原标题: 襄樊第一人民医院处女膜修复怎么样120专家
This Sunday, a handful of stars will go home empty handed from the 2014 Academy Awards show. Not only will they be left with the bitter sting of defeat, but such loss may also lead to shorter lifespans than the winners.Seriously. Social status has long been recognized as a predictor for poor health. Typically, research has focused on disparities between the rich and the poor. But science tells us that the effect may extend to quite literally the top of social ladder. In fact, Oscar winners may also have the perk of longevity.The finding was first noticed in 2001. Researchers from the University of Toronto studied 1,649 Oscar-nominated actors and actresses. When they accounted for factors that could influence death rates, they found that among the participants, Oscar winners had a survival advantage of about four extra years of life, and actors who won multiple Oscars had an advantage of six years. Nominees who didn’t win had the same survival rates as their non-nominated peers.这几天不少明星将会从奥斯卡上空手而归,留给他们的不仅仅是苦涩的失败,还可能会减寿。这个现象是在2001年首次被发现的。多伦多大学的研究人员对1649位获得奥斯卡提名男女演员进行研究,发现奥斯卡获奖者大概可以多四年寿命,而多次获奖的演员会多六年的寿命,只是被提名和连提名都没有的寿命是差不多的。Success could possibly account for the survival advantage, the researchers say. They speculate that since stars are subjected to intense personal scrutiny, they pay special attention to their looks and behaviors. Consequently, they may avoid risky behavior and focus more intensively on eating and exercise. Not to mention, many have the means to hire nannies, trainers, and managers, which could mean they are under less stress than the general population.Of course, there are the exceptions, like Oscar winner Philip Seymour Hoffman who died recently after an overdose. Another study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine questioned the methods of the 2001 study. The original study was criticized for counting the years an actor was alive, instead of comparing years after a win. They also declared winners and losers at the onset, and didn’t factor in whether actors in the study won an award later on. When the new researchers re-calculated, they didn’t find the numbers significant.If the findings do hold true, it could mean that there are other factors that impact survival, like a jump in social status. Looks like we will have to wait and see.研究人员说,这是因为获奖明星会有强烈的自我监督,会特别注意自己的外表和行为。因此,他们会避免那些危险的行为,并且更加注意饮食和锻炼。更不用说他们有经济实力聘请那些保姆,教练和经纪人了,因为这就意味着他们受到的压力比一般人更少。当然也有例外,如奥斯卡影帝霍夫曼最近就因为用药物过量而去世。 /201403/278818As Frieze week kicks off in London, so does the third Shanzhai Biennial — which does not occur every two years, but instead irregularly, whenever the artistic trio made up of Cyril Duval, Avena Gallagher and Babak Radboy comes together to focus their laser wits on the increasingly porous interstices of art, fashion and branding. Shanzhai Biennial is not an exhibition in any conventional sense of the word, nor is Shanzhai an actual Chinese locale. It’s a term that means “mountain stronghold,” slang for the breed of counterfeit products stockpiled in lofty, hard-to-access villages: name-brand knockoffs that are famous worldwide for their absurd, sometimes even poetic perversions of Western language.随着弗里兹艺会(Frieze)在伦敦开幕,第三届山寨双年展(Shanzhai Biennial)也开幕了——其实它并非每两年举办一次,而是不定期举行,届时西里尔·杜瓦尔(Cyril Duval)、阿韦纳·加拉格尔(Avena Gallagher)和巴巴克·拉德伊(Babak Radboy)这三位艺术家聚到一起,把他们激光般的智慧集中到越来越具有渗透性的艺术、时尚和品牌推广的隙缝中。山寨双年展不是传统字面意义上的展览,山寨也不是一处真的中国山寨。“山寨”指的是存放于高高的、难以到达的村子里的名牌仿制品,它们以对西方语言的荒谬甚至不无诗意的曲解而闻名于世。Together, the words “Shanzhai Biennial” stand for an apocryphal institution that is often described as an art project posing as a luxury brand — or vice versa. At various times it has functioned as both, though it has consistently eschewed strict identification as either. In London, Shanzhai Biennial No. 3, titled “100 Hamilton Terrace,” consists of two retail installations — one onsite at Frieze Art Fair, another at Project Native Informant gallery in Mayfair — devised as a multipronged real-estate marketing campaign for a #163;32 million mansion for sale in St. John’s Wood. Both installations are grounded by carpets done in a deep, prosperous red, with floor plans of the property printed in large format directly upon them. The walls are hung with light boxes illuminating advertisements for the house, featuring inquisitive models peering through the outlines of more floor plans. Collateral art objects — limited-edition keys commemorating the house, and haute Frieze Art Fair tote bags that trade standard-issue cotton for quilted black leather and a braided chain — are on view in vitrines. But the most prominent element of the installation, in the Frieze booth anyway, is the mansion’s hefty price tag: a steady stream of zeroes that marches, larger-than-life, across the wall behind the lacquered sales desk.“山寨”和“双年展”这两个词组合在一起代表一个并不存在的机构,它经常被描述为伪装成奢侈品牌的艺术项目或伪装成艺术项目的奢侈品牌。有时它同时具有这两种职能,虽然它一直不想被严格定义为其中任何一种。伦敦的第三届山寨双年展名为“汉密尔顿露台100号”(100 Hamilton Terrace),包括两个零售装置作品——一个在弗里兹艺术览会现场,另一个在梅费尔的本土作品通报画廊(Project Native Informant)。它被设计成一个包括多种元素的房地产营销活动,推销的是圣约翰伍德的一个售价为3200万英镑的宅邸。这两个装置作品都以艳丽的深红色地毯为背景,地毯上印着大幅户型图。墙上挂着灯箱,照亮这所房子的广告,广告中好奇的模特透过更多户型图向外凝视。玻璃橱窗里是一些附属艺术品——纪念这所房子的限量版钥匙,弗里兹艺会的高档大手提袋,它的材质不是那种普通棉布,而是用中间夹有棉花的黑色皮革做的,还带一条镶饰链子。但是这个装置作品最显眼的元素——在弗里兹艺会的展位上——是这个宅邸高昂的价签:涂漆销售桌后面的墙上排列着一长串醒目的零。“We really want to stress that this is real advertising and fake art and not the opposite,” says Radboy. Indeed, the artists stand to earn a bona fide .5-percent commission on the property when it sells. “Advertising has its own formal attributes that are really uncanny when you consider them — but get overlooked because the perspective of critique always treats advertising as some dumb stepchild of culture, easily encapsulated in terms like ‘commodity aesthetics.’”“我们真的想强调这是真广告,伪艺术,而不是伪装成广告的艺术,”拉德伊说。的确,如果房子售出,这三位艺术家将获得0.5%的佣金。“如果仔细考虑,你会发现广告具有非常神秘的独特形式属性,但它被忽视了,因为批评家们总是把广告看作文化的愚蠢继子,随意地把它概括为‘商品美学’。”The project’s centerpiece, though, is artful indeed: a promotional produced for the address, which makes its premiere here. Scored by a Shanzhai interpretation of Sinéad O’Connor’s “Nothing Compares 2 U” in Mandarin, which the Biennial originally created for an earlier shown at MoMA PS1, the advertisement pushes in on domestic scenes from within 100 Hamilton Terrace, juxtaposed with Chinese models stoically enjoying their plush environs. It’s a Kuleshov cocktail of exoticism — evident in both the quintessentially English details of the house and its uncannily posed inhabitants — and globalized, aspirant values.不过,这个项目的中心作品的确非常艺术化:它是为这座宅邸拍摄的宣传片,在这里首次展示。宣传片的配乐是山寨双年展对西妮德·奥康纳(Sinéad O’Connor)的《没什么能与你相比》(Nothing Compares 2 U)的中文演绎,最初是他们为一个早期视频创作的,曾在现代艺术物馆(MoMA)PS1馆展示。宣传片在展示汉密尔顿露台100号的室内景致时,融入了中国模特们在其中恬淡享受奢华环境的镜头。它具有库列绍夫(Kuleshov)的电影风格,融合多种异国情调,既有房子典型的英式细节,又有一些姿态怪异的住户,具有雄心勃勃的全球化价值观。“The fair itself is so evocative of real estate,” Radboy continues. In a tented swath of Regent’s Park, Frieze is cut up into hundreds of contiguous stalls that rent by the day for five-figure sums. Shanzhai Biennial’s booth is in a prime position: the only one along the hallway through which fairgoers enter. “In the end, I think the advertising campaign has more in common with a military campaign: It is first and foremost concerned with territory and not cash.”“这场艺会本身很容易让人想起房地产,”拉德伊继续说道。艺会位于摄政公园里的一片搭起帐篷的地区,包括成百上千个毗邻摊位,每日租金都是五位数。山寨双年展的展位处于黄金位置,是唯一一个沿过道的展位,参观艺会的人都得从这儿经过。“说到底,我觉得广告宣传活动与军事战役有很多共同点:它们在乎的是疆域,而非钱。”“As an agency, we routinely spend tens of thousands of pounds promoting fine homes, yet our advertisements and marketing initiatives often frustratingly create barely a ripple amongst top-end buyers,” explains Aston Chase’s Mark Pollack, the listing agent who convinced his clients to bring Shanzhai Biennial on board to create an abstract take on what is usually resigned to the rote, ineffective methods he describes. Pleased with the parade of millionaires who will be passing by the display all week, the two companies are aly talking about future collaborations.“作为中介机构,我们通常花费数万英镑宣传高端房产,但我们的广告和营销活动常常令人失望,在高端买家中几乎没引起任何反响,”阿斯顿·沙斯房地产中介公司(Aston Chase)的卖方代理人马克·波拉克(Mark Pollack)解释说。他认为普通的宣传方法陈腐无效,劝客户们让山寨双年展加入进来,从抽象视角进行阐释。双方对本周将经过这里的百万富翁感到满意,已在商谈未来的合作。And what’s next for Shanzhai Biennial? In Chinese culture, the number four is a near-homophone for “death,” so the group plans to skip forward to Shanzhai Biennial No. 5.山寨双年展的下一个项目是什么?在中国文化中,数字四的发音与“死”接近,所以这个艺术家团体计划把四跳过去,直接举办第五届山寨双年展。 /201410/337312

A besotted blind couple who married yesterday have told how they fell in love - when their guide dogs also became an item.一对盲人夫妇昨日成婚,他们讲述了自己是如何陷入爱河的——导盲犬当“红娘”。Claire Johnson, 50, first fell for Mark Gaffey, 51, from Stoke-on-Trent, when her pet Venice got friendly with his pooch Rodd at Guide Dog Training classes in 2012.故事发生在2012年英国的斯托克市,在导盲犬培训期间,50岁的克莱尔爱上了51岁的马克。克莱尔的导盲犬和马克家的路德相交甚好。The two dogs became inseparable and soon their owners, who are both registered blind, soon realised they were head over heels for each other too.两只形影不离,很快它们的盲人主人也意识到二人彼此倾心。Just a year after meeting, Mark popped the question on Valentine#39;s Day last year. And the happy couple married yesterday at a hotel in Stoke-on-Trent - with their dogs as ring-bearers.就在相遇一年后,去年情人节马克向克莱尔求婚了。昨天他们在斯托克市的一家酒店结婚了,婚礼上两只导盲犬当戒童。Claire, who lost her sight due to diabetes when she was 24, beamed: #39;I have no doubt that our guide dogs brought us together and helped me find my true love.克莱尔在24岁的时候因糖尿病失明,她说:“我们的导盲犬帮助我们走到一起,帮我找到真爱,这一点我毫无置疑。”#39;Much like our two guide dogs, we are best friends and soul mates. Everyone used to joke about how Mark#39;s dog Rodd and my dog Venice were meant to be together.#39;“就像我们的这两只导盲犬一样,我们是彼此最好的朋友和灵魂伴侣。大家都曾开玩笑说,马克的路德和我的是天生一对。”The pair, met when they both took their dogs to Guide Dog Training course in Shrewsbury, in March last year.这对情侣相遇在去年3月,当时两人都带着各自的去参加在什鲁斯伯里的导盲犬培训课程。Mark, who was blind from birth said: #39;During the training our two dogs, Rodd and Venice, seemed to know something we didn#39;t.马克天生眼盲,他说:“在做课程培训时,我们的两只路德和仿佛懂些什么我们不知道的事情。”#39;They were always playing together and nuzzling up together. The trainers said that they were the love and romance of the course, and they brought us together. We could have easily missed one another because it was a residential course and we just happened to be put on the same one.”“它们总是在一起玩,彼此依偎着,训练员说它们肯定相爱了。然后它们就让我们两个走到了一起,我们差点错过彼此,因为那是一个寄宿课程,而我们碰巧同时参加了同一期课程。”#39;But we were purely in the right place at the right time. I have never believed in fate, but it does seem like it was meant to be. Each time we met the lunches were getting longer and the waitresses were tapping their fingers waiting for us to leave.#39;“我们真的是在对的时间对的地点遇到了对的人。我从来没相信过命运,但这次就真的好像是天赐良缘。我们一起吃午餐的时间越来越长,连务员都敲着手指等我们离开了。”#39;We chatted about anything and everything. I trusted in the luck I didn#39;t seem to know existed. Now we joke that with every guide dog you get a free wife. I love Claire#39;s personality and her laugh is infectious. We#39;ve never had an argument, we just seem to click.#39;“我们在一起畅所欲言。我相信缘分,而之前我都没意识到它的存在。现在我们经常开玩笑说,导盲犬可以给你带来美娇妻。我喜欢克莱尔的性格,她的笑声很有感染力。我们从没吵过架,我们就是好像突然就来电了。” /201404/289208

The Claim: Qigong, a Chinese health practice based on gentle movements, meditation and breathing, has wide-ranging benefits, including improving balance, lowering blood pressure and even easing depression.主张:气功,中国的一种健身运动,动作轻柔,注重冥想和吐纳,功效广泛,比如改善身体协调能力,降血压,甚至还有缓解抑郁的功能。The Verdict: Increasingly popular in the U.S., qigong (pronounced chee-gong) has been found in recent studies to improve quality of life in cancer patients and fight depression. Other studies have found improvements in balance and blood pressure. But so far, there aren#39;t enough large, well-designed studies to constitute solid proof of any benefits, scientists say.定论 :气功在美国越来越流行,近来不断有研究发现,气功能够改善癌症患者的生活质量,抗击抑郁。还有研究发现气功能改善身体协调能力、降低血压。不过科学家说,迄今为止,尚没有规模足够大、设计足够严密的研究来可靠地实气功的任何益处。Qigong, with its roots in traditional Chinese medicine, is a close cousin to the better-known tai chi. Unlike that practice, qigong isn#39;t based in martial arts. Instead, it uses a variety of gentle movements, says Stanwood Chang, who teaches qigong classes at the Benson-Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Because its motions are simple and repetitive, qigong is more accessible to many people than tai chi, which has long sequences that need to be memorized, Mr. Chang adds.气功的理论基础在中医学,与更为知名的“太极”关系密切。与太极不同的是,气功并不以武术为基础。相反,波士顿麻省总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)本森-亨利身心医学研究所(Benson—Henry Institute for Mind Body Medicine)教授气功课程的Stanwood Chang说,气功运用的是一系列舒缓的动作。他还补充说,因为动作简单,多有重复,气功比太极更适合多数人修习,太极套路很长,需要记忆。Traditionally, qigong is described as a practice that cultivates #39;qi, #39; or life energy. Qi can#39;t be measured objectively, says Shin Lin, a professor of cell biology at the University of California, Irvine. But his studies of qigong and tai chi practitioners have found a boost in both alpha brain waves, suggesting relaxation, and beta waves, indicating strong focus. #39;It has the dual benefit of relaxing you, but also sharpening your mind, #39; says Dr. Lin.从传统上来说,气功是一种聚“气”(或曰生命的能量)的功法。加州大学欧文分校(University of California, Irvine)的细胞生物学教授林欣说,气无法客观地观测到。但他通过对气功和太极修习者进行研究发现,气功不但能提振脑α波(表明放松),还能提振脑β波(表明专注)。林欣说,它有双重功效,既能让你放松,还能增强脑力。Some studies have found improvement in balance from qigong. At least one cites the fact that participants are taught to take a wider, more stable stance when standing.有些研究已经发现气功能改善身体协调能力。至少有一项研究引述了这样一个事实:气功修习者被教导在站着的时候要采取双脚距离更大、更稳定的站姿。Earlier this year, a three-month, 14-person study of depressed Chinese-Americans, who were offered one-hour qigong classes twice a week and encouraged to practice at home, found that 60% of those who took at least 15 classes saw a significant improvement in depression based on a standard rating scale. #39;One theory is that qigong helps people to relax and combat stress, #39; which tends to aggravate depression, says study co-author Albert Yeung, associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School in Cambridge.今年早些时候,14名情绪抑郁的美籍华人参加了一项为期三个月的研究项目,这些人每周上两次气功课,每次一个小时,并且他们被鼓励在家也进行气功练习。研究发现,那些上了至少15次课的人当中,60%的人的抑郁情形有显著改善(按照标准等级衡量)。这项研究的共同作者、剑桥市哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)的精神病学助理教授Albert Yeung说,一个理论是,气功能帮助人们放松,对抗压力,而压力往往会加重抑郁。The study was too small to be conclusive, adds Dr. Yeung, a senior consultant at the Benson-Henry Institute. But he#39;s excited enough about the potential that he aly recommends qigong to patients with mild and moderate depression, and in combination with medication to patients with severe depression.Albert Yeung也是本森-亨利身心医学研究所的资深顾问。他说,这项研究的规模也是太小,得出的结论也不具有决定性。但他对结果感到很兴奋,他已经向中度和轻度抑郁患者推荐气功疗法,并建议重度抑郁患者可以在用药物的同时练习气功。For cancer patients, qigong can be done sitting and lying down if a person has physical constraints or is in pain, says Yang Yang, a kinesiologist and researcher, who teaches qigong at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York.人体运动学专家、研究人员杨洋(音)说,对于癌症患者来说,如果患者身体方面存在局限,或是剧烈疼痛,可以采用坐姿或卧姿练习气功。杨洋在纽约的斯隆-凯特琳癌症中心(Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center)教授气功。In a study of 96 women getting radiation therapy for breast cancer, published earlier this year, a team of Chinese scientists and researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston found reduced depression in women who took five weekly classes of qigong, compared with a control group that didn#39;t take the classes. Among those depressed at the start of the trial, fatigue was lessened and overall quality of life improved.在今年早些时候发表的一项研究针对96名因乳腺癌接受放射治疗的女性。休斯敦的得克萨斯大学(University of Texas)安德森癌症中心(MD Anderson Cancer Center)的一组中国科学家和研究人员发现,每周上气功课上了五周的女性患者相比没有上气功课的对照组患者来说,抑郁程度有所减轻。在那些试验伊始就有抑郁症状的病人当中,疲劳程度有所减轻,整体生活质量得到改善。Many people take qigong group classes, which typically cost to an hour, or practice at home after learning the exercises in a class or from a qigong DVD or online .很多人参加集体气功课程,费用一般在每小时10美元到20美元之间,或是在课上学了之后回家接着练习,也有人跟着气功DVD或在线视频学习气功。 /201310/259882Every time you enter the supermarket, you#39;re being manipulated. By design, all of the basics you#39;re just dropping by to pick up lie on the far side of a sea of temptation: the eggs, milk, and b are blocked by fruit snacks, those fancy new chips, and a display of artisanal beef jerky. If that wasn’t enough, your kids are targets too: all the cereal at the eye level of a child sitting in a shopping cart is pasted with cartoon blandishments, the better to lure them in with.每每进超市,你都控。你本来是来买鸡蛋、牛奶、面包这些必需品的,但是超市将这些东西都设计在很远的地方,要买到它们,你必须穿过无数诱惑:果蔬小吃、新款薯片、手工牛肉干摆放区。如果这样你都无动于衷,那还有你的孩子:坐在购物车里的孩子平视之处就是谷类食品,上面的卡通图案就像在“召唤”他们。But could we be manipulated for the better? The average food manufacturer has little reason to divert us from their high-fat, high-sugar, high-deliciousness products. Yet given that we are aly being influenced, one can wonder whether stores might eventually see the benefit – perhaps administered through public health-related tax cuts – to making the produce section into a wonderland that has the kids screaming for kale。但我们能不能控着去买更健康的食物呢?生产商没有理由劝我们不买大众偏爱的高脂、高糖、高香精食品。但既然我们已经被影响了,有人就想了,店家最终能否看清个中利益呢——或许,公众健康类税收优惠是个解决之道——把食品区变成一个乐园,让每个孩子都争着抢着要甘蓝菜。Even within our current stores, it isn#39;t difficult to nudge people in a better direction, at least in the short term. Esther Papies, a professor of social psychology at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, found that handing out recipe flyers at a store entrance that included words like ;healthy; and ;low-calorie; caused people who were overweight or dieting to subconsciously buy fewer snacks. They took a whopping 75% fewer snack items to the checkouts than those who received the control flier, which did not have the health-related terms on it. Seeing those words – being primed by them – activated people#39;s existing goals and reminded them what they could do now to meet them, without the shoppers really taking notice, says Papies。至少短期来看,即使在目前的商店内,要把顾客引往健康食品区也不是太难。荷兰乌得勒大学(Utrecht University)社会心理学教授埃斯特·佩皮斯(Esther Papies)发现,在商店入口发放印有“健康”和“低卡路里”字样的食谱传单,能让超重和节食人群下意识地少买些零食。比起那些拿到未印有健康信息传单的人来说,前者少买了75%的零食。佩皮斯说,看看这些词的魔力,它能潜移默化地激励人们从现在做起,提醒他们努力实现目标。Other tricks have been proposed by Brian Wansink, a professor of consumer behaviour at Cornell who#39;s well known for his research into the psychology of eating. Some of his latest work takes an earlier finding – that people increase their fruit and vegetable intake by 24% if they are told that half of their dinner plate should be reserved for these foods – and applies it to supermarket shopping. Wansink found that dividing a grocery cart in two, with half to be used only for fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat, causes people to spend more than twice as much on fruits and vegetables than people without a partition – .65 versus .82 on fruits and .19 versus .17 on vegetables. The idea is that the partition implies the existence of a social norm that consumers try to meet。 因研究饮食心理而闻名的康奈尔大学消费者行为学教授布莱恩·文森克(Brian Wansink)也揭秘了一些小伎俩。他近期的一些研究也用到了早期的发现——如果告诉消费者,他们的餐盘要留一半放水果和蔬菜,人们会多吃24%的果蔬——超市购物亦是如此。文森克发现,将购物车一分为二,其中一半规定只能放水果、蔬菜、奶制品和肉制品,此类消费者会比一般人多买一倍多的水果蔬菜——水果:.65比.82,蔬菜:.19比.17。秘诀就是,划分让消费者觉得这是一种社会规范,他们就会尽量去做到。 /201410/336236

On the snow-covered, bitterly cold museum construction site here, word went out to the assembled crowd: The helicopter had landed.在白雪覆盖、冷得让人难受的物馆施工地点,消息在聚集的人群中传开:直升机已经降落了。The Japanese architect Tadao Ando was making one of his twice-yearly, 7,000-mile trips from Osaka to New York to the Berkshires for a project that had gone on longer than anyone, including Mr. Ando, had expected at the outset: the dozen-year, 5 million expansion of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, which is finally scheduled to open in July.日本建筑师安藤忠雄当时正在进行自己一年两次、长达7000英里的旅行,从大阪飞到纽约,到伯克夏郡指导一个耗时超过所有人(包括他本人)最初预期的项目:斯特林和弗兰锡恩·克拉克艺术物馆(Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute)的扩建工程,它耗时12年,耗资1.45亿美元,终于定于今年7月开幕。Mr. Ando does not like to leave Japan for very long, and, initially, he didn#39;t know where Williamstown was. He signed on because of the natural beauty of the site and what he called the masterpieces in the Clark#39;s collection.安藤忠雄不喜欢离开日本太久,起初他并不知道威廉斯敦在哪里。他签约是因为那个地方的天然美景以及克拉克物馆收藏的杰作。The Clark, which opened in 1955, founded by an heir to the Singer sewing fortune, is a revered jewel-box museum with a stellar group of European and American works by masters like Degas, Sargent and Monet. The original neo-Classical-style white marble building was joined by a 1970s Brutalist structure, the Manton Research Center. The New York architect Annabelle Selldorf is renovating both of the existing older structures, and the landscape firm Reed Hilderbrand is reconfiguring the grounds.克拉克物馆1955年开放,由辛格缝纫财团的一位继承人创立,它是一个令人敬畏的、充满宝物的物馆,收藏有欧洲和美国的很多大师的杰作,包括德加斯(Degas)、萨金特(Sargent)和莫奈(Monet)。最早的建筑是新古典主义风格的白色大理石建筑,20世纪70年代加入了一个野兽派建筑——曼顿研究中心(Manton Research Center)。纽约建筑师安娜贝勒·塞尔道夫(Annabelle Selldorf)正在整修这两个现存的较老的建筑,景观设计公司里德·希尔德布兰德(Reed Hilderbrand)正在重新布置庭院。The many-faceted master plan also called for a new visitor, exhibition and conference center designed by Mr. Ando, who has built very rarely in the ed States, notably the Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth and the Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts in St. Louis.这个多元化的总体规划还包括一个新的游客、展览和会议中心,设计师是安藤忠雄,他在美国的设计作品很少,其中比较著名的有沃斯堡现代艺术物馆(Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth)和圣路易斯的普利策艺术基金会(Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts in St. Louis)。And his arrivals are hotly anticipated. A winner of the Pritzker Prize, he is renowned for instilling a thoughtful air of calm in his simply arranged structures of thick-walled concrete and is treated with great reverence at the Clark, especially since he completed the widely acclaimed Stone Hill Center on a wooded hillside here in 2008. It houses two art galleries and a series of conservation labs with magnificent views of the Taconic Range and the Green Mountains.人们热切期待他的到来。他是普利兹克建筑奖获得者,以在构造简单的厚壁混凝土建筑中注入一丝深思的平静而闻名,他在克拉克物馆受到了十分尊敬的对待,特别是2008年他在纽约林木繁茂的山坡上完成广受赞誉的石山中心(Stone Hill Center)之后。石山中心有两个画廊和一系列保护实验室,能看到塔科尼克山和绿山的优美景色。Trailed by a dozen workers and museum staff members, Mr. Ando immediately made the rounds to inspect the progress on his latest Clark building, a low-slung visitor center set on a three-tiered reflecting pool that provides a focal point for the whole campus. After approving various details — in particular the lack of porousness in the concrete — he pronounced the progress a success.安藤忠雄很快开始四处走动,察看克拉克物馆最新建筑的进展,后面跟着十几个工人和物馆员工。这个低矮的游客中心建在一个三层倒影池上,是整个庭院的焦点。在肯定了各方面的细节——特别是混凝土不漏水——之后,他宣布进展顺利。Then came the banter. He and Michael Conforti, the Clark#39;s director, have been involved in an odd-couple relationship since 2001, when, after a long selection process and a long courtship, Mr. Conforti persuaded him to take on the project. In an era when huge new museum projects are par for the course, the interplay at the Clark demonstrates how the give and take between designer and client turns divergent ideas into a synthesis of bricks and mortar — or in this case, concrete and granite.接下来是谈笑时间。他和克拉克物馆的馆长迈克尔·孔福尔蒂(Michael Conforti)从2001年开始了一段古怪的搭档关系,当时在长时间的挑选和恳求之后,孔福尔蒂说他接下了这个项目。那个年代,兴建大型新物馆是常事,这个项目表明设计师和客户之间的互动能把不同意见变成砖与泥的混合物——在这里也许应该说成混凝土与花岗岩的混合物。;He#39;s a visionary,; Mr. Conforti said of Mr. Ando. ;We needed an architectural vocabulary that could unify the campus without copying the two styles of building we aly have.;“他是个有预见力的人,”孔福尔蒂这样评价安藤忠雄,“我们需要一个能把这个庭院统一起来的建筑词汇,而不只是模仿两个已有建筑的风格。”But no one ever said hiring a starchitect would make life easy.但是没人说雇佣一位明星建筑师会让事情变得轻松。;The director is very critical,; Mr. Ando burst out at one point, through a translator who shadowed him on his visit. He had a large smile on his face as he continued: ;He is a strong man. He has an opinion, and he sticks to it.;“馆长非常挑剔,”安藤忠雄一度大笑着说。全程陪伴他的翻译替他翻译。他脸上充满笑意地继续说道:“他是个很强势的人。有自己的主见,而且很执着。”Mr. Conforti followed up by saying, ;It#39;s been an energetic relationship.;孔福尔蒂跟着说道,“我们的关系很积极。”The back and forth between the proudly self-taught Mr. Ando — who was once a boxer — and Mr. Conforti, a Harvard Ph.D. who has been running the Clark for 20 years, has pushed the project to be more ambitious than it might otherwise have been.骄傲的自学成才的建筑师安藤忠雄(他曾是个拳击运动员)和哈佛大学哲学士孔福尔蒂(他担任克拉克物馆馆长达20年)之间的互动把这个项目变得比最初的设想更有野心。The telling details are two walls of red granite at the entrance, as well as the tiered reflecting pools in back. The first was Mr. Conforti#39;s idea and the second, Mr. Ando#39;s. Neither of them was thrilled with the other#39;s suggestion at first, but they learned to embrace both elements in the process of working together.其中最显眼的两个细节是入口处的两堵红色花岗岩墙壁和后面的分层倒影池。第一个是孔福尔蒂的主意,第二个是安藤忠雄的想法。一开始他们都没有为对方的建议感到兴奋,但是他们在合作过程中学会了接受这两个元素。Mr. Ando#39;s close friend Kazuhito Yoshii, a New York art dealer, was trailing along during Mr. Ando#39;s recent Clark visit and has witnessed the interplay many times.纽约艺术商吉井和弘是安藤忠雄的密友。在他最近访问克拉克物馆期间,吉井一直陪着他。吉井多次见了他们的互动。;It#39;s a long-term relationship. It#39;s like a marriage,; Mr. Yoshii said.“他们之间是一个长期的关系,就像婚姻,”吉井和弘说。Since completing the Stone Hill Center, Mr. Ando has focused on creating a visitor center that can accommodate modern museum necessities like a gift shop and cafe, as well as the large temporary exhibition spaces the Clark has always lacked. It is scheduled to open on July 4 with ;Make It New,; a show of abstract paintings from the National Gallery of Art.在完成石山中心的项目后,安藤忠雄把注意力放到设计这个游客中心上来,它需要既能容纳现代物馆的基本需求,比如礼品店和咖啡店,也能容纳克拉克物馆一直缺乏的大型临时展览空间。它计划7月4日和“让它变新”(Make It New)展览同时开幕,这个展览是国家美术馆的抽象画展览。To emphasize the natural beauty of the Clark#39;s 140-acre setting and to defer to the original white marble building, beloved among the Clark#39;s patrons, both Mr. Ando and Mr. Conforti were keen on putting much of the center#39;s mass underground, while avoiding gloom.为了凸显克拉克物馆140英亩的环境的天然美景,而且与深受克拉克物馆的出资人们喜爱的最初的白色大理石建筑相呼应,安藤忠雄和孔福尔蒂都渴望把游客中心的大部分人群转移到地下,同时不能太阴暗。Mr. Ando has shown an ability to suffuse rooms with light in surprising ways. One of his most famous projects is the Ibaraki Kasugaoka Church in Ibaraki, Japan, which is known as the Church of the Light because of the cruciform-shaped opening in the concrete wall behind the altar.安藤忠雄已经表现出用令人意外的方式让房间充满阳光的能力。他最著名的一个项目是日本茨城县的光之教堂,因神坛后面混凝土墙上的十字形裂缝而得名。Bold, simplified gestures like that are his stock in trade. ;I pursued simplicity to an extreme,; Mr. Ando said of his visitor#39;s center design, which is essentially two concrete and glass pavilions connected by a long gallery. ;It#39;s like a swan with its wings sp.;那种大胆、简洁的手法是他的惯用手段。“我追求简单到了极致,”安藤忠雄谈起游客中心的设计时说,“它像一个展翅的天鹅。”这个游客中心本质上就是由一个长廊连接起两个混凝土玻璃展馆。Mr. Ando#39;s devotion to concrete is part of his architectural signature. ;Using a material that is ubiquitous, that is everywhere, but still creating something that nobody else can — that#39;s my motto,; Mr. Ando said.安藤忠雄对混凝土的钟爱是他的建筑标志之一。“用随处可见的材料创造出别人创造不出来的东西——这是我的座右铭,”安藤忠雄说。But Mr. Conforti was also keen to have Minnesota red granite as an integrating element, because it is aly featured on the campus, notably the cladding of the Manton building. He recalls the architect resisting for a time (though Mr. Ando now remembers otherwise). In any case, Mr. Ando agreed to use the granite for the first time in his career, for two red walls that serve as the focal point of the entrance. Visitors will walk through the point where the two walls almost meet. They also create an outdoor courtyard and help hide the building#39;s mass upon approach.但是孔福尔蒂也渴望把明尼苏达州的红色花岗岩作为一个组成要素,因为它已经是这个庭院的特色了,尤其是曼顿中心的外墙。他回忆说这位建筑师抵制了一段时间(不过安藤忠雄的回忆不是这样的)。不管怎样,安藤忠雄在事业中首次同意使用花岗岩,用在两堵红墙上,作为入口的焦点。游客们将走过两堵墙几乎相交的地方。这两堵墙还创造了一个室外庭院,帮助隐藏刚到达这个地方的游客。From the beginning, Mr. Ando felt strongly that a water feature would unify the campus. ;I use water quite often in my work,; he said. Mr. Conforti acknowledged that he hadn#39;t jumped at the idea of the tiered pools at first, nor had his trustees.从一开始,安藤忠雄就强烈感觉一个水景将把这个庭院统一起来。“我经常在作品中用水,”他说。孔福尔蒂承认自己一开始并没有欣然接受分层水池的想法,董事会的人也没有欣然接受。He said: ;I think some of the practical people on the board thought, ‘Why build a water feature if it#39;s nonfunctional?#39; It#39;s not a very New England thing to do.; Mr. Conforti decided that humor was the best strategy when it came to convincing others. ;When I first introduced the concept to the community in a slide show back in 2003, my first image of it had a Zamboni,; he said. ;I wanted people to think of it as a fun place to be, not as an architectural affectation.;他说:“我想董事会里的一些注重实用性的人当时在想,‘为什么要建一个没有实用功能的水景?#39; 它不是一个非常符合新英格兰作风的做法。”孔福尔蒂认为,在说别人的时候,幽默是最好的策略。“2003年我第一次用幻灯片把这个设计介绍给董事会的时候,我的第一张图是赞尼磨冰机,”他说,“我想让人们把它当成一个好玩的地方,而不是建筑虚饰。”Mr. Ando, 72, does not strike most who meet him as affected. Given the severity and serenity of his work, his personality takes some people by surprise: a cross between a Japanese philosopher king and an impish uncle, cracking jokes at news conferences and at forums for Clark patrons.72岁的安藤忠雄给大多数见过他的人留下的印象都不是矫揉造作。鉴于他的作品庄重、宁静,他的个性让有些人感到意外:他是日本哲人和顽皮大叔的结合体,他在新闻发布会上以及为克拉克物馆的赞助人们举办的论坛上开玩笑。He takes his work seriously, but not solemnly. He once named his dog Le Corbusier, after his architectural idol, and kept him around the office. ;He could tell the good clients from the bad clients,; Mr. Ando said. ;He would have been quite alerted when he saw Michael.;他认真看待自己的作品,但并不郑重其事。他曾经用自己的建筑学偶像勒·柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)的名字给自己的命名,并让待在办公室里。“他能判断客户的好坏,”安藤忠雄说,“他要是看到迈克尔,一定很警惕。”The legacy of Mr. Conforti will surely rest on the expansion plan#39;s success, and on compromises made over the decade.孔福尔蒂的遗产无疑将是扩展计划的成功以及这十年做出的折中方案。He#39;s thousands of miles away, Mr. Conforti said, ;and he#39;s an architect who is special because of his sculptural, light-filled spaces and not necessarily his devotion to museum programming.;孔福尔蒂说,他在几千英里之外,“作为建筑师,他的特别之处在于雕塑般的、充满阳光的空间,而不必是对物馆规划的投入。”;The respect we had for each other#39;s point of view evolved over time,; he added.“我们对彼此观点的尊重随着时间在增长,”他补充说。As he wrapped up his visit, Mr. Ando seemed pleased. ;Ultimately, we got what we wanted,; he said. ;When the common goal is to have good architecture, usually the fight doesn#39;t end as a fight. It ends as a collaboration.;在结束旅行的时候,安藤忠雄似乎很高兴。“最终,我们得到了我们想要的,”他说,“如果共同目标是设计一个好建筑,那通常争论就不会以争论结束。而是以合作结束。” /201409/328955More than 50 years after its publication, Hannah Arendt’s “Eichmann in Jerusalem” remains enduringly controversial, racking up a long list of critics who continue to pick apart her depiction of the Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann as an exemplar of “the banality of evil,” a bloodless, nearly mindless bureaucrat who “never realized what he was doing.”汉娜·阿伦特(Hannah Arendt)的《耶路撒冷的艾希曼》(Eichmann in Jerusalem)出版50多年来仍具有争议,许多批评者猛烈抨击她对纳粹战犯阿道夫·艾希曼(Adolf Eichmann)的描述,她说他是“平庸的恶”的典型代表,是一个没有感情的、几乎没有思想的官员,“从未意识到自己做了些什么”。Bettina Stangneth, the author of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer,” published in an English translation this week by Alfred A. Knopf, didn’t aim to join those critics. An independent philosopher based in Hamburg, she was interested in the nature of lies, and set out around 2000 to write a study of Eichmann, the Third Reich’s head of Jewish affairs, who was tried in Israel in 1961, in light of material that has emerged in recent decades.这个星期,阿尔弗雷德·A·克诺夫(Alfred A. Knopf)出版社出版了《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼:大屠杀者未被仔细审视的人生》(Eichmann Before Jerusalem: The Unexamined Life of a Mass Murderer)的英译本。该书作者贝蒂娜·斯坦尼思(Bettina Stangneth)无意加入那些批评家的行列。斯坦尼思是汉堡的一位独立哲学家,她感兴趣的是谎言的本质。2000年左右,根据近几十年出现的资料,她开始撰写关于1961年在以色列接受审判的艾希曼的著作,艾希曼是第三帝国犹太事务主管。Then, while ing through the voluminous memoirs and other testimony Eichmann produced while in hiding in Argentina after the war, Ms. Stangneth came across a long note he wrote, dismissing the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant, that flew in the face of Arendt’s notion of Eichmann’s “inability to think.”艾希曼战后在阿根廷藏身时写了大量回忆录和其他文件。斯坦尼思在通读这些资料时发现了他写的一大段笔记,这段笔记驳斥了伊曼努尔·康德(Immanuel Kant)的道德哲学,与阿伦特所谓的“没有思考能力”的艾希曼形象截然相反。“I sat at my desk for three days, thinking about it,” Ms. Stangneth said in a telephone interview from her home. “I was totally shocked. I could not believe this man was able to write something like this.”“我在书桌前坐了三天,思考这个问题,”斯坦尼思在家中接受电话采访时说,“我完全震惊了。我简直不能相信这个人能写出这样的东西。”Ms. Stangneth’s book cites that document and a mountain of others to offer what some scholars say is the most definitive case yet that Eichmann, who was hanged in 1962, wasn’t the order-following functionary he claimed to be at his trial, but a fanatically dedicated National Socialist.斯坦尼思在书中引用了那个文件以及其他大量资料,明了一些学者们心目中最为关键的一点:1962年被绞刑处死的艾希曼绝不像他自己在审讯中所声称的那样,只是一名从命令的公务员,而是一个狂热献身纳粹事业的纳粹党人。If previous researchers have seriously dented Arendt’s case, Ms. Stangneth “shatters” it, said Deborah E. Lipstadt, a historian at Emory University and the author of a 2011 book about the Eichmann trial.埃默里大学的历史学家黛拉·E·利普斯塔特(Deborah E. Lipstadt)说,如果说之前的研究者们严重削弱了阿伦特的论据,那么斯坦尼思“粉碎”了它。利普斯塔特2011年出版了一本关于艾希曼审判的书。The facts about Eichmann in Argentina have been dribbling out, “but she really puts flesh on the bones,” Dr. Lipstadt said. “This was not a guy who just happened to do a dirty job, but someone who played a crucial role and did it with wholehearted commitment.”利普斯塔特士说,艾希曼在阿根廷的一些真相已经陆续传开了,“但她写得生动具体”,“这家伙不是碰巧干了一份肮脏的工作,而是在其中扮演重要角色,全身心投入”。While Ms. Stangneth maintains that Arendt, who died in 1975, was fooled by Eichmann’s performance on the stand, she sees her less as a foil than as an indispensable intellectual companion.斯坦尼思认为阿伦特是被艾希曼在法庭上的表演愚弄了,但她不认为阿伦特不重要,而认为她是个不可或缺的智慧伙伴。阿伦特于1975年去世。“It wasn’t my plan to write a historian’s book, just arguing against Arendt with historical facts,” Ms. Stangneth said. “To understand someone like Eichmann, you have to sit down and think with him. And that’s a philosopher’s job.”“我没打算从历史学家的角度写一本书,只是想用史实与阿伦特辩论,”斯坦尼思说,“想了解艾希曼这样的人,你必须坐下来,从他的角度思考。那是哲学家的工作。”“Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” based on research in more than 30 archives, certainly contains plenty of eye-opening facts, including the revelation that in 1956 Eichmann had drafted an open letter to the West German chancellor, Konrad Adenauer — discovered by Ms. Stangneth in a trove of Eichmann’s papers held in German state archives — proposing that he return to his homeland to stand trial.《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》是在研究了30多个档案馆的资料后撰写的,其中当然有很多令人瞠目的事实,比如,1956年艾希曼曾起草过一份致西德总理康拉德·阿登纳(Konrad Adenauer)的公开信,提议让自己回国受审。那封信是斯坦尼思在德国国家档案馆保存的艾希曼文件里找到的。Ms. Stangneth also describes the sometimes surprisingly open postwar networks that protected Eichmann, as well as the reluctance of West German officials — who knew where Eichmann was as early as 1952, according to classified documents published in 2011 by the German tabloid Bild — to bring him and other former Nazis to justice.斯坦尼思还提到,战后情报关系网的公开程度有时令人惊讶,这保护了艾希曼;西德官员不太愿意将艾希曼和其他前纳粹分子绳之以法。根据德国小报《图片报》(Bild)2011年公布的机密文件,西德官员早在1952年就知道艾希曼的藏身之处。Such revelations drew headlines when Ms. Stangneth’s book appeared in Germany in 2011, the 50th anniversary of the Eichmann trial, contributing to renewed debate about whether Germany’s postwar government had made a complete break with the past. (The full 3,400-page file on Eichmann held by the German intelligence service, the BND, has yet to be declassified.)2011年是艾希曼审判50周年,斯坦尼思的书也于这一年在德国出版,她揭露出来的这些事很快成为报纸头条,再次引发关于战后德国政府是否与过去一刀两断的争论(德国情报机构联邦情报局[BND]仍未公布关于艾希曼的3400页的完整文件)。But the core of “Eichmann Before Jerusalem,” which was translated into English by Ruth Martin, is a detailed portrait of Eichmann and the circle of former Nazis and Nazi sympathizers surrounding him in Argentina, based largely on materials previously available to scholars but never, Ms. Stangneth said, fully or systematically mined.但是《耶路撒冷之前的艾希曼》(英译者露丝·马丁[Ruth Martin])的核心是详细描述艾希曼在阿根廷时的情况,以及当时围绕在他身边的前纳粹分子和纳粹持者。它的主要依据是学者们之前就能看到,但是(据斯坦尼思说)从未被完整或系统挖掘过的资料。“We waste a lot of time waiting for spectacular new material,” she said. “We haven’t sat down and taken a very close look at the material we have.”“我们浪费很多时间等待惊人的新资料,”她说,“而没有坐下来仔细查看已有的资料。”That material forms a veritable mountain. Eichmann’s testimony in Jerusalem runs to thousands of pages of transcripts, notes and handwritten texts, including a 1,200-page memoir he produced after the trial.那些材料真的能够堆积成山。艾希曼在耶路撒冷的词包括成千上万页笔录、笔记和手写文本,包括他在审判后写的1200页的回忆录。Ms. Stangneth, building on the work of others, has also pieced together the so-called Argentina Papers, a tangle of more than 1,300 pages of handwritten memoirs, notes and transcripts of secret interviews of Eichmann in 1957 by Willem Sassen, a Dutch journalist and former Nazi living in Buenos Aires.斯坦尼思以他人的研究为基础,同时也把所谓的阿根廷文件拼凑到了一起,它包括1300多页手写回忆录、笔记以及住在布宜诺斯艾利斯的荷兰记者、前纳粹分子威廉·扎森(Willem Sassen)1957年对艾希曼的秘密采访的笔录。The Sassen transcripts, scattered across three German archives in incomplete and confusingly paginated copies, have long been known to scholars, and small portions were submitted as evidence in Eichmann’s trial, where he dismissed them as loose “pub talk.” (Two brief, edited excerpts also ran in Life magazine.)扎森的笔录分散存放在德国的三个档案馆,残缺不全,页码混乱。学者们很早之前就知道这些笔录,其中一小部分作为据被提交到艾希曼的审判中,他把那些笔录斥为不可靠的“酒吧胡言”(其中两段经过编辑的剪短节选曾刊登在《生活》[Life]杂志上)。Ms. Stangneth uncovered hundreds of pages of previously unknown transcripts in mislabeled files. She also found evidence that the Sassen circle included more people than scholars had previously recognized, among them Ludolf von Alvensleben, former adjutant to Heinrich Himmler, whose participation in some of the interviews, she said, had gone undetected.斯坦尼思在贴错标签的文档中发现了几百页之前不为人知的笔录。她还发现有些学者也在扎森的圈子里,而之前人们并不知道,比如海因里希·希姆莱(Heinrich Himmler)的前助手鲁道夫·冯·阿尔文斯莱本(Ludolf von Alvensleben)。斯坦尼思说,之前人们没有察觉他也参与了其中一些采访。Together, in Ms. Stangneth’s depiction, these men formed a kind of perverse book club, meeting almost weekly at Sassen’s home to work through the emerging public narrative of the Holocaust, discussing every volume and article they could get their hands on, including ones by “enemy” authors. Their goal was to provide material for a book that would expose the Holocaust as a Jewish exaggeration — “the lie of the six million,” as one postwar Nazi publication in Argentina put it. But Eichmann had another, contradictory goal: to claim his place in history.根据斯坦尼思的描述,这些人组成了一种堕落的读书俱乐部,几乎每周都在扎森的家中会面,阅读公众对犹太大屠杀的最新描述,讨论他们能找到的每一本书和每一篇文章,包括“敌方”作者所写的内容。他们的目标是收集资料,写一本书,揭露大屠杀是犹太人的夸张,是“600万人的谎言”(阿根廷一本战后纳粹出版物的说法)。但是艾希曼有另一个相反的目标:确立他在历史上的地位。The facts and figures confirming the scale of the slaughter piled up as Eichmann recounted the rigors of what he called (without irony, Ms. Stangneth notes) his “killer of a job.” Ms. Stangneth es a long Eichmann tirade on his “duty to our blood” — “If 10.3 million of these enemies had been killed,” he declared of the Jews, “then we would have fulfilled our duty” — that left his sympathetic listeners unnerved.在艾希曼叙述自己所谓的“杀手工作”(斯坦尼思指出这绝不是讽刺)的严酷时,他也在提供无数能实屠杀规模的确凿事实。斯坦尼思引用了艾希曼描述自己“天生使命”的长文——“如果真有1030万敌人(他指的是犹太人)被杀,那我们也算完成了使命”——这让同情他的听众们感到不安。“I cannot tell you anything else, for it is the truth!” Eichmann said. “Why should I deny it?”“别的我无可奉告,因为这就是事实!”艾希曼说,“我为什么要否认它呢?”For the Sassen circle, Ms. Stangneth writes, this tirade marked the end of the fantasy that Eichmann would help them defend “pure National Socialism” against the slanderous charges of its enemies. For Eichmann, the Sassen conversations were good practice for Jerusalem, where his Israeli interrogator, Ms. Stangneth writes, noted his facility in answering historical questions, although in service of a very different image of himself.斯坦尼思写道,对扎森的圈子来说,这篇长文标志着幻想的破灭,他们不再指望艾希曼会帮助他们为“纯粹的纳粹主义”辩护,帮助他们否认敌人的诽谤中伤。对艾希曼来说,扎森的采访只是应对耶路撒冷的极佳演练。斯坦尼思写道,以色列审讯者发现艾希曼在回答史实问题时得心应手,不过这次是为了给自己塑造一个完全不同的形象。If Arendt, like many others, was taken in, some historians say, his performance still led her to valuable insights about the mentality of many of those who carried out the killing on the ground.有些史学家说,如果阿伦特像其他很多人那样被蒙骗了,那么他的表演仍让她洞察到很多当时在现场执行屠杀的人们的心态,这很有价值。“She had the right type but the wrong guy,” said the historian Christopher R. Browning, the author of “Ordinary Men,” an influential 1992 study of a German police battalion that killed tens of thousands of Jews in Poland. “There were all sorts of people like Eichmann was pretending to be, which is why his strategy worked.”“她说的那类人的确存在,但他不是那类人,”史学家克里斯托弗·R·布朗宁(Christopher R. Browning)说。他1992年的著作《普通人》(Ordinary Men)很有影响力,该书调查了波兰的一个德国警营,成千上万犹太人在这里被害。“艾希曼所假装的那种人的确存在,各种各样的人都是那样的。所以他的策略才能奏效。”Listening to Eichmann in Jerusalem, Arendt saw an “inability to think.” Listening to Eichmann before Jerusalem, Ms. Stangneth sees a master manipulator skilled at turning reason, that weapon of the enemy, against itself.听着艾希曼在耶路撒冷的陈述,阿伦特看到了一个“不能思考的”人。听着艾希曼在赴耶路撒冷之前的讲述,斯坦尼思看到了一个非常擅长操纵的大师,擅长让理性来反对它自身,而理性原本是敌人的武器。“As a philosopher, you want to protect thinking as something beautiful,” she said. “You don’t want to think that someone who is able to think does not also love it.”“作为一名哲学家,你想维护思考,认为它是一种美丽的东西,”她说,“你不愿认为一个有能力思考的人不喜欢思考。” /201409/329624

Google Glass has been touted for its ability to help users send hands-free texts and empower everyone from physicians to cyclers. Could it also help the image of China#39;s urban pari-police, known for their strong-arm tactics with protesters and street vendors? 谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)一直被宣传为可使用户无需动手便可发送文字信息,为医生和单车一族等各类用户提供强大功能。它是否也能提升以粗暴对待抗议者和街头小贩著称的中国城管的形象呢?When Google Glass went on sale in China earlier this year --thanks to some enterprising folks on Taobao--Jiang Yifan, a chengguan in the city of Changzhou in southern Jiangsu province, was among those snapping them up. 今年早些时候谷歌眼镜在中国开卖时(这要归功于一些有魄力的淘宝卖家),江苏省常州市城管蒋佚凡就抢购了一副。The reason? He hopes it might help him avoid on-the-job incidents such as one over the weekend in Cangnan county, Zhejiang province where state media reported that protesters clashed with chengguan after an onlooker continued to photograph on-duty officers despite requests that the individual stop, prompting a crowd to form. Online, rumors that a chengguan had beaten the photographer to death further fueled anger, although the circumstances of what actually happened are unclear. 他为何要买这个产品呢?他希望谷歌眼镜能帮他避免工作中出现暴力事件。在刚过去的这个周末,浙江苍南县就发生了城管与群众的冲突事件,据官方媒体报道,此前一名过路的群众在城管人员予以阻止后仍继续对城管人员执法现场进行拍照,双方的冲突引来了围观人群。在网上,有谣言称一名城管打死了这名拍照者,尽管真实情况如何尚不清楚,但这还是进一步点燃了群众的愤怒情绪。Unverified photos purportedly taken in Cangnan and posted on social media showed hundreds of people mobbing a van in which bloodied officers had taken refuge. Five officers were surrounded, and state media reported that two sustained life-threatening wounds. 有未经实的据称是在苍南县拍摄的照片(已被发布在社交媒体上)显示,有上百人围攻一辆车,血迹斑斑的城管人员躲在车内。五名城管人员遭到围攻,据官方媒体报道,其中两人伤情危重。The events were the latest in a series of violent incidents involving chengguan, including one high-profile case last year in which a watermelon seller was killed in a brawl in Hunan province. Several officers received prison sentences in that case. 这次事件是最新一起涉及城管人员的暴力事件,在去年一起备受关注的类似事件中,湖南一名瓜农在与城管的争执中被打死,有多名城管人员因该事件被判处有期徒刑。Chengguan like Mr. Jiang are charged with keeping China#39;s streets clean and orderly. But the number of violent situations they#39;ve been involved in has prompted plenty of introspection, as well as concern by nonprofit Human Rights Watch and others about limited checks on their power. Accordingly, Chinese cities have tried a number of tactics to try to improve chengguan-resident relations--apparently including hiring attractive female chengguan. 在中国,像蒋佚凡这样的城管负责维护市容。但城管涉及暴力事件的数量已经带来了许多反思,同时也引发了非营利组织人权观察(Human Rights Watch)及其他机构对城管权力约束不够的担忧。有鉴于此,中国各城市已经尝试了一些措施,力争改善城管与居民的关系。显然,这些措施就包括聘用有吸引力的女城管。Mr. Jiang paid 13,500 yuan (,166) for the Google glasses earlier this month on Taobao. He said his own geekiness, as well as a desire for greater professionalism, played a role in his purchase. “I admire the characters in “Iron Man” and “Dragon Ball” who own the most advanced technologies,” he said in an interview with China Real Time.本月早些时候,蒋佚凡花了人民币13,500元(约合2,166美元)在淘宝(Taobao)上买了一副谷歌眼镜。蒋佚凡还说,他之所以购买谷歌眼镜,部分原因是自己有著书呆子的个性和变得更职业的渴望。他在接受中国实时报(China Real Time)采访时说,他喜欢《钢铁侠》(Iron Man)和《七龙珠》(Dragon Ball)里拥有最先进科技的角色。In a Monday editorial, the state-run Global Times urged the government to address the frequency of chengguan conflicts. The paper cited poor training as an underlying cause for many incidents. #39;Most chengguan are as grassroots as other ordinary people...They take the heaviest burden of urban management, but they are treated with prejudice and bias,#39; the paper said. 《环球时报》英文版(Global Times)周一在一篇社论中敦促政府处理城市管理纠纷频发的问题。该报认为缺乏职业训练是许多事故背后的原因。该报写道,多数城管都是与其他普通人一样的“草根”,他们承受了城市管理中最重的负担,但对待他们的却是歧视和偏见。Mr. Jiang#39;s bosses hope their plucky comrade#39;s choice of tech accessory might help forestall such events in the future. #39;It can help prevent some city residents from making unfounded accusations,#39; the Changzhou chengguan department wrote on its verified Weibo account on Monday. #39;Law enforcement needs to be open and transparent.#39; 领导们希望蒋佚凡对数码设备的大胆选择能有助于在未来避免这类事件。常州市城市周一说,这有助于避免一些市民做出毫无根据的指控。常州市城市还说,执法需要公开和透明。 /201404/290498

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