青岛哪种人流方式最好美指南

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 青岛哪种人流方式最好华生活
Microneedles微针疗法Female: From fluvaccines to tetanus boosters, injections are a must in modern medicine. But do they always have to make you say Ouch?从流感疫苗到破伤风针,注射(的方式)在现代医学中是不可或缺的。但是它们是否就一定会让你尖叫呢?Male: Eh,no?嗯,不会吗?F: No,indeed.If new microneedle technology is successful, we may soon have needles that inject medicine without your even knowing it. How does this work, you ask?真的不会!如果新的显微针技术成功了的话,我们将很快享受甚至你都不能意识到的药物注射。你快问(我)它是如何办到的?M: How does it work?它是如何办到的?F: You feel things because of the nerves that are embedded in your skin. However, the entire surface of your skin is not covered. From a microscopic viewpoint, there is plenty of space between nerves where a super-tiny needle wouldnt be felt.你有感觉是因为你皮肤里镶嵌的有神经。然而,它却没有完全覆盖你的皮肤。在显微镜下可以看到,神经之间有很多空间,而在这里人们便感受不到微型针。M: No way!不可能!F: Way! Researcher Mark Prausnitz and his coworkers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta have aly built micro-injection devices. Imagine a platform the size of your thumbnail, made of silicon, metal or glass. The surface is covered with a thousand needles, each no bigger than a period at the end of a typewritten sentence.可能!亚特兰大乔治亚理工学院的研究人员Mark Prausnitz和他的同伴们已经研制出了微型注射器具。试想它就如拇指指甲盖大小,材料是硅、金属或是玻璃。表面被一千个微型针所覆盖,每一个都还没一个句子中的句号那么大。When this chip is placed on your skin its like rolling in a briar patch—you are pierced again and again. But so small are the briars, you feel nothing. Because they cause no discomfort, microneedles may soon allow doctors to administer controlled amounts of medication over long periods of time. That would be a big step toward the precision medicine of tomorrow—and away from the big Ouch of yesterday.当这个芯片被植入到你的皮肤就仿佛是卷入到了荆棘区一样,它会一次又一次的刺你。但它是如此的小,以至于你什么都感觉不到。因为它们不会带来不适感。微型针很快就能让医生在很长时间内掌管在量上有控制的药物治疗。这对于告别以前的疼痛时代、对于将来药物治疗的精准性来说都是迈出了一大步。 /201209/202355Congress first dealt with issues of safety and health in the workplace in 1890, when legislation was passed for safety standards in coal mines. Over the next several decades, more complicated machinery and new chemicals entered the workplace yearly, posing new hazards to workers.国会第一次处理职业安全与健康的问题是在1890年,当时国会立法通过了煤矿安全标准。在接下来的几十年里,每年都有更复杂的机器和新化学物质进入工作场所,给劳动者带来了新的危害。 By the late 1960s, an estimated 14,000 workers were dying on the job each year, and over 2 million were suffering disabling injuries from work-related accidents. For years business and labor groups wrangled over the need for federal legislation.到20世纪60年代后期,据估计每年都有一万四千多名工人因工致死,还有超过两百万工人因工受伤或致残。多年来,工商界和劳动团体就联邦立法的需要一直争论不休。Opinion in Congress was deeply split over what form legislation might take, but in 1970 Congress finally approved the Occupational Safety and Health Act, which would establish the Occupational Safety and Health Agency, or ;OSHA.; OSHA quickly became one of the federal governments most disliked agencies.国会内部在确定立法形式上发生了严重分歧,但最终于1970年批准通过职业安全与健康条例,并依法成立了职业安全与健康署,即 OSHA。OSHA 很快就成为联邦政府内部最不受欢迎的部门之一。Businesses complained that they faced scores of nit-picking rules, high compliance costs, and arbitrary inspections. In response, OSHA scaled back many of its original rules, and focused its safety inspections on the most dangerous workplaces. Employment in the U.S. has more than doubled since the creation of OSHA, but during the same time period, occupational injury and illness rates declined 40 percent, and the number of workplace fatalities dropped by 60 percent.企业们抱怨他们要面对大量挑剔的规则,高昂的成本以及专制的检查。作为回应,OSHA 缩减了原有规则的数量,将安检力度集中在最危险的工作岗位上。自从 OSHA 成立以来,美国就业人数翻了一番多。与此同时,因工受伤、患病的概率下降了40%,并且因公死亡事件降低了60%。原文译文属!201211/207778Obituary;Brian Haw讣告;布莱恩·霍Brian Haw, peace campaigner, died on June 18th, aged 62布莱恩·霍——和平活动家,于六月十八日逝世,享年六十二岁When Brian Haw sat in his old canvas chair in front of his banner-hung tent in Parliament Square, people kept coming by. Tourists with their cameras. Teenagers drinking beer. Commuters on their way to work. Taxis, vans, bicycles. Bloody big black cars with lying politicians in them. Buses with passengers all on their phones or buried in their papers. Drivers who wound down the car window, not stopping, and shouted “Get a job!”国会广场上悬挂着标语的帐篷前,布莱恩·霍坐在他那老旧的帆布椅子上,过往路人川流不息。有带相机的游客,喝啤酒的少年,还有往返于工作路上的人群。的士、货车、自行车,还有说谎的政客们乘坐的超长黑色轿车都从此经过。公交车上乘客都忙着打电话或埋头于报纸。司机放下车窗,但没有停车,冲他喊道:“找份工作吧!”Wasnt that nice. But he had a job. He had it for ten years in sun, rain, sleet, snow. Never left the square. And his job was this. Get the people to wake up. Get them to realise that the USA and the UK were killing babies. Hundreds were dying every day in this place called Iraq and this place called Afghanistan. He had their photographs on his wall of shame. Bloated, pathetic, missing limbs. Sanctions were killing them. Sanctions and bombs. And especially, check out depleted uranium munitions. That poison was everywhere, in the air, in the water, even between the grains of sand. There wasnt a Hoover in the world big enough to suck up all that shit. And everyone was responsible. Everyone. Raping and pillaging and murdering the world. Just to get that stuff called oil. FOOD YES, BOMBS NO, his banners said. COLAT DAME, NO. A GENOCIDE TOO FAR. STOP KILLING MY KIDS.司机是出于好意。但他是有工作的。十年来不管是晴是雨,是霰是雪,他都坚守岗位,从未离开过广场。他的工作就是唤醒大家。让人们意识到美国和英国政府在杀害婴孩。在一个叫伊拉克和一个叫阿富汗的地方每天都有成百上千的婴孩死去。他把他们的照片贴在他的羞耻墙上。这些孩子或身体浮肿,或悲惨可怜,或缺胳膊少腿。制裁害死了他们。制裁和炸弹。特别地,看看贫铀弹的威力吧。有毒物质散发到了各个角落,空气中,水中,甚至沙土中。世界上可没有足够大的真空吸尘器能把那些毒物吸光。而且,每一个人都要负责。无一例外,人人都在榨取、掠夺地球的资源,使地球活力渐失。这一切都只是为了得到那个叫石油的东西。他的标语上书:“食物,可以,炸弹,不可以 ,蓄意破坏,不可以。这是大规模种族屠杀。停止杀害我的孩子们。”People from the whole wide world filmed him on a regular basis. They liked to photograph his old corduroy hat—more badges than hat—which said THE WAR IS THE ENEMY OF THE POOR and SUPPORT US TROOPS—BRING EM HOME! They asked him how he slept. (Badly. How would you sleep if 200 babies were dying every day?) They fussed over how he ate. (Mostly chips people brought him and coffee with five sugars. He was lean as a twig. But you know what? People in Calcutta would think he was a king to have so much pavement to live on.) They asked about the mice. They had nested in his sheepskin coat once. He was far more worried about the rats across the road.来自世界各地的人们经常拍摄他。他们喜欢拍他那顶旧灯芯绒帽子,更主要是为了拍上面的徽章,徽章上写着:战争是穷人的克星,帮助美军——让他们回家!他们问他是怎么睡觉的。(很难入眠。如果每天有200个婴孩死去,你还睡得着吗?)他们对他的饮食大为惊异。(大部分来自人们给他带的薯条和加五种糖的咖啡。他骨瘦如柴。但你知道吗?印度加尔各答市的人们会觉得他有这么宽的人行道可以住,是国王般的待遇了。)他们问老鼠怎么处理。有一次老鼠在他的羊皮大衣上做窝。相比他更担心马路对面的老鼠们。When he talked, he sounded tired. He was. Tired of the bollocks. Tired of people not taking responsibility for their inhumaneness to their fellow man. He probably smoked too much, too. Breathed in too much exhaust. Between sentences he would work his stubbly chin as if chewing on unpalatable facts. Then hed sing:他说话间透着疲倦。确实,他受够了政客的谎言。也因人们的没人性,不为自己的同胞承担责任而深感无力。也有可能是他吸烟太多,吸进了太多废气。说话间他会扬起他那胡子拉碴的下巴,似乎在沉思那些令他不快的事实。接着他会歌唱:Last night I had the strangest dream, Id ever dreamed before;昨晚我做了一个奇特无比的梦,一个从未做过的梦;I dreamed the world had all agreed, to put an end to war.我梦见世界大同,再无战争。He spoke like an evangelist, because he was one. His parents were Christian, and hed found Jesus too at Sunshine Corner beach school in Whitstable. After the merchant navy, he went missionising round Redditch in a minivan. He moved to Parliament Square in 2001 to express his Christian outrage about sanctions. Bushs and Blairs wars kept him there. He loved his neighbours kids as his own because he was a Christian. Other so-called Christians bombed them. Other “believers”, also in the square, didnt care. (WESTMINSTER ABBEY, WAKE UP!) If the people who had marched in 2003 against the Iraq war had stayed, like him, the politicians would have thought again.他说话就像一名福音传教士,因为他本来就是。他的父母都是基督教徒,呆在惠茨特布尔的阳光一角沙滩学校时他也投入了基督教门下。离开商船队以后,他驾驶一辆小型货车前往雷丁奇附近传教。2001年他来到国会广场以表达作为一名基督徒对于制裁的义愤。他留在那里是因为布什和布莱尔发起的战争。他爱其他国家的孩子就像爱自己的孩子一样,因为他是一名基督徒。而另一些所谓的基督徒则用炸弹轰炸他们。其他同样在广场上的“信徒”则漠不关心。(西敏寺,醒来吧!)如果2003年反抗伊拉克战争的游行人群像他一样坚守下去,也许政治家们会三思而后行。Police abuse粗鲁的警察His megaphone helped sp the message. ARREST GEORGE BUSH, WAR CRIMINAL! HI TONY! 45 MINUTES, MR BLAIR. MR B-L-I-A-R. They could hear him even in the Commons chamber. At first Tony Blair said good old Brian, what a champion of free speech. Yes, he was. He defended the right to free expression in front of Parliament: 350 years of peaceful protest. Some rapper boys from South London came up and hugged him once. They said they totally supported him, fuck Parliament, fuck em all. But he wouldnt have that. He just answered Love, Peace, Justice, stop killing my kids.他借助扩音器来传达信念。逮捕乔治·布什,战犯!你好,托尼!45分钟,布莱尔先生。布-莱-尔先生。即使在下议院会议厅里都听得到他的声音。起初,托尼·布莱尔评价他是个好老头布莱恩,言论自由的赢家。是的,他的确是。他守卫了自己在国会面前自由表达思想的权利:有着350年历史的和平抗议。曾有一次几个伦敦南部来的饶舌歌手和他拥抱。他们说完全持他的行为,去他的国会,去他们的。但他不会说脏话。他只用爱,和平,正义,停止杀害孩子来表达。The authorities soon got tired of him, though. Westminster Council tried to remove him because he was a nuisance and “obstructing the pavement”. It failed. By 2005 Tony decided hed had enough of the name-calling. The Serious Organised Crime and Police Act said Mr Haw had to give six days notice, if you please, of any demonstration within a kilometre of Parliament. How could he do that? The High Court ruled against it, and said he was legal. But the police never acted as though he was. Any morning they might wake him up with a siren, whoop, whoop, Are you there Brian, yank up his plastic, rifle through his private property right in front of Parliament. Who was abusing whom then? In 2006 78 of them came to tear down his wall of pictures, smashed it, trashed it, left it like a bomb site. Left him with one sign. He stayed, of course.然而,当局很快就对他厌烦了。西敏寺地方政府试图把他赶走,因为他是他们的眼中钉,而且“阻塞了人行道”。行动没有成功。到了2005年,托尼声称他听够了指责。严严重有组织犯罪和警察法规定霍先生如果一定要在距国会一千米内抗议的话就将被拘留六天。他要怎么办呢?高级法院否决了这一法案,并且称他的行为合法。但警察的行为就好像他是非法的一样。每天早晨警察都用呜呜叫的警笛将他闹醒,就在国会前面拉开他的塑料帐篷,迅速搜查他的私人财产。究竟是谁在谴责谁呢?2006年,78个警察拆倒了他的照片墙,将照片撕碎、丢弃,现场就像被炸弹轰炸了一样。只给他留下了一个签名。但当然,他还是留在那里。People asked him about his own kids, seven of them. An off-limits topic. Family was left behind when he came to the square. His wife had divorced him, hed learned. It wasnt his fault. He hadnt wanted to stay eight bloody years away from them, with the pollution and the drunks who broke his nose and the thugs who shouted “Wanker!” at him. He stayed because he wasnt finished yet. And you know what? It was never fundamentally about free speech and the rights of Englishmen and all that stuff. It was about the dead children. And not walking by.他有七个孩子,人们问起他自己的孩子怎么样,这是一个禁止谈论的话题。自从他到广场安家后,家庭就被抛之脑后了。他获知,他的妻子同他离婚了。这不是他的错。他也不想他妈的远离亲人八年时间,经历污染,还被几个醉汉打破了鼻子,还有暴徒冲他喊道:“蠢货!”。他留下是因为他还没有达成目标。你知道吗?从根本上说,这绝不是关于自由言论和英国人的权利或其他这类的东西。根本上说是为了那些死去的孩子,而不是为吸引路人。201206/187256

Immortality永生For ever and ever追求永生Immortality: The Quest to Live Forever and How It Drives Civilisation.《永生:对长命百岁的追求及这是如何影响文明》IMMORTALITY is an age-old obsession. Plenty of literature deals with the subject, from the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamish to the poems of Homer and the writings of the Old Testament. The quest to live for ever has motivated medieval alchemists, modern techno-Utopians and mystics through the centuries.永生是人们亘古不变的追求。不论是苏美尔人的《《吉尔迦美什史诗》,还是荷马的诗歌,亦或是《旧约》,大量的文学作品都以此为主题。历经了数个世纪,人们都追求着永生,这种观点激励着中世纪炼金术士,现代的技术乌托邦主义者,神秘主义者。In his survey of the subject, Stephen Cave, a British philosopher, argues that man’s various tales of immortality can be boiled down into four basic “narratives”. The first is the simplest, in theory at least: do what the medieval alchemists never managed and discover an elixir to simply avoid dying. The second concerns resurrection, or coming back to life after dying, a belief found in all three of the Abrahamic religions. The idea of an immaterial soul that can persist through death dates back, in a formal form, at least to Plato, and forms Mr Cave’s third narrative. His fourth narrative deals with immortality through achievement, by becoming so famous that one’s name lives on through the ages.英国哲学家史蒂芬?凯夫在他对这一问题的调查中指出,关于永生的各种传说都可以归为四类“说法”。第一种在理论上至少是最简单的:完成中世纪炼金术士的遗愿,即发明一种长生不老药;第二种是复活,即死而复生,这种信仰普遍存在于三个亚拉伯罕宗教(基督教、犹太教和伊斯兰教)中;第三种是人们认为无形的灵魂能够穿越死亡,这种理念的正式形态,至少可以追溯回柏拉图时代。第四种是通过取得成就获得永生,即让自己名垂千古。For the aspiring undying, Mr Cave unfortunately concludes that immortality is a mirage. But his demolition project is fascinating in its own right. The section on the soul is an able attack on the related doctrines of “vitalism”, the soul and mind-body dualism—the intuitive and still widely held body of ideas that hold that living creatures are animated by some sort of supernatural spark, and that an individual’s personality or consciousness can survive death. The chapters on resurrection will interest Christians, as Mr Cave examines how the literal recreation, by God, of dead people’s bodies remains the doctrine of most branches of Christianity. The idea of one’s soul, as opposed to one’s body, ending up in heaven or hell is a subsequent embellishment.对向往长生不老的人而言遗憾的是,凯夫做出了一个结论:永生是种幻想。不过就事论事,他对此的的确很吸引人。调查中,关于灵魂的部分对与之相关的“生机论”教义做了有力的攻击,即灵魂与身心二元论——这是一种非常直接,且许多人都相信的思想,他们认为某种超自然的力量赋予了生物生命,一个人的人格及意识能够超越死亡而存在。基督徒会对凯夫探讨复活的章节感兴趣,因为他探讨了上帝重造已死者的肉体这一点是怎样一直做为各基督教派的教义保留下来的。人们认为,一个人的灵魂,不同于其躯体,它终会上天堂或是下地狱,则是在该思想(上帝可以重造肉体)之后才发展出来的一种修饰。If anything, ers might want more of Mr Cave’s crisp conversational prose. There could be more on living longer; Mr Cave barely has time to give even the briefest overview of the emerging science of life extension, which has allowed researchers to lengthen the lifespans of mice by a third or more in the lab.如果凯夫与其他调查有和不同的话,那便是读者也许想读到更多他的干净利索的对话式散文。有关延长寿命的章节可以再长一些,但凯夫几乎没时间对当今研究长寿的科学做一个最简洁的概述。这种科学使得科研者们将实验室里小白鼠的寿命延长了三分之一或更多。There are a few quibbles. Mr Cave’s repeated claim that the quest for immortality drives every human activity feels overdone. Others might dispute his definition of immortality itself. Mr Cave’s chief argument against the desirability of living for ever (even assuming it is possible) is the familiar one of boredom. As the uncountable billions of years tick away, the argument runs, even the most vivacious will come to realise that they have done everything there is to do, hundreds of times. With yet more billions of years looming ahead they will be struck down with a debilitating ennui.不过,凯夫的调查还是存在小瑕疵。他一直宣称,对永生的追求主导了人类所有活动,这未免让人觉得有些夸大。他对于永生自身的定义还存在争议。对于长生的好处(姑且认为这是可能的),凯夫最主要的辩驳观点是人们非常熟悉的:厌烦。该论点认为:随着数十亿年逐渐过去,即使是最有活力的人/永生者也会慢慢意识到自己已经做完了所有可做的事,而且每一件都做了不下数百次了。未来还有数十亿年要面对,这些永生者将会感到一种压倒一切的无聊感。That argument only applies if these notional immortals are also invincible, and therefore impervious to accident. But that is an odd definition, and not one that crops up very often, especially in scientific research into ageing. The holy grail there is simply to arrest the ageing process. Indeed, Mr Cave es an actuary who has estimated that the average “medical immortal” would persist for around 6,000 years before dying in a plane accident or a car crash or the like. And besides, boredom seems to be a non-problem: after all, if an immortal does ever get truly bored of his vastly extended life, there would be nothing to prevent him from ending it.只有在这些所谓的永生者也是所向无敌,因此不受任何事故伤害时,上述论点才能成立。不过这是个奇怪的定义,并非时不时冒出来的,尤其是在研究衰老的科研中。圣杯只是为了阻止衰老。的确,凯夫引用了一位精算师的话,据那位精算师估计,一个“医学上永生”的人平均大约可以活6000年,不过最终他会死于坠机,撞车等事故。另外,这种厌烦似乎不是问题:别忘了,若一个获得永生的人实在厌烦了自己没完没了的生命,什么也阻止不了他将其结束。201205/183793Science and Technology Palaeontology Splay-footed, not flat-footed科技 古生物学 不是扁平足而是八字足A new fossil shows that evolution does not always mean change新发现的化石显示,进化并不总意味着变化WHEN a coelacanth, a type of lobe-finned fish once considered the missing link between fish and amphibians, was found off the coast of South Africa in 1938, it came as a shock to palaeontologists. Until then, the most recent traces of such a creature had been in rocks dating from the last days of the dinosaurs, 65m years ago. It was, in its way, as surprising as if a live Tyrannosaurus had been found hiding in an obscure part of Montana. Now the same experience is hitting palaeontologists again—but this time in reverse. Instead of finding a ;living fossil; identical to an ancient beast, they have found a real fossil identical to a modern one.1938年当一种空棘鱼目鱼类---曾被认为是一种消失的连接鱼类和两栖动物的物种在南非海岸被发现时,古生物学家们为之一惊。至到当时,这种生物最新的踪迹只出现在可以追溯到距今六千五百万年前恐龙时代末期的化石中。其惊人程度就如同在蒙大拿的某个阴暗地方发现了一只躲藏于其中的活体霸王龙。如今,同样的事件再次让古生物学家们感到震惊---但是这次恰恰相反,他们不是发现了一个与远古生物雷同的;活化石;,而是发现了一个与现代生物一致的真化石。The fossil in question, a 100m-year-old specimen from north-east Brazil, belongs to the genus Schizodactylus. These are large, carnivorous, cricket-like insects whose feet splay out wildly in different directions. Modern Schizodactylus use their feet like snowshoes, to help them remain stable as they travel over sandy terrain in search of prey.这里所讨论的化石中的生物是一个来自巴西东北部距今一亿年前的物种,属于Schizodactylus昆虫科。它们是一些大型,蟋蟀状食肉昆虫,其足向不同方向伸展。当现代Schizodactylus科昆虫在沙地中搜寻猎物时,其足有如雪鞋可以帮助它们保持稳定。If the new fossil—whose discovery has just been published in ZooKeys by Sam Heads of the Illinois Natural History Survey and Léa Leuzinger of the University of Fribourg, in Switzerland—were merely similar to modern splay-footed insects, the find would not be particularly surprising: it simply demonstrates a phenomenon called evolutionary stasis, in which a specific type of body form hangs around for a long time. What is surprising is just how static Schizodactylus has been.如果该新发现的化石---它的发掘已经被来自伊利诺亚州自然历史调查所的山姆.海兹以及来自瑞士夫里堡大学的雷.卢辛格发表在了《Zookeys》杂志上---仅仅是与现代八字足昆虫相似,那么这一发现也没有什么大惊小怪的:因为这只显示了一种叫做;进化停止;的现象,其间某一特定体态在相当长一段时间内保持不变。然而让人感到惊奇的是Schizodactylus科昆虫的进化尽然是如此得缓慢。Evolutionary stasis is fairly common at the higher levels of the Linnaean system of biological classification (class, order and family). Natural selection hits on a good design. That design is then adopted in slightly different forms by species after species. The shelled bodies of turtles, for example, evolved between 250m and 200m years ago, while the body plans of scorpions have been around for more than 400m years. That does not mean, however, that a zoologist would mistake a 200m-year-old turtle or a 400m-year-old scorpion for any species now alive.进化停止在生物分类法(如纲,目和科的分类)的林奈分类体系中的高级别生物里比较常见。当自然选择挑中了一个理想的设计后,一个接一个的物种便以略微不同的形式采纳这种设计。举个例子,海龟的甲状躯壳约在2亿5千万年前至2亿年前就已经进化完成,相比之下蝎子的身体构制更是在4亿多年内都未有大的变化。然而,这并不意味着一位动物学家可以将一只2亿年前的海龟或是一只4亿年前的蝎子与现在对应的活体物种混为一谈。What is remarkable about the new find is that it is so similar to modern animals that it can be assigned to an existing genus—the lowest level of Linnaean classification above a species—rather than just to some higher taxonomic group. That is rare indeed. Even the modern coelacanth, on closer examination, had to be put in a different genus from any known fossil.而这一新发现令人关注的地方在于化石中的物种与现代对应物种是如此得相似以至于它可以被当作是现代物种的某一现存种类---种类是林奈物种分类法中最低的一级,而不是更高级别的种群。这的确很罕见。经过进一步检验,(我们发现)就算是(当时在南非海岸发现的)现代空棘鱼的种类也有别于任何已知化石中的空棘鱼的种类。Clearly the body plan of Schizodactylus is not merely good, but optimal, at least for the environment the animal lives in. Alas for Schizodactylus, the sandy deserts it prefers have retreated from north-eastern Brazil and its optimality there has vanished. But its discovery shows better what this part of the world was like 100m years ago—and also illustrates an important point about evolution that is often forgotten in biologists understandable focus on the development of novelty. The first rule of natural selection is: ;If it aint broke, dont fix it.;显然,Schizodactylus科昆虫拥有的的身体构制不仅令人满意,而且是最佳的,至少是为了其所生存的环境而生。而让Schizodactylus科昆虫感到悲哀的是其所青睐的沙漠在巴西已经消退而它们的最佳身体构制也随之消失。但是该化石的发现更好地展示了世界的这一地区在1亿年前是个什么摸样---同时也阐明了有关进化的一点重要内容,一个经常在生物学家对于发展的推陈出新所持有的一种可理解的关注中而被遗忘的一点内容。自然选择的第一条规则就是:;未损勿修。; /201301/219922

Ants Out In the Rain雨中的蚂蚁Oh, no, Ya#235;l its starting to rain! And I left my ant farm outside, now my ants were drown and die.!天呐,Ya#235;l,下雨了!可是我把我的蚂蚁农场忘在了外面了,现在我的蚂蚁们肯定都被淹死了!Come on, Don. Im guessing plenty of ants drown every time it rains, which makes me wonder how do ground nesting ants cope with rain.东,你想多了吧。每次一下雨就会有很多的蚂蚁被水淹,我就想不明白蚂蚁究竟是怎么在雨天存活下来的。Actually, ant species that burrow have different flood survival strategies. I mean, nest design alone can go a long way. Some species make sure to build their nests in sandy or well-drained soil that absorbs moisture and dries quickly. And others build mounds with waterproof roofs.事实上,蚂蚁这些挖洞居住的动物有他们的防洪生存策略。我的意思是说,就只洞穴的设计这一点来看,里面都是有门道的。有的会吧洞穴挖在沙地里,有的会挖在那种易吸收又易排出的排水状况良好的土地里,有的甚至会建起防水的土堆。Pretty clever!相当的聪明嘛!Oh, thats nothing. One tropical species of ants has an alarm and evacuation plan for flooding. At the first sign of rain, minor worker ants start racing through the nest’s tunnels, mobilizing the entire nest is less than thirty seconds. Odor trails then direct everyone down unobstructed tunnels to dry areas in the nest or–if necessary–to those exits that aren’t blocked by water.这还算不上什么!热带的一种蚂蚁还有一套洪灾警报及撤退计划:一旦发现在下雨,小工蚁会在30秒内跑遍所有巢穴内的通道,通知所有的蚂蚁。凭着气味,他们会转移到巢穴内干燥的地方,如若有需要,他们会撤退到未被水堵住的出口。Now, thats pretty amazing!这个简直太了不起了!And some species have flood plans that even top that. A species of fire ants in the southwest leave their nests and form a large mass around the queen and her brood, basically acting like a living raft that floats until the waters recede, or it gets anchored on grass or bushes. Even though some die, enough survive–usually including the queen–so that once the waters go down, they can return to the nest or build a new one and go back to business as usual.有些种类的蚂蚁比上一个还要厉害。在西南部,有一种火蚁,下雨时,蚂蚁们会离开巢穴。由工蚁们围绕着蚁后和蚁卵集中在一起,这样就像是一个活动的筏。直到水退去,或是在草地或是灌木丛“靠岸”,他们才会散去。虽然说有的蚂蚁会被淹死,但大多数都存活了下来——当然,这里面肯定包括了蚁后。保存实力的他们在退水后便可以返回巢穴或是建一个新的巢穴,像以前一样安然的生活着。 /201301/218255Fairs, carnivals, festivals or anywhere you can buy helium-filled balloons, you’re sure to see at least one balloon rising into the sky after someone accidentally lets it go off.在集市,嘉年华,节日聚会还有任何其他地方你都能买到氢气球,你至少能看到一个气球由于有人没有拿好,意外让气球飞向高空的情况。What happens to the balloon after it rises out of sight? Well,that depends on how high the balloon goes!气球飞到看不见的地方会发生什么呢?嗯,这取决于气球飞到多高的地方!When you inflate a balloon, you’re actually putting gases, mostly helium,in this case , into an elastic container. As you add more gas, the pressure inside the balloon increases, and in response, the balloon expands…up to a point, that is! If you put in too much helium, and the pressure inside the balloon gets too much higher than the atmospheric pressure on the outside of the balloon, the balloon will burst.当你给气球充气的时候,你充的一定是气体,大多是氢气,到一个有弹性的容器内。你加入的气体越多,气球内部的压力也随之增长,相应地,气球变大了……到了一定的大小,就是那个状态下,如果你充入更多的氢气,气球内部的压力就比气球外面的大气中的压力大,气球就会保障。So what happens to a rising balloon? Well, if it gets caught by an air current and is carried along level to the earth’s surface, it could go a long way,even across the ocean,if the winds arrived! Of course, no balloon is perfectly sealed, no matter how tightly you tie it, so eventually the helium will leak out, and the balloon will sink.所以一个不断向上升的气球会怎么样呢?嗯,如果它遇到气流被带到地球表面,这样可以走很远。如果有风,它甚至可以越过海洋!当然,不论怎么扎紧气球,没有气球是完全不会漏气的。因此最终氢气会泄露,气球会下沉。 /201206/186183

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