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Apple Inc opposed a court ruling on Tuesday that ordered it to help the FBI break into an iPhone recovered from a San Bernardino shooter, heightening a dispute between tech companies and law enforcement over the limits of encryption.苹果公司上周二对联邦法院的一项裁决提出异议。法院裁决苹果应协助联邦调查局入侵圣贝纳迪诺击案凶犯的手机。这也使得这家科技公司和执法机构关于解密权的争论达到了白热化。A public letter, signed by Apple CEO Tim Cook and published Tuesday, warns that complying with the order would entail building ;a backdoor to the iPhone;. Such a move would threaten the security of Apple#39;s customers, it said.苹果CEO蒂姆·库克的一封署名公开信也于上周二发布,信中警告称,遵循这项指令将牵涉到为iPhone预留后门,此举将威胁苹果用户的安全。Earlier on Tuesday, Judge Sheri Pym of U.S. District Court in Los Angeles said that Apple must provide ;reasonable technical assistance; to investigators seeking to unlock the data on an iPhone 5C that had been owned by Syed Rizwan Farook.在周二的早些时候,洛杉矶地区法院法官雪莉·皮姆做出裁决,要求苹果公司必须向解锁赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克iPhone 5C手机数据的调查人员提供“合理的技术援助”。That assistance includes disabling the phone#39;s auto-erase function, which activates after 10 consecutive unsuccessful passcode attempts, and helping investigators to submit passcode guesses electronically.据悉,要求苹果公司提供的技术援助包括暂停“自动擦除”功能,允许调查人员通过电子手段提交猜测的密码等。“自动擦除”功能会在连续10次输入错误密码后激活。Syed Farook and his wife killed 14 people in the December shooting before both were killed by police. Investigators had obtained permission to retrieve data from the phone but had been unable to search the device as it had been locked with a user-generated numeric passcode.去年12月,赛义德·法鲁克夫妇二人制造的击案导致14人遇难,之后二人被警方击毙。调查人员已获准从凶犯手机检索数据,但由于手机被用户设定的数字密码锁住,他们无法检索设备。The FBI has been investigating the couple#39;s potential communications with Islamic State and other militant groups. ;Apple has the exclusive technical means which would assist the government in completing its search, but has declined to provide that assistance voluntarily,; prosecutors said. U.S. government officials have warned that the expanded use of strong encryption is hindering national security and criminal investigations.FBI正在调查这对夫妻是否和“伊斯兰国”以及其他武装组织有联系。检察官称:“苹果有独特的技术手段可以帮助政府完成搜查,但是苹果公司拒绝提供帮助。”美国政府官员已经对此发出警告称,高级加密的广泛使用已经妨碍了国家安全以及犯罪调查。In a letter to customers posted on Apple#39;s website, Cook said the FBI wanted the company ;to build a backdoor to the iPhone; by making a new version of the iPhone operating system that would circumvent several security features.在苹果官网公布的一封致用户公开信中,总裁库克表示,FBI要求公司为其建立“通向iPhone的后门”,具体做法是通过创建一个可绕过几项安全措施的新iPhone操作系统。 /201602/427466

HONG KONG — China is Volkswagen’s single-largest market, and the company vies with General Motors as the country’s biggest automaker. But Volkswagen’s diesel scandal is unlikely to have many repercussions in China.香港——中国是大众汽车(Volkswagen)的最大市场,此外它还在和通用汽车(General Motors)争夺该国最大汽车制造商的地位。但它的柴油丑闻可能不会在这里产生太大影响。That is because Volkswagen sells almost no diesel cars in China — fewer than 1,000 of the three million or so the company sells each year in the country, where gasoline engines reign.这是因为大众在中国销售的车型中几乎没有柴油车——公司每年在中国销售300万辆车,其中不到1000辆是柴油动力;汽油动力汽车是在中国占据绝对优势。It is not for lack of trying on Volkswagen’s part.这并不是因为大众没有尝试过销售柴油车。The company, hoping to replicate its success elsewhere as a diesel leader, lobbied Beijing for the better part of a decade to let it build diesel-powered cars in China. But regulators in China, which imports more than half of its oil, have repeatedly rebuffed those pleas — partly over environmental concerns and partly because the government has preferred to reserve relatively scarce diesel fuel for trucks and farm tractors.为了把作为柴油动力领先者的成功复制到中国来,大众在北京游说了好几年,希望能在中国生产柴油动力车。但在中国,一半以上的石油都是进口的,大众的恳求在监管部门那里屡屡碰壁——部分是环境问题,部分是因为政府想把相对稀缺的柴油留给卡车和农用拖拉机使用。As a result, the only diesel-powered cars Volkswagen sells in China are imported from Europe and are sold mainly to taxi fleets.因此,大众在中国销售的柴油动力车全部都从欧洲进口,主要出售给出租车公司。The environmental concerns have been raised by Chinese regulators who were in frequent contact with American experts, notably at the International Council on Clean Transportation, a nonprofit research group. The council is the same group that documented the performance shortfalls of Volkswagen diesels in the ed States and brought the matter to the Environmental Protection Agency.中国监管部门对柴油动力车相关的环境问题很关心,他们与美国专家频繁接触,尤其是国际清洁交通委员会(International Council on Clean Transportation)的专家。这是一个非营利性的研究机构,正是他们将大众汽车柴油发动机性能不足的问题记录下来,报告给了美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)。American researchers have long been more worried than European experts that diesel emissions might be carcinogenic. In addition, diesel exhaust tends to have more particulates than gasoline engine emissions. Particulates are a big health concern in dusty northern China, and they add to the notoriously bad air pollution in Beijing itself.与欧洲的专家们相比,美国研究人员长期以来更担心的是柴油车排放物致癌的可能性。此外,柴油机废气中的颗粒物通常多于汽油发动机。而在中国北方尘沙天气中,颗粒物是一大健康问题,导致了北京本身就严重的空气污染进一步恶化。Making matters worse is that, until fairly recently, many Chinese refineries lacked the technology to remove much of the naturally occurring sulfur contaminants when they produced diesel from crude oil. The resulting high pollution when diesel was burned as truck fuel made regulators wary of allowing the nation’s fast-growing car fleet to burn diesel as well.更糟糕的是,直至最近,中国的很多炼油厂在从原油中提取柴油时,缺少将自然产生的硫污染物除去的技术。结果便是柴油作为卡车燃料燃烧时产生大量污染,导致监管机构不敢轻易让全国增长最快的小汽车也使用柴油。Another predicament in China for Volkswagen involves Chinese consumers. The car-buying public has long been skeptical of diesels, associating them with tractors and viewing them as unsophisticated. Company executives had long expressed confidence, though, that they could change these perceptions with an energetic advertising and public relations effort — if only they could win permission to mass-produce diesels in China.在中国,大众面临的另一个困难涉及中国消费者。购车者长期对柴油持怀疑态度,会把它和拖拉机联系起来,认为这种车比较低级。但大众的高管一直表示,只要能获准在中国大量生产柴油车,他们有信心通过有力的广告和公关活动来改变这些观念。Diesels have long offered a trade off — higher air pollution, even with cleanly refined diesel, but also better fuel economy. Europe is a market that highly prizes fuel economy, with some of the world’s most stringent gas mileage standards. China and the ed States have somewhat less stringent mileage standards, although they can still be hard for automakers to meet if they produce a lot of big cars and sport utility vehicles. As a European automaker, Volkswagen developed a lot of expertise in building fuel-efficient diesels and started its Chinese diesel lobbying efforts around 2000.很长一段时间以来,柴油车一直是一种权衡的产物。它带来的空气污染更严重,哪怕用的是清洁提炼的柴油,但它的燃油效率也更高。欧洲市场高度重视节燃油经济性,部分油效标准是全世界最严格的。中国和美国的油效标准多少没那么严格,但既便如此,对大量生产大型车辆和运动型多功能车的汽车生产商来说,要达到这些标准也还是有困难的。作为一家欧洲汽车生产商,大众积累了大量生产节能柴油车的专业知识,并在2000年前后开始在中国展开游说行动。Since 2008 or so, though, Volkswagen executives have pushed less hard for Chinese diesels. That may be because they began manufacturing expensive but fuel-efficient models of gasoline engines in China. This enabled the company to meet Chinese fuel-economy standards without needing to resort to diesel engines.但从2008年左右以来,大众高管在中国推销柴油车的力度减弱了。这可能是因为它们开始在中国生产昂贵但却节能的汽油发动机车辆。这让该公司能够不用求助于柴油发动机便达到中国的节油标准。And those three million cars a year it sells in China indicate that the company is still finding buyers, even with the more expensive engines.在中国年销量达300万辆的事实表明,该公司的产品依然有买主,尽管用的是更昂贵的发动机。“After 2008, they did not have a strong motive to promote diesel,” said Yale Zhang, the managing director of Automotive Foresight, a Shanghai consulting firm.“2008年以后,他们已经没有特别强烈的理由去推销柴油车了,”上海咨询公司“汽车市场预测”总监张豫说。 /201509/400280

ON a reporting expedition to Los Angeles recently, I realized I could stop renting cars.在一次前往洛杉矶做报道的过程中,我意识到自己可以不用租车了。I would never again have to brave the L.A. freeway behind the wheel. I would never have to obsess, like the characters in the “Saturday Night Live” skit, “The Californians,” about taking the 101 to the 110 and Canyon View Drive over to San Vincente to the 10, then switching over to the 405 North and getting dumped out onto Mulholland.我永远无需再勇敢地在洛杉矶的高速公路驾车行驶了。我永远无需再像《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)短剧《加州人》(The Californians)中的角色那样,迷恋于从101道开到110道和峡谷景观道,到圣文森特,再到10道,然后转入405北道,再到穆赫兰下车了。I had Uber.因为我有了优步(Uber)。Even in the land of movie stars, you could feel like a movie star when your Uber chauffeur rolled up. Standing in front of the Sunset Tower Hotel, I tapped my Uber app and saw five little cars swarming around my location. But, suddenly, they scattered in the opposite direction. I stood in the driveway, perplexed. Finally, a car pulled up, and the driver waved me in.在电影明星的地界,当你的优步司机开车过来时,你也会觉得自己有点像个电影明星。站在日落塔酒店(Sunset Tower Hotel)的门前,我点了点优步应用,看到五辆车围在附近。但是,突然间,他们向相反的方向四散而去。我站在车道上,茫然不知所措。最后终于有辆车停下了,司机挥手让我上车。“Do you know why no one wanted to pick you up?” he asked. “Because you have a low rating.”“你知道为什么没人愿意载你吗?”他问道。“因为你的星级有点低。”(Uber drivers see your rating once they accept the request and then can cancel.)(优步司机在接受你的请求后可以看到你的星级,然后可以取消单子。)I was shocked. Blinded by the wondrous handiness of Uber, I had missed the fact that while I got to rate them, they got to rate me back.我万分震惊。我只看到了优步神奇的便捷性,竟没有留意我在给他们打分的同时,他们其实也在给我打分。Revealing that I had only 4.2 stars, my driver continued to school me. “You don’t always come out right away,” he said, sternly, adding that I would have to work hard to be more appealing if I wanted to get drivers to pick me up.结果我只有4.2星,这位司机向我解释说。“你有时候没有立刻出来上车,”他严肃地表示,说我必须努力,变得更有吸引力一些,才会有司机愿意载我。Uber began to feel less like a dependable employee and more like an irritated boyfriend.我开始觉得优步不那么像是一个可靠的雇员,而更像是一个不耐烦的男朋友了。I know Uber has the image of an obnoxious digital robber baron, a company that plays dirty tricks and proves that convenience “makes hypocrites of us all,” as John Naughton put it in The Guardian, noting that its very name has connotations of Nietzschean superiority. (Travis Kalanick, the C.E.O., coined the word “Boob-er” to describe his greater appeal to women because of his success.)我知道,优步的形象如同一个令人讨厌的数字大盗,不时玩弄卑鄙的花招。正如约翰·诺顿(John Naughton)在《卫报》(The Guardian)上所说,它明了便捷性“让我们所有人都成了伪君子”,而它的名字带有一种尼采式的高人一等的含义。(公司首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克[Travis Kalanick]用“妞步”[Boob-er]这个词来吹嘘自己因为获得成功而对女性拥有了更大的吸引力。)But it is a boon for women out on their own — unless you get a driver who harasses you and knows where you live. (After a driver allegedly raped a New Delhi passenger in December, Uber introduced an in-app emergency button in India.)不过,这个务本身对女性是一个福音——除非有司机骚扰你,又知道你住在哪里。(去年12月有名新德里司机被指强奸乘客,之后优步在印度版的应用中添加了一个紧急按钮。)What I had loved about Uber was that, unlike in every other aspect of my high-tech world, I didn’t feel judged. My worth wasn’t being measured by clicks, likes, hits, views, retweets, hashtags, Snaps, thumbs-up or repins.我喜欢优步,因为它和我使用的其他所有高科技务有一个不同之处,那就是我觉得不会遭到评判。在它那里,我的价值不是由点击、赞、敲击、观看、转推、标签、SnapChat讯息、顶或Pinterest转发来衡量的。Except then I learned that sitting in an Uber car was pretty much like sitting in my office: How much have you developed your audience? How much have you been shared? How much have you engaged your er? Are you trending?结果我发现,坐在一辆优步专车里其实类似于坐在办公室里:你培养了多少受众?你有多少内容获得了分享?你的读者参与度高吗?你上热门榜了吗?I was trending on Uber, all right, and not in a good way. I had avoided Lyft not only because of that pink mustache but because I had heard that you were encouraged to sit up front with drivers and give them fist-bumps. It seemed more like The Flintstones’ car than Cinderella’s pumpkin coach.我倒是在优步上红了,但不是因为什么好事。我一直对Lyft敬而远之,不仅是因为那撇粉红色的胡子,也因为我听说,它鼓励乘客坐在副驾驶的位置上,和司机碰拳。它似乎更像《登原始人》(The Flintstones)的车,而不是灰姑娘的南瓜车。But, now, instead of quietly sitting in the back seat of my Uber and checking my phone or ing the paper, I had to start working to charm.但是现在,我不能安静地坐在优步专车的后座里查看手机或浏览报纸。我必须开始努力套近乎了。“Your husband likes oysters?” I enthused to one woman driving me in San Francisco.“你老公喜欢牡蛎吗?”我热情地问旧金山的一位女司机。“What are the kids up to this summer?” I chirped to another.“你的孩子们今年夏天有什么打算呀?”我欢快地与另一个司机聊。It was starting to have the vibe of friending, liking and sharing on Facebook, and that always gives me acid flashbacks to the ’80s when I was forced to go to my brother’s house and watch slides of his wedding. Finally, my nephew explained that I didn’t need to grovel or gush. I simply needed to say, as I got out of the car, “Five for five.” If I promised to give them five stars — even in the Wild West of Uber X, where the drivers often seem so unfamiliar with the local terrain it’s as though they’ve arrived from Mars — they would give me five stars.这有一种在Facebook上加朋友、点赞和分享的感觉,并总是让我回想起80年代被迫去兄弟家观看他的婚礼幻灯片的难受情景。最后,我的侄子解释,我并不需要讨好司机或表现得很热情,而是只需要在下车的时候来句“互打五星吧”。也就是说,如果我答应给他们打五颗星——就算是闯入了Uber X这样的蛮荒之地,体验到司机往往对当地路况一无所知,好像他们是从火星来的——他们就会给我打五星。Bribery. Lies. Cover-up. My Uber app turns out to have all the usual Washington vices.贿赂、谎言、包庇。到头来,我的优步应用染上了华盛顿常见的所有恶习。An article in Business Insider advised giving an extra cash tip and not passing gas if you want a five-star rating. Enough passengers throw up that there’s an official policy. (A fine between and 0.)“商业内幕”(Business Insider)网站有篇文章奉劝大家,如果想获得五星,最好给司机一点额外的现金小费,并且不要在车里放屁。有不少乘客在车里呕吐,以至于公司特地制定了这方面的规定(赔偿在50到200美元之间)。Coming from a family of Irish maids, I had been looking forward to the concierge democracy, where we could all be masters of Downton Abbey, butled by drones and summoning staff by just touching our smartphones.由于来自爱尔兰女佣家庭,我一直期待着杂役的民主化。到那时,我们就都会成为《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)中的主人,由无人驾驶飞机侍,通过轻点智能手机来使唤人。As The Wall Street Journal recently reported, “There’s an Uber for everything now. Washio is for having someone do your laundry, Sprig and SpoonRocket cook your dinner and Shyp will mail things out so you don’t have to brave the post office. Zeel delivers a massage therapist (complete with table). Heal sends a doctor on a house call, while Saucey will rush over alcohol. And by Jeeves — cutesy names are part of the schtick — Dufl will pack your suitcase and Eaze will reup a medical marijuana supply.”正如《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)近日所述,“每个领域现在都有一个优步。你可以用Washio找人帮你洗衣,用Sprig和SpoonRocket找人帮你做饭,通过Shyp来邮寄东西,这样你就不必亲自去和邮局打交道。你可以用Zeel叫治疗师(自带桌),用Heal叫出诊医生,用Saucey让人送来酒水。通过Jeeves——讨喜的名字也是其噱头的组成部分——Dufl会帮你收拾手提箱,Eaze则会补充你的医用大麻。”There is also Luxe, which uses GPS to offer a personal parking valet dressed in a blue uniform who will meet you at your destination and park your car for you.还有Luxe,可以通过GPS提供一名身着蓝色制的私人务生,在目的地等着你,为你泊车。But they’ll no doubt all have mutually insured destruction rating systems, too, so Saucey will reveal how politely I grab my bottle of Grey Goose.但是,毫无疑问,这些务全都拥有双向评级系统,所以Saucey上的评分可以体现我接过灰雁伏特加(Grey Goose)的时候有多么礼貌。I’ve only yanked my rating up a tenth of a point in the last two weeks. I’m hoping Uber’s self-driving cars will like me more. But somehow I think the robots will be even more judgy.过去两周里,我的优步星级只提升了0.1。我希望优步的无人驾驶汽车会更喜欢我。但不知何故,我觉得机器评判起人来只会更加冷酷无情。 /201505/377702


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