年的一项研究参照了45,896名饮酒者的数据。结果表明,随着每日饮酒量从一杯到四杯逐渐递增,饮酒者的身体质量指数也会上升。 #39;People who drank the least often but drank more on the days that they drank had higher BMI,#39; said Dr. Breslow, who co-authored the study. 研究合着者布雷斯洛说:“平时很少喝酒但偶尔大量饮酒的人身体质量指数更高。” Dr. Breslow#39;s latest study, which found caloric intake increases with moderate drinking, didn#39;t look at associations between alcohol and body weight or track food choices and diets over time. She suggested that people who increase their caloric intake with moderate drinking one day might compensate the next day by consuming less. 布雷斯洛的最新研究发现,卡路里吸收会因适量饮酒而增多,但研究并未考察酒精和体重之间的联系,也未追踪食物选择和长时间的饮食规律。她认为因适量饮酒而摄入了更多卡路里的人会在第二天少吃一点作为弥补。 The study, which appeared in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 1,864 mostly moderate drinkers. 这项研究发表于5月的《美国临床营养学杂志》(American Journal of Clinical Nutrition),其对美国国家健康与营养检测调查(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)中1,864名通常适量饮酒的人的数据进行了分析。 Another study, which looked at data from nearly 16,000 individuals over a year, concluded that as alcohol consumption increased there was a decline in diet quality. 另一项研究参考了近16,000人全年的数据,得出的结论是饮食的质量随着酒精摄入量的增加而降低。 That research was published in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association in 2010. 这项研究刊登在2010年的《美国营养协会杂志》(Journal of the American Dietetic Association)上。 David Jensen, a 56-year-old who considers himself overweight, says cutting his daily drink or two helped him reduce nighttime snacking. #39;You have a glass of wine and then it#39;s, oh man, I need cheese with that, or I need chocolate. You end up eating all this other stuff,#39; said Mr. Jensen, who lives near Seattle and works as a translator for financial clients. 今年56岁的大卫#12539;詹森(David Jensen)认为自己体重超标,他说减少日常饮酒量有助于少吃夜宵。詹森说:“如果你喝了一杯酒,就会想,哎呀,我需要配一块奶酪下酒,或者我要一块巧克力。”他住在西雅图附近,为金融客户提供翻译务。 Last year he stopped drinking for five months and lost just over 10 pounds #39;with really no effort,#39; Mr. Jensen said. 詹森说,去年他戒酒五个月,体重“不费吹灰之力”地减轻10磅有余(约合4.5公斤)。 But once he started drinking again his weight went up and he is back to where he started. 但是当他重新开始喝酒时,体重立刻反弹回到了原点。 /201309/256026Cranberries have antioxidant properties that can prolong life when taken at any stage of life, suggests a study to be published in the February 2014 issue of Experimental Gerontology.将于2014年2月发表在《实验老年学》(Experimental Gerontology)上的一篇文章指出,蔓越莓由于具有抗氧化性,无论在人生的哪个阶段食用,都有助于延年益寿。Studies of antiaging compounds have shown that some are effective at certain stages of life but can be harmful in others, researchers said.研究人员说,对抗衰老成分的研究表明,有些成分在人生的某些阶段有效,但在另一些阶段可能是有害的。Experiments at the National Institute on Aging in Baltimore tested cranberry supplements on Drosophila, a type of fruit fly commonly used in biological research studies. Groups of 100 to 200 flies in separate vials were fed a high-sugar diet supplemented with 2% cranberry extract during the flies#39; three biological stages -- a health span, a transition span and a senescence span, according to the researchers. In humans, the stages correspond to young adulthood, middle and old age. Control flies didn#39;t receive the extract.位于巴尔的的美国国家老龄化研究所(National Institute on Aging)测试了蔓越莓补充剂对果蝇的效果,果蝇是生物学研究常用的实验材料。研究人员说,每组数量在100至200只的果蝇被装在不同的瓶子里,在它们的三个生物期(健康期、过渡期和衰老期)内被饲以高糖饮食并添加2%的蔓越莓提取物。这些时期在人类身上对应的是青年、中年和老年。对照组的果蝇没有接受蔓越莓提取物。The flies were transferred to new vials between stages and the number of dead flies recorded at each transfer until all flies were dead.这些果蝇从一个阶段到另一个阶段时会被转到新的瓶子里,每次转移都会记录死去的果蝇数量,直到所有果蝇死亡。Flies on the cranberry supplement during the health stage lived 25% longer than controls, on average. In the transition and senescence phases, the supplement extended the average life span of the remaining flies by 30% compared with controls.在健康期摄取了蔓越莓补充剂的果蝇寿命平均比对照组长25%。在过渡期和衰老期,这种补充剂让存活果蝇的寿命比对照组长30%。Analysis of proteins from the flies#39; heads found that cranberry supplementation at all three stages reduced cellular damage caused by oxidative, or environmental, stress and appeared to alter molecular pathways involved in oxidative stress responses. Researchers noted cranberries are especially rich in phytochemicals, which are healthy, plant-based compounds.对果蝇头脑的蛋白质进行的分析发现,所有三个阶段摄入的蔓越莓补充剂都减少了因氧化应激或环境压力造成的细胞损伤,并且似乎改变了氧化应激反应所涉及的分子路径。研究人员指出,蔓越莓尤其富含植物素,这是一种有益健康、基于植物的化合物。Caveat: The research hasn#39;t been proven in human subjects.注意:这项研究尚未经过人体试验实。Title: Lifespan extension by cranberry supplementation partially requires SOD2 and is life stage independent研究主题:蔓越莓补充剂延长寿命部分需要超氧化物歧化 (SOD2),并且不受生命阶段影响 /201312/270450

It is a quandary every couple with children eventually faces: Should we fight in front of the kids?对有孩子的夫妻终将面临这样的问题:我们该不该在孩子面前吵架?The answer is complicated. Child psychologists who study the issue tend to say yes -- if parents can manage to argue in a healthy way. That means disagreeing respectfully and avoiding name-calling, insults, dredging up past infractions or storming off in anger, for starters.不是那么简单。研究这个问题的儿童心理学家往往会回答“该”──如果父母能够做到合理争吵的话。合理争吵,首先是求同存异,并避免扣帽子、侮辱对方、提旧事或发飙。#39;Kids are going to have disagreements with their friends, their peers, co-workers, #39; says Patrick Davies, a professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. #39;If they don#39;t witness disagreements and how they are handled in constructive ways, they are not well-equipped to go out into the world and address inevitable conflict.#39;罗切斯特大学(University of Rochester)心理学教授帕特里克·戴维斯(Patrick Davies)说:“孩子们将会跟他们的朋友、同伴、同事产生分歧,如果他们没有见过分歧以及分歧的建设性处理方式,那么他们就不能做好足够的准备去闯荡世界,去处理不可避免的冲突。”Dr. Davies and fellow researchers found that #39;constructive#39; marital conflict was associated with an increase in children#39;s emotional security, in their study of 235 families with children ages 5 to 7 published in 2009 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Other studies have linked constructive marital conflict with the healthy development of children#39;s problem-solving and coping skills and even happiness.戴维斯士和其他一些研究人员研究了235户有五到七岁孩子的家庭,研究结果于2009年发表在《儿童心理学和精神病学杂志》(Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)上。他们发现,“建设性”的婚内冲突与儿童情绪安全感的增加存在关联。其他一些研究也曾发现,建设性婚内冲突与儿童问题解决与应对能力、甚至幸福感的健康发展之间存在关联。A growing awareness of how and where to fight with a spouse when kids are involved is being spurred in part by a proliferation of research linking children#39;s exposure to a lot of unhealthy marital conflict -- characterized by hostility, threats and insults -- with a greater risk of anxiety disorders, depression and behavior problems. Also, a generation of young parents who grew up as kids of divorce in the 1970s and 1980s are now scrutinizing how their parents fought. Some vow to do things differently with their own progeny.在牵扯到孩子的时候怎样与配偶争吵、在哪里争吵的问题之所以越来越受重视,原因之一就在于许多研究发现,儿童经受过大量不健康婚内冲突(以敌对、威胁、侮辱为特点)与焦虑症、抑郁症、行为问题风险增加之间存在关联。另外,20世纪70年代、80年代成长于离婚家庭的年轻一代父母现在也在探究他们上一辈的争吵方式。一些人发誓将以不同的方式对待自己的后代。Even infants can be affected by angry disagreements -- even when they#39;re asleep. A study published in May in the journal Psychological Science took 24 babies from 6- to 12-months-old and exposed them to various tones of voice (very angry, mildly angry, happy and neutral) while they were lying asleep in an fMRI scanner. Those infants in families with higher levels of conflict between spouses had elevated responses in parts of the brain associated with reactions to stress and emotion regulation when exposed to the very angry voices during the study. Babies #39;are still sensitive to things even when they#39;re asleep, #39; says Alice Graham, a doctoral candidate in psychology at the University of Oregon and lead author of the study. #39;The idea of it being a time to let loose when infants are asleep is probably not accurate.#39;甚至婴儿都有可能受到愤怒争吵的影响──哪怕是在睡着的时候。今年5月《心理科学》(Psychological Science)上发表了一项研究的论文,该研究选取了24名六至12个月大的婴儿,把他们放在功能性磁共振成像扫描仪里面,在他们睡着的时候将他们暴露于各种语调(非常愤怒的、比较愤怒的、快乐的、中性的)之中。在夫妻冲突程度更高的家庭中,婴儿大脑与应激反应和情绪管理有关的区域在研究期间暴露于非常愤怒的声音时反应更大。论文牵头作者、俄勒冈大学(University of Oregon)心理学士生艾丽丝·格雷厄姆(Alice Graham)说:“即便是在睡着的时候,婴儿对事物也是敏感的。认为在婴儿睡着时可以随心所欲的观点恐怕是不准确的。”Still, beyond universal agreement against physical confrontation, opinions vary on the right approach. Some experts say parents should keep arguments away from children because it#39;s just too hard to fight well. #39;If [parents] are going to have disagreements, they should do that in private as much as possible, #39; says Thomas McInerny, president of the American Academy of Pediatrics. #39;It is the rare instance when [couples] can keep it rational and keep it calm.#39;但在普遍赞同不要搞肢体冲突之外,对于应该怎样争吵,大家各有各的看法。有些专家说,父母不应在孩子面前吵架,因为把架吵好真的很难做到。美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)会长托马斯·麦金纳尼(Thomas McInerny)说:“如果(父母)之间要发生争论,那么他们就应该尽量私下进行。在争论时是很难保持理性、保持平静的。”How to keep things from getting too heated for little eyes and ears? Child psychologist Kirsten Cullen Sharma suggests that parents agree in advance on an anger cutoff point for arguments. On an anger scale of one to 10, she asks individuals to define the number when they feel they start to yell, curse or generally lose control. (For one person, it could be a five. For another, it could be a seven.) During a disagreement, when Mom or Dad hits the cutoff number, the couple tables the argument to a time when the kids are asleep or aren#39;t around. Either party can say when the other person has reached that limit.怎样防止火药味在幼小的眼睛和耳朵面前变得过于浓重?儿童心理学家科尔斯滕·卡伦(Kirsten Cullen)提议,父母亲应当事先讲好在愤怒情绪达到什么程度时停止争吵。她要求人们按10分制给自己的愤怒程度打分,确定在达到哪个分数的时候,他们觉得就要开始吼叫、咒骂,或者宽泛地说是要失去控制。(这个人可能是五,那个人可能是七。)争论期间,当妈妈或爸爸的愤怒程度达到应该停止争吵的那个数字时,两人就把这次争吵推到孩子睡着的时候或不在身边的时候。不管是哪一个人达到了这个极限,对方都可以指出。#39;One of the great skills parents can offer their children is conflict resolution. That helps [kids] in their future relationships, #39; says Dr. Cullen Sharma, co-director of the early childhood clinical service at the Child Study Center at NYU Langone Medical Center.纽约大学朗格尼医学中心(NYU Langone Medical Center)儿童研究中心(Child Study Center)负责幼儿临床务的联席主任卡伦·夏尔玛(Cullen Sharma)说:“冲突的化解是父母能给孩子的好技能之一。这有利于孩子将来的人际关系。”Caroline Rheinfrank and Chopper Bernet have an unofficial five-minute time limit for disagreements in front of their three children, ages 15, 14 and 11. #39;Now that they are older, they comprehend more, #39; says Ms. Rheinfrank, a stay-at-home mother in Los Angeles. Or as Mr. Bernet, an actor, explains, #39;Parents need timeouts, too.#39; The couple also tries to prevent potential blowups by cutting each other extra slack during times with high bicker potential, including while in the car and just before dinner.洛杉矶的卡罗琳·莱因弗兰克(Caroline Rheinfrank)和乔珀·贝尼特(Chopper Bernet)有三个孩子,分别是15岁、14岁和11岁,莱因弗兰克是一位全职太太,贝尼特是一名演员。两人之间对于在孩子面前的争吵有一个不成文的五分钟限制。莱因弗兰克说:“他们长大了,所以懂得更多了。”或者像贝尼特所说的,“当父母的也需要叫暂停”。在吵架可能性较高的时候(包括开车时或晚饭前),夫妻两人还会多宽容对方一些,以防发火。Parents should use their kids#39; reaction during a fight as a guide, experts say. A crying child is an obvious sign to end an argument. But there are more subtle cues that a kid is distressed, Dr. Davies says. #39;When they start freezing, they are stuck still for a few seconds, that is a really negative sign that they feel like they are in extreme danger, #39; he says. Other kids tend to #39;slump over, lethargic, and look like they are sort of depressed.#39;专家说,父母在争吵期间应当以孩子的反应为指引。孩子哭泣,是明白无误地说明应该要停止争吵。但戴维斯士说,有些更加细微的迹象也说明孩子情绪不好。他说:“当他们开始发愣,愣上几秒钟,那其实是一种负面征兆,说明他们觉得自己是处在一种极度的危险之中。”他说,另一些孩子往往是“没精打采地一屁股坐下,像是有些抑郁一样”。Some kids misbehave to try to distract parents from the conflict. Other children attempt to insert themselves and try to mediate or take sides. All of these are signs that an argument needs to be put on hold, Dr. Davies says.有些孩子通过胡作非为来转移父母注意力以结束冲突。有些孩子则是试图介入争吵,希望调解或站队。戴维斯士说,这些都说明争吵应当暂停。It is not OK to drag kids into a parental fight or encourage them to take sides, Dr. Cullen Sharma says. And don#39;t be fooled if a teen appears nonchalant about his parents#39; below-the-belt fighting: #39;They roll their eyes, but that does not make it less painful, #39; says Alan E. Kazdin, director of the Yale Parenting Center and a professor of psychology and child psychiatry at Yale University.卡伦·夏尔玛士说,把孩子拖入父母的争吵当中或鼓励他们站队,都是不可以的。另外,在十几岁的孩子看上去对父母亲的过火争吵显得漠不关心的时候,不要被表象蒙蔽了。耶鲁大学(Yale University)心理学与儿童精神病学教授、耶鲁育儿研究中心(Yale Parenting Center)主任艾伦·卡兹丁(Alan E. Kazdin)说:“他们翻白眼,但这样做并不能减轻痛苦。”Making sure kids see some kind of resolution to the argument is crucial, Dr. Kazdin says. #39;Is there a nice makeup period and mundane chatter? Routine kind of banter will greatly alleviate the child#39;s anxiety, #39; he says. This doesn#39;t mean that the conflict has to be solved. You may just decide to settle it later or agree to disagree. And even more critical, Dr. Kazdin says, is what goes on in the marital relationship during non-conflict times. #39;The proportion of fighting to affectionate talk is the issue, #39; he says.卡兹丁士说,确保让孩子看到争论得到了某种形式的解决,是至关重要的。他说:“有没有一个很好的和好时间段,有没有拉家常?有个固定的说笑和解程序将会大大减轻孩子的焦虑感。”这并不是说冲突一定要解决,你们完全可以决定以后解决或求同存异。卡兹丁士说,更加重要的是非冲突时期的婚姻关系。他说:“关键在于争吵相对于温馨谈话的比例。”Georgi and Rick Silverman have decided not to hide arguments -- often about the division of household labor or Mr. Silverman#39;s weekend sports viewing -- from their kids, ages 9 and 3. But they also make sure the children see them make up. #39;We#39;ll hold hands and he#39;ll hug me and we#39;ll say we love each other, #39; says Ms. Silverman, a stay-at-home mother in Houston. #39;Even if I#39;m a little upset, I want the kids to know, #39;I still love your Mom and I#39;m not going anywhere, #39; #39; says Mr. Silverman, the chief financial officer of a facilities-maintenance business, whose parents divorced when he was 13.休斯敦的杰奥尔吉·西尔弗曼(Georgi Silverman)和里克·西尔弗曼(Rick Silverman)已经决定不对九岁、三岁的两个孩子隐瞒争吵(常常是关于谁做家务或里克周末看体育比赛的事情)。但他们也会确保孩子们看到他们和好。杰奥尔吉是一位全职母亲,里克是一家设备维修公司的首席财务长,13岁的时候父母就离婚了。杰奥尔吉说:“我们会手拉手,他会拥抱我,我们会说我们爱着对方。”里克说:“我即使有些不高兴,也要让孩子知道‘我仍然爱着你们的妈妈,哪里也不会去’。”Bottling up anger and giving a spouse the cold shoulder when the kids are around can end up making things worse. The silent treatment is actually more distressing for kids than a healthy argument, Dr. Davies says. #39;Kids pick up on that. But they don#39;t know what is going on, #39; he says, adding that children may think the fight -- and its potential consequences -- are much worse than they actually are.在孩子面前压住怒火给配偶冷脸,可能会使情况变得更糟。戴维斯士说,打冷战实际上比合理争吵更让孩子不安。他说,“孩子们会注意到,只是不知道是怎么回事。”他还说,这样的话,孩子们对争吵及其潜在后果的判断可能比实际情况严重得多。 /201310/261912

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