海宁市人民医院美容整形科赶集网

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月23日 23:10:50
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And a lot of the time the question of parenthood is,父母常常面对的问题是what do we validate in our children,孩子在哪些方面值得肯定and what do we cure in them?哪些方面需要治愈?Jim Sinclair, a prominent autism activist, said,有名的自闭症专家,吉姆·辛克莱说,;When parents say I wish my child did not have autism,;当父母说 我希望我的孩子没有自闭症,what theyre really saying is I wish the child I have did not exist他们真正的意思是我希望我的孩子并不存在and I had a different, non-autistic child instead.而希望有一个没有自闭症的孩子.Read that again. This is what we hear when you mourn over our existence.听仔细了,当你们抱怨我们的存在,我们听到的就是这个意思This is what we hear when you pray for a cure --你们祈祷奇迹出现的时候,我们听到的是that your fondest wish for us你们衷心希望is that someday we will cease to be总有一天我们将不复存在and strangers you can love will move in behind our faces.;和我们长着相同面孔的陌生人将会取代我们,得到你们所有的爱Its a very extreme point of view,这是一个非常极端的观点,but it points to the reality that people engage with the life they have但它指出了一个现实,人们有自己的生活and they dont want to be cured or changed or eliminated.他们不想要被治愈,或改变或消灭They want to be whoever it is that theyve come to be.他们希望,不管是谁,都能保有与生俱来的天性One of the families I interviewed for this project为了这个项目,我采访了迪伦科莱柏德的家庭was the family of Dylan Klebold who was one of the perpetrators of the Columbine massacre.迪伦柯莱柏德是,哥伦拜恩校园惨案的罪犯之一It took a long time to persuade them to talk to me,我花了很长的时间,说他们跟我对话and once they agreed, they were so full of their story他们同意了,有太多的故事that they couldnt stop telling it.一开口就无法停下来And the first weekend I spent with them -- the first of many --我第一次和他们共度周末,后来还有许多次I recorded more than 20 hours of conversation.我录了20多个小时的谈话内容And on Sunday night, we were all exhausted.到了周日晚上,大家都精疲力竭We were sitting in the kitchen. Sue Klebold was fixing dinner.我们坐在厨房里,苏在做晚饭And I said, ;If Dylan were here now,我说,;如果现在,迪伦还在这里do you have a sense of what youd want to ask him?;你们想要问他些什么?;And his father said, ;I sure do.他的父亲说,;当然Id want to ask him what the hell he thought he was doing.;我想问问他,究竟为什么这样做;。And Sue looked at the floor, and she thought for a minute.苏望着地板,思考了一会儿And then she looked back up and said,然后抬起头来说,;I would ask him to forgive me for being his mother“我会请他原谅,我不是合格的好母亲and never knowing what was going on inside his head.;从来不知道他的脑袋里,想的是些什么”When I had dinner with her a couple of years later --几年后,我再度与她吃晚餐one of many dinners that we had together --那是我们曾经许多共同的晚餐之一she said, ;You know, when it first happened,她说,;你知道,当事情发生的时候I used to wish that I had never married, that I had never had children.我曾经希望我没有结过婚,也没有孩子If I hadnt gone to Ohio State and crossed paths with Tom,如果我没有到俄亥俄州立大学,没遇见汤姆this child wouldnt have existed and this terrible thing wouldnt have happened.这个孩子就不会存在,这可怕的惨案就不会发生But Ive come to feel that I love the children I had so much但我觉得我太爱孩子们了that I dont want to imagine a life without them.我不愿想象没有他们的生活I recognize the pain they caused to others, for which there can be no forgiveness,我承认他们对其他人造成的痛苦,是不可饶恕的but the pain they caused to me, there is,; she said.但我能宽恕他们对我造成的痛苦。;她说;So while I recognize that it would have been better for the world;所以虽然我承认,如果迪伦未曾出现在这个世界上if Dylan had never been born,世界会更美好Ive decided that it would not have been better for me.;但我认为那样对我并非更有好处I thought it was surprising how all of these families had all of these children with all of these problems,令人惊讶的是,这些家庭有这么多子女教育的问题problems that they mostly would have done anything to avoid,这些问题又是他们,常常不惜代价去避免的and that they had all found so much meaning in that experience of parenting.但她们都发现养儿育女的经验,很有意义And then I thought, all of us who have children然后我想,我们这些有孩子的人love the children we have, with their flaws.不管孩子如何,我们都疼爱无比If some glorious angel suddenly descended through my living room ceiling如果带着光环的天使,突然从客厅天花板降落and offered to take away the children I have提议要带走我的孩子and give me other, better children -- more polite, funnier, nicer, smarter --还给我一个更好的孩子,更有礼貌,风趣,友善,聪明I would cling to the children I have and pray away that atrocious spectacle.我会紧抓住我自己的孩子,祈祷残忍地事情不要发生And ultimately I feel我最终明白that in the same way that we test flame-retardant pajamas in an inferno就如同我们在火焰中测试防火睡衣to ensure they wont catch fire when our child reaches across the stove,以确保孩子手伸到炉子上时不会着火so these stories of families negotiating these extreme differences这些处理特殊情况的家庭的故事reflect on the universal experience of parenting,反映了普世的育儿经验which is always that sometimes you look at your child and you think,有时候你看着孩子,心里想where did you come from?你从哪里来?It turns out that while each of these individual differences is siloed --尽管他们各自面对不同的境况there are only so many families dealing with schizophrenia,只有一些家庭有精神分裂症患者there are only so many families of children who are transgender,只有一些家庭的孩子做了变性手术there are only so many families of prodigies --只有一些家庭出现神童who also face similar challenges in many ways --在许多方面也面临着相似的挑战there are only so many families in each of those categories --每个类别也仅有一些家庭but if you start to think但如果你开始思考that the experience of negotiating difference within your family那些处理家人间分歧的经验is what people are addressing,是出现在每个人生活中的then you discover that its a nearly universal phenomenon.然后你发现这是一个普遍的现象Ironically, it turns out, that its our differences, and our negotiation of difference,讽刺的是,事实明,正是我们的不同和我们协商彼此的不同that unite us.将我们连结起来I decided to have children while I was working on this project.当我做这个项目的时候,我决定要孩子And many people were astonished and said,很多人对此感到惊奇;But how can you decide to have children;你怎么能做出要孩子的决定in the midst of studying everything that can go wrong?;当你的研究是关于不如意的,且只进行到一半?;And I said, ;Im not studying everything that can go wrong.我说,;我研究的不是那些不如意What Im studying is how much love there can be,我研究的是,有多少爱可以给予even when everything appears to be going wrong.;甚至当一切似乎,都是个错误的情况下;。201505/376674

We started talking about slavery, and really,我们聊起了奴隶制度,I started learning about slavery,而此时我才开始真正了解奴役的现实,for I had certainly known it existed in the world,虽然我一直都知道世上奴隶制尚存,but not to such a degree.但完全不知道事态的严重性。After we finished talking, I felt so horrible and honestly ashamed at my own lack of knowledge of this atrocity in my own lifetime, and I thought,在我们的谈话结束后,我感觉非常的糟糕并且为自己对这样残暴的现象缺乏认知感觉到惭愧,if I dont know, how many other people dont know?我不知道,还有多少人也一样不知道?It started burning a hole in my stomach, so within weeks,这个想法让我坐立难安,I flew down to Los Angeles to meet with the director of Free the Slaves and offer them my help.几周后我就飞去了洛杉矶去见Free The Slaves组织的负责人,想要有所作为。Thus began my journey into modern day slavery.由此开始了我深入现代奴隶制度的旅程。Oddly, I had been to many of these places before.奇怪的是,那些地方我都去过。Some I even considered like my second home.有的我还把他们当成是我的第二故乡。But this time, I would see the skeletons hidden in the closet.但是这一次,我要去挖掘那些见不得光的秘密。A conservative estimate tells us there are more than 27 million people enslaved in the world today.据保守估计当今全世界有超过2700万人被奴役。Thats double the amount of people taken from Africa during the entire trans-Atlantic slave trade.这个数字是在跨大西洋奴隶贸易中从非洲被贩卖的黑奴总数的两倍。A hundred and fifty years ago, an agricultural slave cost about three times the annual salary of an American worker.150年前,一个农奴的价格抵得上美国一名普通工人年薪的三倍。That equates to about ,000 in todays money.相当于今天的5万美金。Yet today, entire families can be enslaved for generations over a debt as small as .但是在今天,一整个家庭被世代奴役的代价可能就只有18美金的欠债。Astonishingly, slavery generates profits of more than billion worldwide each year.让人震惊的是,奴隶在全球产生的利润每年超过130亿美金。201509/401607

  Encounter one: Ocean City, New Jersey, 1980.遭遇一: 1980年,新泽西的欧欣城.This was the summer when the special edition of那是个夏天,正好赶上《第三类接触》的;Close Encounters of the Third Kind; was released.特别版发布.And I went on vacation with my parents to the Jersey shore.我和父母一起去新泽西的滨海度假.Within 12 hours, I was horribly sunburned,我在12个小时内被严重的晒伤,just like Richard Dreyfuss in the movie.严重的就像电影里的Richard Dreyfuss.And so I spent the rest of the vacation所以我剩余的假期,largely sitting outside our little rental house at night,基本上只能在晚上坐在我们租来的小房子外面,the sidewalk still warm from the sun,享受人行道残存的太阳余温,watching the skies for UFOs.寻找着天空的不明飞行物.What did I see? Stars, satellites,我都是看到了什么?星星,人造卫星,blinking airplanes -- typical sky junk.闪砾的飞机 --典型的天空垃圾.Occasionally, kids would come and小朋友们偶尔会过来,join me and watch,加入我一起观察,but their necks soon got sore, and they would go off to the boardwalk他们的脖子很快就酸了,所以他们离开人行道to play games and mingle with humans.去玩游戏机或找别人玩.I was pretty good at the games. I was not very good at the other part,我曾很擅长游戏机.但我不擅长别的,so I stayed alone with the cosmos.所以我还是一个人跟宇宙呆着吧.And thats when it happened.就是在这时发生的,An elderly couple came walking down the street.一对老夫妇在街上溜达.I would say they were in their late seventies,我觉得他们有七十多了,and I would say that they were on a date,还觉得他们在约会,because he was wearing a very neat little suit因为他穿着很整洁的套装with a yellow tie -- a brown suit.棕色套装里还打着黄领带.And she was wearing a cardigan, because it was now fully night因为并不是深夜,女士穿了一件羊毛上衣,and a chill was coming in off the ocean.凉风从海面上吹过来.I remember, for some reason,我记得,出于某种原因,that they were exactly the same height.他们身高相同.And then they stopped, and the man turned to me然后他们停住了,这个男人转向身and said,问我,;What are you looking for,;你在看什么呢?;flying saucers?;;飞碟?;You have to admit, thats a pretty boss piece of detective work你不得不承认,这个老男人在约会时for an old man on a date.非常像一名侦探.But what was stranger still --但还有很奇怪的是 --and even I realized it at the time,我意识到了在那个时间,as a nine-year-old child --作为一个九岁的小孩 --was that they stopped at all.他们停下来That this old man would interrupt his moonlight stroll这个老男人在跟他女朋友在月光下停下来with his sweetheart with the precise reason用一个准确的问题of making fun of a child.去跟一个小孩看玩笑.;Oh,; he said,;哦.; 他说,;little green men.;;小绅士.;And then his girlfriend joined in, too.这时,他女朋友也加入进来.;Theres no such thing as space men,; she said.;外星人根本不存在,; 她说.;Theres no such thing.;;没那种东西.;And then they both laughed. ;Ha, ha, ha.;然后他们同时哈哈一笑.I looked around.我环顾四周.The street was entirely empty.街道已经全空了.I had stopped hearing the sound of the ocean.我听不到大海的声音.It was as though time had stopped.仿佛时间停止了.I did not know why they were teasing me.我不知道他们为什么逗我.I looked into their strangely angry faces,我观察他们陌生的脸孔,and I remember wondering,并且我感觉很奇怪are they wearing rubber masks?他们是不是带的橡胶面具?And what would be behind those rubber masks, if they were?躲在面具后面的是什么?Giant, almond-shaped, unblinking eyes?他们是不是有一双巨大的,一眨不眨的杏仁一样的双眼?Slits for mouths?裂缝一样的嘴巴?The old man crooked his finger as though he were firing a gun,这个做了一个开的手势,and then he made laser sounds.并且他发出激光的声音,;Kew, kew, kew --咻,咻,咻--watch out.;;小心!;And they turned at once and walked away.然后他们转身接着散步.The old man reached out那个老男人伸出his knobbly claw他年迈粗糙的手for the womans hand,拉住女人的手,and found it, and left me alone.然后留下我一个人.Now, you could describe this as a simple misunderstanding --现在,你可以把这个当成一次简单的误会 --a strange encounter among humans.一个人类之间的奇怪的邂逅.Maybe it was swamp gas, but --也许它只是浮云,但是 --I know what I saw.我知道我看到了什么.201506/381122

  Hi everybody.嗨,大家好。Right now, the ed States Senate is debating a bipartisan, commonsense bill that would be an important step toward fixing our broken immigration system.现在美国的参议院正在就一项代表两党的普遍法案进行讨论。而这一法案是走向修补我们不完善移民体系的重要一步。Its a bill that would continue to strengthen security at our borders,这一法案将继续加强我们的边界安全,and hold employers more accountable if they knowingly hire undocumented workers, 使雇主们了解如果在雇佣没有合法文件的工人时更负责任,so they wont have an unfair advantage over businesses that follow the law.这样他们就不会再具有和遵纪守法的企业相比的不公平优势。Its a bill that would modernize the legal immigration system so that,as we train American workers for the jobs of tomorrow,这一法案将使我们为了明天的工作职位在培训美国工人们时的移民法律体系现代化,we re also attracting the highly skilled entrepreneurs and engineers who grow our economy for everyone.我们还能吸引具有娴熟技术的企业家和工程师们来发展我们的经济造福每个人。Its a bill that would provide a pathway to earned citizenship for the 11 million individuals who are in this country illegally,这一法案将为1100万居住在我国的没有合法文件的个人提供获得公民权的途径,a pathway that includes passing a background check, learning English,而这一途径包括通过背景审查,学习英语,paying taxes and a penalty,缴付税款和罚款,then going to the back of the line behind everyone trying to come here legally.然后等候在希望合法进入我国的每个人之后。And, a few days ago, a report from the Congressional Budget Office definitively showed that this bipartisan,而就在几天前一份来自国会预算委员会的报告清楚表明这一代表两党的普遍法案,commonsense bill will help the middle class grow our economy and shrink our deficits, by making sure that every worker in America plays by the same set of rules and pays taxes like everyone else.它将通过保每一个在美国工作的工人遵守相同法案并且和他人一样付相同的税负帮助中产阶级发展我们的经济,减少我们的赤字。According to this independent report, reforming our immigration system would reduce our deficits by almost a trillion dollars over the next two decades.按照这份独立的报告,改善我们的移民体系将使我们的赤字在未来的20年里减少近万亿美元。And it will boost our economy by more than 5 percent, in part because of businesses created, investments made, and technologies invented by immigrants.它将使我们的经济发展增加5个百分点,部分是由于移民的创业、投资和技术发明所带来的。This comes on the heels of another report from the independent office that monitors Social Securitys finances, which says that this immigration bill would actually strengthen the long-term health and solvency of Social Security for future generations.而来自另一份负责监管社保财政状况的独立委员会的报告表明这一移民法案将为我们的子孙后代加强社保的长期的健康发展及付能力。Because with this bill, millions of additional people will start paying more in taxes for things like Social Security and education.因为有了这一法案,几百万人将开始付更多用于社保和教育的税款。That ll make the economy fairer for middle-class families.这将使经济对中产阶级家庭而言更为公平。So thats what comprehensive immigration reform looks like.这就是综合的移民体系改革的概况。Stronger enforcement.更为强力的执法,A smarter legal immigration system.更为明智的移民法律体系,A pathway to earned citizenship.一条获得公民权的途径。A more vibrant, growing economy thats fairer on the middle class.一种对于中产阶级更加公平,充满活力,持续发展的经济。And a more stable fiscal future for our kids.而且对我们的孩子们而言是更加稳定的财政未来。Now, the bill isnt perfect.然而现在,这个法案还不够完善。Its a compromise.它是一种妥协。Nobody is going to get everything they want-not Democrats, not Republicans, not me.没有一方获得他们希望的一切—民主党人没有,共和党人没有,我也没有。But it s consistent with the principles that I and others have laid out for commonsense reform.它符合我和其他人为这个常识性改革勾画的原则。Thats why Republicans and Democrats, CEOs and labor leaders, are saying that now is the time to pass this bill.这就是为什么共和党人和民主党人们,CEO们和劳工领导人们都表示现在正是通过这一法案的时机。If you agree with us, reach out to your Senators and Representatives.如果你们赞同我们,那么请联系你们的参议员和众议员。Tell them that the time for excuses is over;告诉他们没有时间找借口;its time to fix our broken immigration system once and for all.现在是永久地修补我们的破损的移民体系的时候了。We can do this, because we are a nation of laws and a nation of immigrants;我们可以实现这些,因为我们是一个法治国家,移民国家;a place enriched by the contributions of people from all over the world, and stronger for it.一个世界各地人们富裕的乐土,并且因此而更加强大。Thats been the story of America from the start.美国历史的一开始就是如此。Lets keep it going.让我们继续下去。Thanks, and have a great weekend.谢谢大家,祝你们周末愉快! 201306/245723。

  Hold on to your lily white butts!把你们的白屁股坐好了!In our fast-changing world, traditions like the White House Correspondents dinner are important.在这个瞬息万变的世界,白宫记者晚宴这种传统是很重要的。I mean, really!我是说,真的吗!What is this dinner?这晚宴是个啥玩意儿?And why am I required to come to it?为啥我被要求参加?Jeb Bush, do you really want to do this!杰布·布什,你真愿意做这个么!Because despite our differences, we count on the press to shed light on the most important issues of the day.因为,摒弃前嫌,我们依靠媒体来报道日常大事。And we can count on Fox News to terrify old white people with some nonsense!...我们可以指望福克斯新闻用一些胡说八道来恐吓白人老人!...That was ridiculous.这太扯淡了。We wont always see eye to eye.我们的观点不可能总能达成一致。And, CNN, thank you so much for the wall-to-wall Ebola coverage.CNN,十分谢谢你们铺天盖地的埃拉病毒报道。For two whole weeks, we were one step away from “The Walking Dead.”整整两个礼拜,我们差点儿就可以成为行尸走肉了。Then y all got up and just moved on to the next day.然后你们又起床开始了新的一天。That was awesome.这很棒。Oh, and by the way, if you havent noticed, you dont have Ebola!但是顺便说一句,你们可能没发现,你们根本都没感染埃拉好嘛!But I still deeply appreciate the work that you do.但是我依旧很感谢你们所做的一切。Y all remember when I had that big old hole in the bottom of the gulf of Mexico, and then I plugged it?你们还记得墨西哥湾海底泄漏么?是我给堵上的!Remember that?记得那个吗?Which Obamas Katrina was that one?那个是第几次奥巴马卡特里娜飓风?Was that 19 or was it 20, because I cant remember.是第19还是20次,我不记得了。Protecting our democracy is more important than ever.捍卫我们的民主比以往任何时候都重要。For example, the Supreme Court ruled that the donor who gave Ted Cruz million was just exercising free speech.例如,最高法院裁定,捐助了泰德·克鲁斯600万美元只是行使言论自由。Yes, its the kind of speech like this, I just wasted million.这话的意思就是,我只是浪费了600万美元。And its not just Republicans.这不仅限于共和党人。Hillary will have to raise huge sums of money too.希拉里也将不得不筹集大量的资金。Aw yeah, shes going to get that money!欧耶,她会得到钱的!Shes going to get all the money!她将得到所有的钱!Khaleesi is coming to Westeros!卡利熙来到维斯特洛了!Watch out! Woo!小心!喔!The non-stop focus on billionaire donors creates real problems for our democracy.对亿万富翁捐助者无休止的关注为我们的民主创建带来了真正的问题。And thats why were running for our third term!这就是我们为何要竞选第三届的原因!No, were not.不,我们没有。Were not?我们没有吗?No.没有。Who the hell said that!刚刚是哪个煞笔说的!But we need to focus on big challenges like climate changes.不过我们需要关注像气候变化一样的大挑战。Hey, folks, if you havent noticed, California is bone dry.嘿,筒子们,如果你们注意到了的话,加州已经干透了。It looks like a trailer for the new “Mad Max” movie up in there.那里看起来简直像一部《疯狂的麦克斯》电影的新预告片。You all think that Bradley Cooper came here because he wants to talk to Chuck Todd?你们都认为布拉德利·库珀来到这里,是因为他想跟查克·托德谈天说地?He needed a glass of water!他需要的是一杯水!Come on.来吧。201512/416978

  Mr Jobs, yeah, you drawn as print, thats high-tech weve. Use your finger. Just point in the air...乔总,你可以用演示器,我们这儿也是有高科技的。What weve done is we bought this land right here. We try to buy the apartments at the corner but they are not for sale,我们买下这块地,本来还想买这初拐角,可对方不卖,so we couldnt buy those. And we bought everything else. And the campus we like to build there is one building holds 12,000 people.我们又不能强拆,所以只得放弃。我们打算在园区里建一栋楼,容纳12000人。And it is pretty amazing building. Let me show it to you. Its a little like a spaceship landed, there it is, and its got this gorgeous courtyard in the middle, but a lot more.听起来很炫,看起来更炫。华丽吧! 像不像太空飞船?中间还有个大院子,还不止呢。So lets take a close look at it. Its a circle. Its curved all the way around. If you build things, this is not the cheapest way to build something.让我们凑近了看,办公室的外观是个圆环。体形优美,造价不菲,There is not a straight piece of glass in this building. Its all curved.所有的玻璃都是弧形的线条。Weve used our experience making retail buildings all over the world now, and we know how to make the biggest pieces of glass in the world for architectural use.我们建造苹果零售店的经验派上用场了。硕大的弧形玻璃难不倒我们。We can make it curve all the way around the building. And you can see what it look like. It is pretty cool.让玻璃墙绕场一周。是不是很酷。Again, today, about 20% of the space is landscaping, several big asphalt parking lots. So 20% of this is landscape, we want to completely change this.目前整个园区只有20%的绿化,浪费了不少地方。我们想来一次乾坤大挪移。And we want to make 80% of landscape, and the way were gonna do this is were gonna put most of the parking underground.把停车场统统发配到地下,让绿化面积从20%暴增到80%。So we can have 80% of landscape, and you can see what weve in mind. I mean there is nothing like this in the property now. Its pretty bad.目的不言而喻,我们课不想像别的园区那样被人诟病。Today there are 3700 trees on the property wed like to just almost double that.目前园区里有3700棵树,未来会翻一倍。Weve hired one of the senior arborists from Stanford actually who is very good with indigenous trees around this area.我们聘请斯坦福的园林设计师来设计园区。So wed like to plant a lot of trees including some apricot orchards. Again you can see what it might be like.除了杏树,还会种其他植物。这是建成后的样子。This is some of the infrastructure. The main building, we have parking underneath the main building. Thats not enough unfortunately.这是我们的主楼,设有地下停车场。We have a parking structure here as well. The buildings four stories high as is the parking structure. Theres nothing high here at all.可惜地下停车场不够用,所以我们另设了一处停车点。We want the whole place human scale. Its actually about the same as we have in Cupertino right now..新办公楼是一座四层圆形建筑,中间有一个大庭院。天大厦我不感冒,我喜欢矮建筑。An energy center. We deal with - people using, sitting at computers all day writing software. And if the power goes out on the grid we get to send everybody home.保持和Cupertino现有建筑的高度一致。 我们的工作要对着电脑一刻不停的写程序,所以正常的工作离不开能源中心。要是没电,大家只能回家洗了睡。201412/349709Most people think that to speak at Yales commencement, you have to be President.But over the years, the specifications have become far more demanding.Now you have to be a Yale graduate, you have to be President, and you have had to have lost the Yale vote to Ralph Nader.很多人认为,只有总统才能在耶鲁大学的毕业典礼上发表演讲。但近几年条件却更加严格。演讲人必须是美国总统,是耶鲁大学校友,而且他在总统选举中在耶鲁大学所在投票区里得到的票数要少于拉尔夫·纳德。This is my first time back here in quite a while. Im sure that each of you will make your own journey back at least a few times in your life. If youre like me, you wont remember everything you did here. That can be a good thing. But there will be some people, and some moments, you will never forget.这是我毕业这么长时间以来第一次回到母校。我也相信你们每个人会在毕业以后至少回来几次。当你们像我这么老的时候,你们会不记得在这里做过的每一件事情。这或许是一件好事。不过,一些人,一些事你永远也不会忘记。Take, for example, my old classmate, Dick Brodhead, the accomplished dean of this great university. I remember him as a young scholar, a bright lad a hard worker. We both put a lot of time in at the Sterling Library, in the ing room, where they have those big leather couches. We had a mutual understanding—Dick wouldnt aloud, and I wouldnt snore.就拿我的老同学狄克·布罗德黑德来说,如今他是这所伟大的学校的杰出校长,他读书时的聪明、好学与刻苦至今让我记忆犹新。那时,我们经常泡在图书馆那个有着大皮沙发的阅读室里。我们之间有个默契:他不大声朗读课文,我睡觉时不打呼噜。Our course selections were different, as we followed our own path to academic discovery. Dick was an English major, and loved the classics. I loved history, and pursued a diversified course of study. I like to think of it as the academic road less traveled.后来,随着学术探索的领域不同,我们选修的课程也各不相同。狄克主修英语,酷爱古典文学,而我主修历史,喜欢多样化的学习过程。我喜欢把这种学习过程想成是少有人走过的学术之路。For example, I took a class that studied Japanese Haiku. Haiku, for the uninitiated, is a 15th century form of poetry, each poem having 17 syllables. Haiku is fully understood only by the Zen masters.有趣的是,我选修过日本俳句,对门外汉来说,俳句是15世纪日本的一种诗歌形式,每首诗只有17个音节,我想其意义只有禅学大师才能明了。 /201303/229700

  I love games.我爱Im also slightly in awe of them.也对它抱有些许敬畏Im in awe of their power我敬畏它们in terms of imagination, in terms of technology, in terms of concept.想象力,技术,概念方面的力量But I think, above all,但是最重要的是Im in awe at their power to motivate, to compel us, to transfix us,我所敬畏它们能够激励着,迫使着我们,让我们目瞪口呆,like really nothing else weve ever invented has quite done before.这是人类其它发明所不能企及的。And I think that we can learn some pretty amazing things我们从观察玩by looking at how we do this.中学到一些非常了不起的东西And in particular, I think we can learn things about learning.特别是,我想我们能学习关于学习的本质Now the games industry现在产业is far and away the fastest growing of all modern media.超速发展,远远领先于所有现代媒体From about 10 billion in 1990,从1990年代的大约100亿美元its worth 50 billion dollars globally today,到今天在全球范围内值500亿美元and it shows no sign of slowing down.它没有显示出放缓的迹象In four years time,在未来的四年里its estimated itll be worth over 80 billion dollars.据估计它的价值会超过800亿美元Thats about three times the recorded music industry.这大约是唱片行业的三倍This is pretty stunning,真的很惊人but I dont think its the most telling statistic of all.但我不认为这就是所有统计数据中最据说力的The thing that really amazes me is that, today,最使我惊讶的就是,今天people spend about eight billion real dollars a year人们每年花费大约80亿美元现金buying virtual items that only exist inside games.用于购买仅存于里的虚拟iTunes务This is a screenshot from the virtual game world, Entropia Universe.这是一个虚拟游戏世界的截图,来自《安特罗皮亚世界》Earlier this year,今年的早些时候a virtual asteroid in it sold for 330,000 real dollars.在里面一个虚拟的小行星卖到了33万美元现金And this is a Titan class ship in the space game, EVE Online.这是是一艘泰坦级的宇宙飞船来自太空游戏《星战前夜Online》And this virtual object takes 200 real people这个虚拟的物体需要200个真人about 56 days of real time to build,大约56个天建成plus countless thousands of hours of effort before that.还加上此前无数成千小时的前期工作And yet, many of these get built.类似这样被造出的还有很多At the other end of the scale,而另一方面the game Farmville that you may well have heard of,游戏《虚拟农场》,你也许早有耳闻has 70 million players around the world在全世界范围内拥有700亿玩家and most of these players are playing it almost every day.玩家中的绝大多数几乎每天都在玩This may all sound really quite alarming to some people,这也许听起来对一些人来说,这是一个很令人警惕的an index of something worrying or wrong in society.令人担忧的社会问题的象征But were here for the good news,但我们在这里讨论一些好消息and the good news is好消息就是that I think we can explore why this very real human effort,我们可以去探索为什么这种真实的人类劳动this very intense generation of value, is occurring.这么巨大的价值的创造会得以出现And by answering that question,借回答这个问题I think we can take something extremely powerful away.我觉得我们可以从中得到极其强大的信息。And I think the most interesting way我想最有趣的方式to think about how all this is going on is in terms of rewards.思考这些问题的角度就是奖赏。And specifically, its in terms of the very intense emotional rewards更具体来说,就是非常密集的情感奖赏,that playing games offers to people通过玩游戏提供给人们,both individually and collectively.既是个人的,也有集体的。Now if we look at whats going on in someones head如果我们观察一下某人的大脑,when they are being engaged, two quite different processes are occurring.当他们忙碌时是怎样运作的,两个相当不同的进程同时发生着。201511/410387As you probably know, the neurotransmitter associated with learning is called dopamine.你知道,神经递质伴随学习产生的神经递质叫做多巴胺。Its associated with reward-seeking behavior.它与寻找奖励的行为相关联And something very exciting is just beginning to happen有些非常激动人心的事要开始发生在in places like the University of Bristol in the U.K.,像英国布里斯托尔大学这样的地方where we are beginning to be able to model mathematically dopamine levels in the brain.那里我们开始能用数学模型模拟大脑中多巴胺的水平And what this means is we can predict learning,这意味着我们能够预测学习过程we can predict enhanced engagement,我们能预测加强型活动these windows, these windows of time, in which the learning is taking place at an enhanced level.这些机会期,这段时间学习的过程在其中一个更高的水平上进行And two things really flow from this.随之而来的是两样东西The first has to do with memory, that we can find these moments.首先一定是关于记忆我们能发现这些时候When someone is more likely to remember, we can give them a nugget in a window.当一些人更容易记忆时,我们可以给他们提供机会期这一宝贵的资源And the second thing is confidence, that we can see how game-playing and reward structures第二样东西是自信,我们能看见游戏的运行和奖励结构make people braver, make them more willing to take risks,如何使人更勇敢,让他们更愿意去冒险more willing to take on difficulty, harder to discourage.更愿意承担困难,更难被打击This can all seem very sinister.这些都看来好像很险恶But you know, sort of ;our brains have been manipulated; were all addicts.;但你知道,有些“我们的大脑被控制了,我们都沉迷了”的说法The word ;addiction; is thrown around.沉迷这个字眼总萦绕周围There are real concerns there.那有些真正的忧虑But the biggest neurological turn-on for people is other people.但激发人类神经的最大因素是他人This is what really excites us.这才是真正让我们兴奋的In reward terms, its not money;在奖励方面,不是金钱its not being given cash--thats nice--不是获得现金--那也不错--its doing stuff with our peers, watching us, collaborating with us.而是与我们的同伴一起共事,看着我们,与我们合作And I want to tell you a quick story about 1999 -- a game called EverQuest.我想说一个小故事,在1999年--有一个游戏名为《无尽的任务》And in this game, there were two really big dragons,在这个游戏中有两条巨大的龙,and you had to team up to kill them--42 people, up to 42 to kill these big dragons.而你需要组建起队伍去屠戮它们--42人--总共42人去屠龙Thats a problem because they dropped two or three decent items.那是个问题,因为他们落下了两到三个合适的项目So players addressed this problem所以玩家为了设法解决这个问题by spontaneously coming up with a system to motivate each other, fairly and transparently.自发地形成了一个系统,公平地,公开地,激励彼此What happened was, they paid each other a virtual currency they called ;dragon kill points.;事情是这样的,他们相互偿付一种虚拟的货币,他们称之为弑龙点And every time you turned up to go on a mission, you got paid in dragon kill points.每次你出现去进行一项任务,你被得到弑龙点数作为报酬They tracked these on a separate website.他们在另一个网站上对此进行追踪So they tracked their own private currency,所以玩家们能搜索自己私人的货币and then players could bid afterwards于是他们可以在此之后竞价for cool items they wanted -- all organized by the players themselves.以获得他们想要的东西--这些所有都由玩家自己安排Now the staggering system, not just that this worked in EverQuest,现在这个惊人的系统已经不只是像《无尽的任务》那样了but that today, a decade on,在今天,十年之后every single game in the world with this kind of task uses a version of this system -- tens of millions of people.每个具有这种任务的单机游戏,使用这样一个版本的系统--依靠成千上万的人And the success rate is at close to 100 percent.而成功率接近百分之百This is a player-developed, self-enforcing, voluntary currency,这是基于玩家开发的,自我实施的,自愿的货币and its incredibly sophisticated player behavior.这真是难以置信的复杂的玩家行为And I just want to end by suggesting a few ways in which these principles could fan out into the world.作为结束,我想提出一些方法使得这些原则可以在引入真实的世界Lets start with business.我将从商业开始I mean, were beginning to see some of the big problems我的意思是,我们开始看见一些难题around something like business are recycling and energy conservation.围绕在,比如商业回收和能源保护的周围Were beginning to see the emergence of wonderful technologies like real-time energy meters.我们开始看见对优秀技术的亟待需求,比如实时能源表201511/411662

  Madam President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, faculty, family, friends, and, most importantly, todays graduates,尊敬的Faust校长,哈佛集团的各位成员,监管理事会的各位理事,各位老师,各位家长,各位朋友,以及最重要的各位毕业生同学,Thank you for letting me share this wonderful day with you.感谢你们,让我有机会同你们一起分享这个美妙的日子。I am not sure I can live up to the high standards of Harvard Commencement speakers. Last year, J.K. Rowling, the billionaire novelist, who started as a classics student, graced this podium. The year before, Bill Gates, the mega-billionaire philanthropist and computer nerd stood here. Today, sadly, you have me. I am not wealthy, but at least I am a nerd.我不太肯定,自己够得上哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲人这样的殊荣。去年登上这个讲台的是,英国亿万身家的小说家J.K. Rowling女士,她最早是一个古典文学的学生。前年站在这里的是比尔#8226;盖茨先生,他是一个超级富翁、一个慈善家和电脑高手。今年很遗憾,你们的演讲人是我,虽然我不是很有钱,但是至少我也算一个高手。I am grateful to receive an honorary degree from Harvard, an honor that means more to me than you might care to imagine. You see, I was the academic black sheep of my family. My older brother has an M.D./Ph.D. from MIT and Harvard while my younger brother has a law degree from Harvard. When I was awarded a Nobel Prize, I thought my mother would be satisfied. Not so. When I called her on the morning of the announcement, she replied, ;Thats nice, but when are you going to visit me next.; Now, as the last brother with a degree from Harvard, maybe, at last, she will be satisfied.我很感激哈佛大学给我荣誉学位,这对我很重要,也许比你们会想到的还要重要。要知道,在学术上,我是我们家的不肖之子。我的哥哥在麻省理工学院得到医学士,在哈佛大学得到哲学士;我的弟弟在哈佛大学得到一个法律学位。我本人得到诺贝尔奖的时候,我想我的妈妈会高兴。但是,我错了。消息公布的那天早上,我给她打电话,她听了只说:;这是好消息,不过我想知道,你下次什么时候来看我?;如今在我们兄弟当中,我最终也拿到了哈佛学位,我想这一次,她会感到满意。Another difficulty with giving a Harvard commencement address is that some of you may disapprove of the fact that I have borrowed material from previous speeches. I ask that you forgive me for two reasons.在哈佛大学毕业典礼上发表演讲,还有一个难处,那就是你们中有些人可能有意见,不喜欢我重复前人演讲中说过的话。我要求你们谅解我,因为两个理由。First, in order to have impact, it is important to deliver the same message more than once. In science, it is important to be the first person to make a discovery, but it is even more important to be the last person to make that discovery.首先,为了产生影响力,很重要的方法就是重复传递同样的信息。在科学中,第一个发现者是重要的,但是在得到公认前,最后一个将这个发现重复做出来的人也许更重要。Second, authors who borrow from others are following in the footsteps of the best. Ralph Waldo Emerson, who graduated from Harvard at the age of 18, noted ;All my best thoughts were stolen by the ancients.; Picasso declared ;Good artists borrow. Great artists steal.; Why should commencement speakers be held to a higher standard?其次,一个借鉴他人的作者,正走在一条前人开辟的最佳道路上。哈佛大学毕业生、诗人爱默生曾经写下:;古人把我最好的一些思想都偷走了。;画家毕加索宣称;优秀的艺术家借鉴,伟大的艺术家偷窃。;那么为什么毕业典礼的演说者,就不适用同样的标准呢?I also want to point out the irony of speaking to graduates of an institution that would have rejected me, had I the chutzpah to apply. I am married to ;Dean Jean,; the former dean of admissions at Stanford. She assures me that she would have rejected me, if given the chance. When I showed her a draft of this speech, she objected strongly to my use of the word ;rejected.; She never rejected applicants; her letters stated that ;we are unable to offer you admission.; I have difficulty understanding the difference. After all, deans of admissions of highly selective schools are in reality, ;deans of rejection.; Clearly, I have a lot to learn about marketing.我还要指出一点,向哈佛毕业生发表演说,对我来说是有讽刺意味的,因为如果当年我斗胆向哈佛大学递交入学申请,一定会被拒绝。我的妻子Jean当过斯坦福大学的招生主任,她向我保,如果当年我申请斯坦福大学,她会拒绝我。我把这篇演讲的草稿给她过目,她强烈反对我使用;拒绝;这个词,她从来不拒绝任何申请者。在拒绝信中,她总是写:;我们无法提供你入学机会。;我分不清两者到底有何差别。在我看来,那些大热门学校的招生主任与其称为;准许你入学的主任;,还不如称为;拒绝你入学的主任;。很显然,我需要好好学学怎么来推销自己。My address will follow the classical sonata form of commencement addresses. The first movement, just presented, were light-hearted remarks. This next movement consists of unsolicited advice, which is rarely valued, seldom remembered, never followed. As Oscar Wilde said, ;The only thing to do with good advice is to pass it on. It is never of any use to oneself.; So, here comes the advice. First, every time you celebrate an achievement, be thankful to those who made it possible. Thank your parents and friends who supported you, thank your professors who were inspirational, and especially thank the other professors whose less-than-brilliant lectures forced you to teach yourself. Going forward, the ability to teach yourself is the hallmark of a great liberal arts education and will be the key to your success. To your fellow students who have added immeasurably to your education during those late night discussions, hug them. Also, of course, thank Harvard. Should you forget, theres an alumni association to remind you. Second, in your future life, cultivate a generous spirit. In all negotiations, dont bargain for the last, little advantage. Leave the change on the table. In your collaborations, always remember that ;credit; is not a conserved quantity. In a successful collaboration, everybody gets 90 percent of the credit.毕业典礼演讲都遵循古典奏鸣曲的结构,我的演讲也不例外。刚才是第一乐章----轻快的闲谈。接下来的第二乐章是送上门的忠告。这样的忠告很少被重视,几乎注定被忘记,永远不会被实践。但是,就像王尔德说的:;对于忠告,你所能做的,就是把它送给别人,因为它对你没有任何用处。;所以,下面就是我的忠告。第一,取得成就的时候,不要忘记前人。要感谢你的父母和持你的朋友,要感谢那些启发过你的教授,尤其要感谢那些上不好课的教授,因为他们迫使你自学。从长远看,自学能力是优秀的文理教育中必不可少的,将成为你成功的关键。你还要去拥抱你的同学,感谢他们同你进行过的许多次彻夜长谈,这为你的教育带来了无法衡量的价值。当然,你还要感谢哈佛大学。不过即使你忘了这一点,校友会也会来提醒你。第二,在你们未来的人生中,做一个慷慨大方的人。在任何谈判中,都把最后一点点利益留给对方。不要把桌上的钱都拿走。在合作中,要牢记荣誉不是一个守恒的量。成功合作的任何一方,都应获得全部荣誉的90%。Jimmy Stewart, as Elwood P. Dowd in the movie ;Harvey; got it exactly right. He said: ;Years ago my mother used to say to me, In this world, Elwood, you must be ... she always used to call me Elwood ... in this world, Elwood, you must be oh so smart or oh so pleasant.; Well, for years I was smart. ... I recommend pleasant. You may e me on that.电影《Harvey》中,Jimmy Stewart扮演的角色Elwood P. Dowd,就完全理解这一点。他说:;多年前,母亲曾经对我说,Elwood,活在这个世界上,你要么做一个聪明人,要么做一个好人。;我做聪明人,已经做了好多年了。......但是,我推荐你们做好人。你们可以引用我这句话。My third piece of advice is as follows: As you begin this new stage of your lives, follow your passion. If you dont have a passion, dont be satisfied until you find one. Life is too short to go through it without caring deeply about something. When I was your age, I was incredibly single-minded in my goal to be a physicist. After college, I spent eight years as a graduate student and postdoc at Berkeley, and then nine years at Bell Labs. During that my time, my central focus and professional joy was physics.我的第三个忠告是,当你开始生活的新阶段时,请跟随你的爱好。如果你没有爱好,就去找,找不到就不罢休。生命太短暂,如果想有所成,你必须对某样东西倾注你的深情。我在你们这个年龄,是超级的一根筋,我的目标就是非成为物理学家不可。本科毕业后,我在加州大学伯克利分校又待了8年,读完了研究生,做完了士后,然后去贝尔实验室待了9年。在这些年中,我关注的中心和职业上的全部乐趣,都来自物理学。Here is my final piece of advice. Pursuing a personal passion is important, but it should not be your only goal. When you are old and gray, and look back on your life, you will want to be proud of what you have done. The source of that pride wont be the things you have acquired or the recognition you have received. It will be the lives you have touched and the difference you have made.我还有最后一个忠告,就是说兴趣爱好固然重要,但是你不应该只考虑兴趣爱好。当你白发苍苍、垂垂老矣、回首人生时,你需要为自己做过的事感到自豪。你的物质生活和得到的承认,都不会产生自豪。只有那些你出手相助、被你改变过的人和事,才会让你产生自豪。After nine years at Bell labs, I decided to leave that warm, cozy ivory tower for what I considered to be the ;real world,; a university. Bell Labs, to e what was said about Mary Poppins, was ;practically perfect in every way,; but I wanted to leave behind something more than scientific articles. I wanted to teach and give birth to my own set of scientific children.在贝尔实验室待了9年后,我决定离开这个温暖舒适的象牙塔,走进我眼中的;真实世界;——大学。我对贝尔实验室的看法,就像别人形容电影Mary Poppins的话,;实际上完美无缺;。但是,我想为世界留下更多的东西,不只是科学论文。我要去教书,培育我自己在科学上的后代。Ted Geballe, a friend and distinguished colleague of mine at Stanford, who also went from Berkeley to Bell Labs to Stanford years earlier, described our motives best:我在斯坦福大学有一个好友兼杰出同事Ted Geballe。他也是从伯克利分校去了贝尔实验室,几年前又离开贝尔实验室去了斯坦福大学。他对我们的动机做出了最佳描述:;The best part of working at a university is the students. They come in fresh, enthusiastic, open to ideas, unscarred by the battles of life. They dont realize it, but theyre the recipients of the best our society can offer. If a mind is ever free to be creative, thats the time. They come in believing textbooks are authoritative, but eventually they figure out that textbooks and professors dont know everything, and then they start to think on their own. Then, I begin learning from them.;;在大学工作,最大的优点就是学生。他们生机勃勃,充满热情,思想自由,还没被生活的重压改变。虽然他们自己没有意识到,但是他们是这个社会中你能找到的最佳受众。如果生命中曾经有过思想自由和充满创造力的时期,那么那个时期就是你在读大学。进校时,学生们对课本上的一字一句毫不怀疑,渐渐地,他们发现课本和教授并不是无所不知的,于是他们开始独立思考。从那时起,就是我开始向他们学习了。;My students, post doctoral fellows, and the young researchers who worked with me at Bell Labs, Stanford, and Berkeley have been extraordinary. Over 30 former group members are now professors, many at the best research institutions in the world, including Harvard. I have learned much from them. Even now, in rare moments on weekends, the remaining members of my biophysics group meet with me in the ether world of cyberspace.我教过的学生、带过的士后、合作过的年轻同事,都非常优秀。他们中有30多人,现在已经是教授了。他们所在的研究机构有不少是全世界第一流的,其中就包括哈佛大学。我从他们身上学到了很多东西。即使现在,我偶尔还会周末上网,向现在还从事生物物理学研究的学生请教。I began teaching with the idea of giving back; I received more than I gave. This brings me to the final movement of this speech. It begins with a story about an extraordinary scientific discovery and a new dilemma that it poses. Its a call to arms and about making a difference.我怀着回报社会的想法,开始了教学生涯。我的一生中,得到的多于我付出的,所以我要回报社会。这就引出了这次演讲的最后一个乐章。首先我要讲一个了不起的科学发现,以及由此带来的新挑战。它是一个战斗的号令,到了做出改变的时候了。In the last several decades, our climate has been changing. Climate change is not new: the Earth went through six ice ages in the past 600,000 years. However, recent measurements show that the climate has begun to change rapidly. The size of the North Polar Ice Cap in the month of September is only half the size it was a mere 50 years ago. The sea level which been rising since direct measurements began in 1870 at a rate that is now five times faster than it was at the beginning of recorded measurements. Heres the remarkable scientific discovery. For the first time in human history, science is now making predictions of how our actions will affect the world 50 and 100 years from now. These changes are due to an increase in carbon dioxide put into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The Earth has warmed up by roughly 0.8 degrees Celsius since the beginning of the Revolution. There is aly approximately a 1 degree rise built into the system, even if we stop all greenhouse gas emissions today. Why? It will take decades to warm up the deep oceans before the temperature reaches a new equilibrium.过去几十年中,我们的气候一直在发生变化。气候变化并不是现在才有的,过去60万年中就发生了6次冰河期。但是,现在的测量表明气候变化加速了。北极冰盖在9月份的大小,只相当于50年前的一半。1870年起,人们开始测量海平面上升的速度,现在的速度是那时的5倍。一个重大的科学发现就这样产生了。科学第一次在人类历史上,预测出我们的行为对50—100年后的世界有何影响。这些变化的原因是,从工业革命开始,人类排放到大气中的二氧化碳增加 了。这使得地球的平均气温上升了0.8摄氏度。即使我们立刻停止所有温室气体的排放,气温仍然将比过去上升大约1度。因为在气温达到均衡前,海水温度的上升将持续几十年。If the world continues on a business-as-usual path, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that there is a fifty-fifty chance the temperature will exceed 5 degrees by the end of this century. This increase may not sound like much, but let me remind you that during the last ice age, the world was only 6 degrees colder. During this time, most of Canada and the ed States down to Ohio and Pennsylvania were covered year round by a glacier. A world 5 degrees warmer will be very different. The change will be so rapid that many species, including Humans, will have a hard time adapting. Ive been told for example, that, in a much warmer world, insects were bigger. I wonder if this thing buzzing around is a precursor.如果全世界保持现在的经济模式不变,联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)预测,本世纪末将有50%的可能,气温至少上升5度。这听起来好像不多,但是让我来提醒你,上一次的冰河期,地球的气温也仅仅只下降了6度。那时,俄亥俄州和宾夕法尼亚州以北的大部分美国和加拿大的土地,都终年被冰川覆盖。气温上升5度的地球,将是一个非常不同的地球。由于变化来得太快,包括人类在内的许多生物,都将很难适应。比如,有人告诉我,在更温暖的环境中,昆虫的个头将变大。我不知道现在身旁嗡嗡叫的这只大苍蝇,是不是就是前兆。We also face the specter of nonlinear ;tipping points; that may cause much more severe changes. An example of a tipping point is the thawing of the permafrost. The permafrost contains immense amounts of frozen organic matter that have been accumulating for millennia. If the soil melts, microbes will spring to life and cause this debris to rot. The difference in biological activity below freezing and above freezing is something we are all familiar with. Frozen food remains edible for a very long time in the freezer, but once thawed, it spoils quickly. How much methane and carbon dioxide might be released from the rotting permafrost? If even a fraction of the carbon is released, it could be greater than all the greenhouse gases we have released to since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Once started, a runaway effect could occur.我们还面临另一个幽灵,那就是非线性的;气候引爆点;,这会带来许多严重得多的变化。;气候引爆点;的一个例子就是永久冻土层的融化。永久冻土层经 过千万年的累积形成,其中包含了巨量的冻僵的有机物。如果冻土融化,微生物就将广泛繁殖,使得冻土层中的有机物快速腐烂。冷冻后的生物和冷冻前的生物,它 们在生物学特性上的差异,我们都很熟悉。在冷库中,冷冻食品在经过长时间保存后,依然可以食用。但是,一旦解冻,食品很快就腐烂了。一个腐烂的永久冻土层,将释放出多少甲烷和二氧化碳?即使只有一部分的碳被释放出来,可能也比我们从工业革命开始释放出来的所有温室气体还要多。这种事情一旦发生,局势就失控了。The climate problem is the unintended consequence of our success. We depend on fossil energy to keep our homes warm in the winter, cool in the summer, and lit at night; we use it to travel across town and across continents. Energy is a fundamental reason for the prosperity we enjoy, and we will not surrender this prosperity. The ed States has 3 percent of the world population, and yet, we consume 25 percent of the energy. By contrast, there are 1.6 billion people who dont have access to electricity. Hundreds of millions of people still cook with twigs or dung. The life we enjoy may not be within the reach of the developing world, but it is within sight, and they want what we have.气候问题是我们的经济发展在无意中带来的后果。我们太依赖化石能源,冬天取暖,夏天制冷,夜间照明,长途旅行,环球观光。能源是经济繁荣的基础,我 们不可能放弃经济繁荣。美国人口占全世界的3%,但是我们消耗全世界25%的能源。与此形成对照,全世界还有16亿人没有电,数亿人依靠燃烧树枝和动物粪便来煮饭。发展中国家的人民享受不到我们的生活,但是他们都看在眼里,他们渴望拥有我们拥有的东西。Here is the dilemma. How much are we willing to invest, as a world society, to mitigate the consequences of climate change that will not be realized for at least 100 years? Deeply rooted in all cultures, is the notion of generational responsibility. Parents work hard so that their children will have a better life. Climate change will affect the entire world, but our natural focus is on the welfare of our immediate families. Can we, as a world society, meet our responsibility to future generations?这就是新的挑战。全世界作为一个整体,我们到底愿意付出多少,来缓和气候变化?这种付出至少在100年内,都不会有明显效果。代际责任深深植根于所有文化中。家长努力工作,为了让他们的孩子有更好的生活。气候变化将影响整个世界,但是我们的天性使得我们只关心个人家庭的福利。我们能不能把全世界看作一个整体?能不能为未来的人们承担起责任?While I am worried, I am hopeful we will solve this problem. I became the director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in part because I wanted to enlist some of the best scientific minds to help battle against climate change. I was there only four and a half years, the shortest serving director in the 78-year history of the Lab, but when I left, a number of very exciting energy institutes at the Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley had been established.虽然我忧心忡忡,但是还是对未来抱乐观态度,这个问题将会得到解决。我同意出任劳伦斯-伯克利国家实验室主任,部分原因是我想招募一些世界上最好的科学家,来研究气候变化的对策。我在那里干了4年半,是这个实验室78年的历史中,任期最短的主任,但是当我离任时,在伯克利实验室和伯克利分校,一些非常激动人心的能源研究机构已经建立起来了。I am extremely privileged to be part of the Obama administration. If there ever was a time to help steer America and the world towards a path of sustainable energy, now is the time. The message the President is delivering is not one of doom and gloom, but of optimism and opportunity. I share this optimism. The task ahead is daunting, but we can and will succeed.能够成为奥巴马施政团队的一员,我感到极其荣幸。如果有一个时机,可以引导美国和全世界走上可持续能源的道路,那么这个时机就是现在。总统已经发出 信息,未来并非在劫难逃,而是乐观的,我们依然有机会。我也抱有这种乐观主义。我们面前的任务令人生畏,但是我们能够并且将会成功。We know some of the answers aly. There are immediate and significant savings in energy efficiency and conservation. Energy efficiency is not just low-hanging fruit; it is fruit lying on the ground. For example, we have the potential to make buildings 80 percent more efficient with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 15 years. Buildings consume 40 percent of the energy we use, and a transition to energy efficient buildings will cut our carbon emissions by one-third.我们已经有了一些,可以立竿见影地节约能源和提高能源使用效率。它们不是挂在枝头的水果,而是已经成熟掉在地上了,就看我们愿不愿意捡起来。比 如,我们有办法将楼宇的耗电减少80%,增加的投资在15年内就可以收回来。楼宇的耗电占我们能源消费的40%,节能楼宇的推广将使我们二氧化碳的释放减 少三分之一。We are revving up the remarkable American innovation machine that will be the basis of a new American prosperity. We will invent much improved methods to harness the sun, the wind, nuclear power, and capture and sequester the carbon dioxide emitted from our power plants. Advanced bio-fuels and the electrification of personal vehicles make us less dependent on foreign oil.我们正在加速美国这座巨大的创新机器,这将是下一次美国大繁荣的基础。我们将大量投资有效利用太阳能、风能、核能的新方法,大量投资能够捕获和隔离电厂废气中的二氧化碳的方法。先进的生物燃料和电力汽车将使得我们不再那么依赖外国的石油。In the coming decades, we will almost certainly face higher oil prices and be in a carbon-constrained economy. We have the opportunity to lead in development of a new, industrial revolution. The great hockey player, Wayne Gretzky, when asked, how he positions himself on the ice, he replied,; I skate to where the puck is going to be, not where its been.; America should do the same.在未来的几十年中,我们几乎肯定会面对更高的油价和更严厉的二氧化碳限制排放政策。这是一场新的工业革命,美国有机会充当领导者。伟大的冰上曲棍球选手Wayne Gretzky被问到,他如何在冰上跑位,回答说:;我滑向球下一步的位置,而不是它现在的位置。;美国也应该这样做。The Obama administration is laying a new foundation for a prosperous and sustainable energy future, but we dont have all of the answers. Thats where you come in. In this address, I am asking you, the Harvard graduates, to join us. As our future intellectual leaders, take the time to learn more about whats at stake, and then act on that knowledge. As future scientists and engineers, I ask you to give us better technology solutions. As future economists and political scientists, I ask you to create better policy options. As future business leaders, I ask that you make sustainability an integral part of your business.奥巴马政府正在为美国的繁荣和可持续能源,打下新的基础。但是我们无法为所有问题都找到。这就需要你们的参与。在本次演讲中,我请求在座各位哈佛毕业生加入我们。你们是我们未来的智力领袖,请花时间加深理解目前的危险局势,然后采取相应的行动。你们是未来的科学家和工程师,我要求你们给我们更好的技术方案。你们是未来的经济学家和政治学家,我要求你们创造更好的政策选择。你们是未来的企业家,我要求你们将可持续发展作为你们业务中不可分割的一部分。Finally, as humanists, I ask that you speak to our common humanity. One of the cruelest ironies about climate change is that the ones who will be hurt the most are the most innocent: the worlds poorest and those yet to be born.最后,你们是人道主义者,我要求你们为了人道主义说话。气候变化带来的最残酷的讽刺之一,就是最受伤害的人,恰恰就是最无辜的人----那些世界上最穷的人们和那些还没有出生的人。The coda to this last movement is borrowed from two humanists.这个最后乐章的完结部是引用两个人道主义者的话。The first e is from Martin Luther King. He spoke on ending the war in Vietnam in 1967, but his message seems so fitting for todays climate crisis:第一段引语来自马丁#8226;路德#8226;金。这是1967年他对越南战争结束的,但是看上去非常适合用来今天的气候危机。;This call for a worldwide fellowship that lifts neighborly concern beyond ones tribe, race, class, and nation is in reality a call for an all-embracing and unconditional love for all mankind. This oft misunderstood, this oft misinterpreted concept, so ily dismissed by the Nietzsches of the world as a weak and cowardly force, has now become an absolute necessity for the survival of man ... We are now faced with the fact, my friends, that tomorrow is today. We are confronted with the fierce urgency of now. In this unfolding conundrum of life and history, there is such a thing as being too late.;;我呼吁全世界的人们团结一心,抛弃种族、肤色、阶级、国籍的隔阂;我呼吁包罗一切、无条件的对全人类的爱。你会因此遭受误解和误读,信奉尼采哲学的世人会认定你是一个软弱和胆怯的懦夫。但是,这是人类存在下去的绝对必需。......我的朋友,眼前的事实就是,明天就是今天。此刻,我们面临最紧急的情况。在变幻莫测的生活和历史之中,有一样东西叫做悔之晚矣。;The final message is from William Faulkner. On December 10th, 1950, his Nobel Prize banquet speech was about the role of humanists in a world facing potential nuclear holocaust.第二段引语来自威廉#8226;福克纳。1950年12月10月,他在诺贝尔奖获奖晚宴上发表演说,谈到了世界在核战争的阴影之下,人道主义者应该扮演什么样的角色。;I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance. The poets, the writers, duty is to write about these things. It is his privilege to help man endure by lifting his heart, by reminding him of the courage and honor and hope and pride and compassion and pity and sacrifice which have been the glory of his past.;;我相信人类不仅能忍耐,而且会获胜。人类是不朽的,这不是因为万物当中仅仅他会无穷尽的呼喊,而是因为他有一个灵魂,有同情心、牺牲精神和忍耐力。诗人和作家的责任就是写这些东西。他们的特权正是通过鼓舞人类,唤起人类原有的荣耀----勇气、荣誉、希望、自尊、怜悯之心和牺牲精神,去帮助人类学会忍耐。;Graduates, you have an extraordinary role to play in our future. As you pursue your private passions, I hope you will also develop a passion and a voice to help the world in ways both large and small. Nothing will give you greater satisfaction.各位毕业生同学,你们在我们的未来中扮演举足轻重的角色。当你们追求个人的志向时,我希望你们也会发扬奉献精神,积极发声,在大大小小各个方面帮助改进这个世界。这会给你们带来最大的满足感。Please accept my warmest congratulations. May you prosper, may you help preserve and save our planet for your children, and all future children of the world.最后,请接受我最热烈的祝贺。希望你们成功,也希望你们保护和拯救我们这个星球,为了你们的孩子,以及未来所有的孩子。201308/252221

  So this is just one experiment that we published a few years ago,where a monkey, without moving its body,learned to control the movements of an avatar arm,a virtual arm that doesnt exist. 那么这只是我们几年前发表的一个实验,一只猴子,无需动自己的身体,学会控制一个机械手臂,一个不存在的虚拟的手臂。What youre listening to is the sound of the brain of this monkey as it explores three different visually identical spheres in virtual space.你们听到的是这只猴子脑部的声音在虚拟空间里边探索三个视觉上相同的球体。And to get a reward, a drop of orange juice that monkeys love,this animal has to detect, select one of these objects by touching,not by seeing it, by touching it,because every time this virtual hand touches one of the objects,an electrical pulse goes back to the brain of the animal describing the fine texture of the surface of this object, so the animal can judge what is the correct object that he has to grab, and if he does that, he gets a reward without moving a muscle. 奖励就是给猴子一滴它喜欢的橙汁,这只猴子需要通过触摸来探测和选取其中一个物品,不是通过观察,而是通过触摸,因为每当虚拟手臂触摸一个物体时,一个电子脉冲就会传到猴子的脑部给这个动物描述物体表面的质地,猴子就能够判断它需要选哪个物体,如果它找到正确的物体, 他将无需动一块肌肉而得到奖赏。The perfect Brazilian lunch:完美的巴西式午餐,not moving a muscle and getting your orange juice.无需劳动而获得奖励。So as we saw this happening,we actually came and proposed the idea that we had published 15 years ago. 当我们发现这个之后,我们得出了15年前提出的观点。We reenacted this paper.我们重新起草了文章。We got it out of the drawers,and we proposed that perhaps we could get a human being that is paralyzed to actually use the brain-machine interface to regain mobility. 我们从箱子里找回这篇文章,并提出或许我们可以让一个瘫痪的人运用脑机接口重新获得运动能力。The idea was that if you suffered and that can happen to any one of us.大意就是如果你患有瘫痪,它很有可能发生到任何人身上。Let me tell you, its very sudden.我和你们说,世事无常。Its a millisecond of a collision,a car accident that transforms your life completely. 这是毫秒之差的一个事故,一次车祸就改变了你的一生。If you have a complete lesion of the spinal cord,you cannot move because your brainstorms cannot reach your muscles. 如果你的脊髓完全损伤,你无法运动因为你的脑电风暴无法 将信号发送到你的肌肉中。However, your brainstorms continue to be generated in your head.然而,你的脑电风暴不断在脑部产生。Paraplegic, quadriplegic patients dream about moving every night.截瘫,全身瘫痪的患者 每天都梦到自己又能运动四肢。They have that inside their head.他们在脑子里有这样的感觉。The problem is how to get that code out of it and make the movement be created again.问题就是我们怎么把它转码变成动作,So what we proposed was, lets create a new body.所以我们提出的是 造一个新的肢体。Lets create a robotic vest.创造一个机器背心。And thats exactly why Juliano could kick that ball just by thinking,because he was wearing the first brain-controlled robotic vest that can be used by paraplegic, quadriplegic patients to move and to regain feedback.这就是为什么Juliano能够通过想象来踢球,因为他穿着第一件脑控机器背心能够帮助截瘫,全身瘫痪的患者重新运动并且重新得到运动反馈。That was the original idea, 15 years ago.这就是15年前的想法。What Im going to show you is how 156 people from 25 countries all over the five continents of this beautiful Earth,dropped their lives, dropped their patents,dropped their dogs, wives, kids, school, jobs,and congregated to come to Brazil for 18 months to actually get this done. 我要给你们展示的是从25个国家来自这个美丽星球的五大洲的156人,放下他们的生活 离开他们的父母,宠物、妻子、儿女、功课、工作,聚集到巴西度过18个月来完成这个项目。Because a couple years after Brazil was awarded the World Cup,we heard that the Brazilian government wanted to do something meaningful in the opening ceremony in the country that reinvented and perfected soccer until we met the Germans, of course.因为在几年后巴西成功申请举办世界杯,我们听说巴西政府想在开幕式上做一些意义非凡的事情在这个重塑并完善足球的国家当然,那是在我们碰到德国人之前。But thats a different talk,and a different neuroscientist needs to talk about that. 但那又是另一个话题了,这是另一类神经学家该讨论的问题。But what Brazil wanted to do is to showcase a completely different country,但巴西想要做的是展现一个完全不一样的国家,a country that values science and technology,and can give a gift to millions, 25 million people around the world that cannot move any longer because of a spinal cord injury. 一个重视科学和技术的国家,能够为全球2500万因为脊髓受伤而无法行动的人一个礼物。Well, we went to the Brazilian government and to FIFA and proposed,well, lets have the kickoff of the 2014 World Cup be given by a Brazilian paraplegic using a brain-controlled exoskeleton that allows him to kick the ball and to feel the contact of the ball. 我们向巴西政府和国际足联提出建议,让我们邀请一个巴西截瘫患者使用一个大脑控制的骨骼康复机器人让他能接触并感受到球来为2014世界杯开球。They looked at us, thought that we were completely nuts,and said, Okay, lets try.他们像看到一群疯子一样地看着我们然后说好吧,我们来试一下。We had 18 months to do everything from zero, from scratch.我们有18个月的时间从零开始。We had no exoskeleton, we had no patients, we had nothing done.我们没有机器人,没有患者,我们什么都没有。These people came all together and in 18 months, we got eight patients in a routine of training and basically built from nothing this guy, that we call Bra-Santos Dumont 1.这些人聚集在一起并且在18个月的时间里 我们有8位患者进行日常训练基本上是从零开始,这个家伙,我们称它为Bra-Santos Dumont一号。The first brain-controlled exoskeleton to be built was named after the most famous Brazilian scientist ever,Alberto Santos Dumont,who, on October 19, 1901, created and flew himself the first controlled airship on air in Paris for a million people to see. 第一个脑控骨骼康复机器人是以巴西最著名的科学家,阿尔贝托桑托斯杜蒙来命名,他在1901年10月19号 发明并自行飞行了第一架驾驶飞艇 在巴黎上空在百万人们的注视下飞行。Sorry, my American friends,I live in North Carolina,but it was two years before the Wright Brothers flew on the coast of North Carolina. 对不起,我的美国朋友们,我住在北卡罗纳,但莱特兄弟是在两年后才在北卡的岸边成功试飞的。201503/365169。

  Let me take this second to introduce our commencement speaker请允许我介绍我们的毕业典礼演讲嘉宾It truly is a privilege to have Elon Musk join us today我们很荣幸地请到了伊隆马斯克It doesnt need much of an introduction我应该不需要太多地介绍这位客人but let me tell you a little bit about them我只简单介绍一下He grew up in South Africa他在南非长大got his degrees from Wharton毕业于沃顿商学院came to California来到加州started a company开了一家公司merged into a company被合并到另一家公司sold a company called PayPal之后他又出售了PayPal公司Some of you might use it你们有人可能在用PayPalHe then has gone on become the CEO of Tesla Motors and the CEO of SpaceX然后 他成为了特斯拉汽车公司和SpaceX的CEOAnd in his mind, he has a lot of some brilliant ideas I know他脑袋里肯定有不少新奇的想法Its truly an honored privilege to have him join us today很荣幸今天能够请来这位贵客Mr. Elon Musk有请伊隆马斯克先生201412/348683

  Within these last 19 months at least 45 satellites have circled the earth. Some 40 of them were made in the ed States of America and they were far more sophisticated and supplied far more knowledge to the people of the world than those of the Soviet Union.在过去的19个月中至少有45颗卫星进入了太空,环绕着地球。其中大约40颗有着“美国制造”的标记,它们比苏联的卫星更加精密,能为世界人民提供更多的知识。The Mariner spacecraft now on its way to Venus is the most intricate instrument in the history of space science. The accuracy of that shot is comparable to firing a missile from Cape Canaveral and dropping it in this stadium between the 40-yard lines.水手号飞船...正在飞向金星的水手号飞船是空间科学史上最复杂的装置。其精密程度比得上在卡纳维拉尔角发射一枚火箭冲击这个体育场的40码线之间。Transit satellites are helping our ships at sea to steer a safer course. Tiros satellites have given us unprecedented warnings of hurricanes and storms, and will do the same for forest fires and icebergs.海事卫星让船只的海上航行更安全,气象卫星给我们关于飓风和风暴空前的警告,它同样也能用于森林火灾和冰山的预警。We have had our failures, but so have others, even if they do not admit them. And they may be less public.我们失败过,但是别国也一样,即使他们不承认失败。而且失败可能并不是公开的。To be sure, we are behind, and will be behind for some time in manned flight. But we do not intend to stay behind, and in this decade, we shall make up and move ahead.很显然...我们落后了,并且在载人航天方面将继续落后一段时间。但是我们并不打算一直落后,在这个十年间我们将会迎头赶上。 /201306/244760

  The range of currencies included in the SDRs would have to be widened and some of the newly added currencies, which would include the renminbi, may not be fully convertible. Therefore the dollar could still reestablish itself as the preferred reserve currency, provided it is prudently managed.“特别提款权”中涵盖的货币范围也必须扩大,包括人民币在内的一些新增的货币可能不能完全自由兑换。因此,如果美元是被审慎监管的,它就仍可能被重塑成首选的储备货币。One of the great advantages of SDRs is that they allow the international creation of money. That would be particularly useful at times like the present. The money could be directed to it is most needed. That would be a great improvement over what is happening currently. A mechanism which allows rich countries that dont need additional reserves to transfer their allocations to those who need them is ily available, and has aly been used on a small scale.“特别提款权”所具有的重大优势之一是:它允许货币的国际性创造。这在当前的背景下尤其有用。货币就可以流向最需要它的地方。这将是对目前状况一个很大的改善。目前已经形成了这样一种在小规模 范围内正在应用的机制,即如果富国不需要额外储备,就可以将它们的份额让给需要的国家了。The reorganization of the prevailing world order may have to extend beyond the financial system if we are to make progress in resolving issues like global warming and nuclear proliferation. It may have to involve the ed Nations, especially membership of the Security Council.如果我们想在解决诸如全球变暖和核扩散等问题上取得进展,那么对于当前的世界秩序重组问题可能就会超出金融体系的范畴。这可能得有联合国,特别是安理会成员国的参与。The profound process needs to be initiated by the ed States, but China and other developing countries ought to participate in it as equals. They are reluctant members of the Bretton Woods institutions which are dominated by countries that are no longer dominant. The rising powers need to be present at the creation of the new order to ensile that they will be active supporters of it.这个过程需要由美国发起,但中国和其他发展中国家也应该平等参与。它们是布雷顿森林体系机构中的非积极成员,而该机构被一些已经风采不再的国家所主导。新兴国家需要参与构建新秩序,以确保它们成为积极持者。201409/332420

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