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来源:安心互动    发布时间:2019年10月15日 09:22:41    编辑:admin         

原味人文风情:27,000 North Korean defectors living in South Korea两万七千名脱北者现居于南韩I am Kang Kun-sung. Im from North Korea. Its been six months since I came to the South.我是姜君松。我来自北韩。我来南韩六个月了。I am Kim Ye-min. I was born and raised in Seoul.我是金艺敏。我在首尔出生长大。What is it called?这叫什么?Through 70 years of separation, languages of the two Koreas have grown apart. Would you mark any unfamiliar words?七十年的分裂期间,两韩的语言产生差异。你能标出任何陌生的字吗?North Korean defector students could understand less than 50 percent of the terms in the textbooks. This led to them being neglected from regular education, and that led to disparity in employment and income. Even Google Translator could not solve the discrepancies in the language. So then, we came to create our own translator—South Korean-North Korean Translator.脱北学生们只能理解教科书内不到一半的字汇。这使得他们被普通教育忽略,而那导致就业和收入的不平等。就连 Google 翻译都无法解决韩语内的歧异。于是,我们打造出自己的翻译程序--南北韩文翻译系统。We designed it so that a simple scan of an unfamiliar South Korean word with a smartphone would translate it into North Korean. Translating several words all at once is also possible. It was hoped that with this app, the North Korean defectors would be able to get proper education. We, of course, plan to continue to help them adjust well to life in South Korea.我们设计出这个程序,这样一来用智能型手机简单扫一下陌生的南韩单字,那个字就能被翻译成北韩的语言。一次同时翻译许多字也可以。我们的宗旨是希望有了这个应用程序,脱北者们就能受到良好的教育。当然,我们也计划持续协助他们适应南韩生活。Koreans were shocked, saddened, but motivated after seeing the translator for what had been the same language.韩国人感到诧异、心酸,但同时也深受鼓舞,在看到这为曾经相同的语言打造的翻译程序后。The young North Koreans should receive good education so that they can play the key role in future reunification.年轻的北韩民众应该受到良好教育,这样他们在未来重新统一时才能扮演关键角色。Nobody knows when the two Koreas will be reunified, but if the two Koreas are able to communicate without barriers through this translator, perhaps, that day would come just a little sooner.没人知道两韩何时会重新统一,但如果两韩能透过这个翻译程序无障碍地沟通,或许,那一天能早一点到来。201704/504595。

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201612/480360。

But Currie felt he had an answer to this. These tyrannosaurs were rare dinosaurs.不过Currie觉得他能解释这个问题。这些暴龙是比较稀少的恐龙They would have made up only five per cent of the animal life in this area.它们只占到了这片地区动物数量的5%The chances that 12 unrelated tyrannosaurs died separately and were washed together to this spot were minute.12只暴龙分别死去,然后又被洪水冲到一起的几率微乎其微To find 12 tyrannosaurs by chance, at this level, in this bone bed.12只暴龙碰巧一起被埋在这个地层、这个化石场中The chances of that happening are about one in 64 million.这种事件的发生几率只有1/64000000It really isnt very likely that its going to happen by chance.所以这种事几乎不可能碰巧发生But there could be an even more dramatic reason why the bones of Curries tyrannosaurs were all in one place.不过还有一种更戏剧性的解释能说明Currie发现的暴龙骨骼为何会被埋在同一个地方They could all have been caught in a predator trap. This is a predator trap.它们可能一起落入了掠食动物陷阱。这就是掠食动物陷阱In this strange swamp-like place, molten tar has bubbled up from deep within the Earth for tens of thousands of years.在这片沼泽般的诡异地带,熔化的焦油数万年来不断从地底深处喷涌而出The sticky tar is lethal to any animal that wanders into it.粘稠的焦油对于任何失足的动物来说都是致命的Within seconds, the creature will become stuck, and then its fate is sealed.几秒钟内,动物可能就被吞没,它的命运也随之封存Predator traps have been found all around the world. This one is in downtown Los Angeles.掠食动物陷阱遍布全世界各地。这个位于洛杉矶市区内201612/483472。

Seventy-thousand years ago, our ancestors were insignificant animals.七万年前,我们的先祖不过是各种动物中的一种。The most important thing to know about prehistoric humans is that they were unimportant.当你想到原人时,最重要的是他们有多不重要。Their impact on the world was not much greater than that of jellyfish or fireflies or woodpeckers.他们对世界的影响力,和水母、萤火虫、啄木鸟差别不大。Today, in contrast, we control this planet. And the question is: How did we come from there to here?今天,相反地,我们变成地球的霸主。所以问题是:我们是怎么走到这一步的?How did we turn ourselves from insignificant apes, minding their own business in a corner of Africa, into the rulers of planet Earth?我们是如何从毫不起眼的人猿,在非洲的角落自生自灭,摇身一变成为地球霸主的?Usually, we look for the difference between us and all the other animals on the individual level.通常,我们会在个体差异上检视我们与其它动物的差别。We want to believe -- I want to believe -- that there is something special about me,我们想要相信--我想要相信,我有些特别的地方about my body, about my brain, that makes me so superior to a dog or a pig, or a chimpanzee.我的身体,我的大脑,让我比、猪或是黑猩猩更高级。But the truth is that, on the individual level, Im embarrassingly similar to a chimpanzee.但事实是,就个体差异来说,我和黑猩猩尴尬地相似。And if you take me and a chimpanzee and put us together on some lonely island,如果你把我和一头黑猩猩放在孤岛上,and we had to struggle for survival to see who survives better,看我们之间谁能生存的更好,I would definitely place my bet on the chimpanzee, not on myself.我会赌是黑猩猩,而不是我。And this is not something wrong with me personally.这不是我个人的错,I guess if they took almost any one of you,我想如果有人把你们其中任何人,and placed you alone with a chimpanzee on some island, the chimpanzee would do much better.和一头黑猩猩一起放在孤岛上,黑猩猩绝对会生存的更好。The real difference between humans and all other animals is not on the individual level; its on the collective level.真正让人类与其它动物分别开来的特质不是个体的,而是群体的。Humans control the planet because they are the only animals that can cooperate both flexibly and in very large numbers.人类控制地球,是因为我们是唯一可以大规模灵活合作的动物。Now, there are other animals -- like the social insects, the bees, the ants其它动物,那些社会性昆虫,蜜蜂、蚂蚁,that can cooperate in large numbers, but they dont do so flexibly.它们也可以大规模地合作,但没有像我们这么灵活。Their cooperation is very rigid. There is basically just one way in which a beehive can function.它们的合作方式是固定的。蜂巢总是用同一种方式运作。And if theres a new opportunity or a new danger, the bees cannot reinvent the social system overnight.就算遇见新的机会或威胁,蜜蜂也无法在一夜之间创造一种社会制度。They cannot, for example, execute the queen and establish a republic of bees, or a communist dictatorship of worker bees.比如说,它们无法处死蜂后,建立蜜蜂共和国,工蜂也不能组成共产政权。Other animals, like the social mammals -- the wolves, the elephants, the dolphins, the chimpanzees其它群居的哺乳类动物,像是狼、大象、海豚、黑猩猩they can cooperate much more flexibly, but they do so only in small numbers,它们的合作更灵活,但规模有限,because cooperation among chimpanzees is based on intimate knowledge, one of the other.因为黑猩猩合作的基础是对彼此的亲密的认知。Im a chimpanzee and youre a chimpanzee, and I want to cooperate with you. I need to know you personally.要是你我都是黑猩猩,我想和你合作,我会需要先认识你。What kind of chimpanzee are you? Are you a nice chimpanzee? Are you an evil chimpanzee? Are you trustworthy?你是哪种黑猩猩?善良的黑猩猩?还是邪恶的黑猩猩?你可靠吗?If I dont know you, how can I cooperate with you?如果我不认识你,我们怎么合作?The only animal that can combine the two abilities together and cooperate both flexibly and still do so in very large numbers is us, Homo sapiens.唯一拥有这两种特质,能大规模合作又能保持灵活的,只有我们,智人。One versus one, or even 10 versus 10, chimpanzees might be better than us.一比一,甚至十比十,黑猩猩都比我们优秀。But, if you pit 1,000 humans against 1,000 chimpanzees, the humans will win easily,但,如果数目提高到一千个人和一千头黑猩猩,人类就能轻易获胜。for the simple reason that a thousand chimpanzees cannot cooperate at all.因为上千头黑猩猩无法一起合作。And if you now try to cram 100,000 chimpanzees into Oxford Street, or into Wembley Stadium,如果你尝试把十万头黑猩猩塞进牛津街、温布利体育馆、or Tienanmen Square or the Vatican, you will get chaos, complete chaos.天安门广场或梵蒂冈,绝对会陷入一片混乱。Just imagine Wembley Stadium with 100,000 chimpanzees. Complete madness.想象塞满十万头黑猩猩的温布利体育馆,那个景象将有多疯狂。In contrast, humans normally gather there in tens of thousands, and what we get is not chaos, usually.相对的,就算成千上万的人在会场里,通常也不会陷入混乱。What we get is extremely sophisticated and effective networks of cooperation.我们有效率、有制度地合作。All the huge achievements of humankind throughout history,人类在历史上达成的巨大成就,whether its building the pyramids or flying to the moon, have been based not on individual abilities,无论是金字塔还是上月球,都不是建立在个体的能力,but on this ability to cooperate flexibly in large numbers.而是群体的灵活合作。Think even about this very talk that Im giving now:想想我这场演讲,Im standing here in front of an audience of about 300 or 400 people, most of you are complete strangers to me.我在三四百个人面前演讲,你们中的大多数我都不认识。Similarly, I dont really know all the people who have organized and worked on this event.我不认识所有组织或参与这个活动的人。I dont know the pilot and the crew members of the plane that brought me over here, yesterday, to London.我不认识昨天带我飞抵伦敦的驾驶员和机组人员。I dont know the people who invented and manufactured this microphone and these cameras, which are recording what Im saying.我不认识是谁发明和制造这些正在拍摄我的演讲的录像机和麦克风。I dont know the people who wrote all the books and articles that I in preparation for this talk.为了准备这段演讲,我读了不少书和论文,我却不认识它们的作者。And I certainly dont know all the people who might be watching this talk over the Internet,我更不知道那些正在网上观看这个演讲的人,somewhere in Buenos Aires or in New Delhi.他们可能在布宜诺斯艾利斯或是在新德里。Nevertheless, even though we dont know each other, we can work together to create this global exchange of ideas.而且,尽管我们不认识彼此,却能在世界的舞台上,一同参与、创造、交换意见。This is something chimpanzees cannot do.这是黑猩猩所做不到的。They communicate, of course, but you will never catch a chimpanzee traveling to some distant chimpanzee band当然,它们也能沟通,但你不会看到一只黑猩猩远渡重洋,to give them a talk about bananas or about elephants, or anything else that might interest chimpanzees.对另一群黑猩猩讲解香蕉或大象,或任何黑猩猩有兴趣的事。Now cooperation is, of course, not always nice; all the horrible things humans have been doing throughout history合作自然不是只有好事。人类历史上所有恐怖的事件and we have been doing some very horrible things -- all those things are also based on large-scale cooperation.我们的确做过一些非常恐怖的事--它们同样也是人类大规模合作达成的。Prisons are a system of cooperation; slaughterhouses are a system of cooperation; concentration camps are a system of cooperation.监狱是一种合作系统,屠宰场是一种合作系统,集中营是一种合作系统。Chimpanzees dont have slaughterhouses and prisons and concentration camps.黑猩猩没有屠宰场、监狱或集中营。Now suppose Ive managed to convince you perhaps that yes,现在或许我已经说你,we control the world because we can cooperate flexibly in large numbers.由于我们大规模灵活合作的能力,我们掌控了世界。The next question that immediately arises in the mind of an inquisitive listener is: How, exactly, do we do it?下一个问题随之而来。好奇的听众心里想:我们是怎么做到的?What enables us alone, of all the animals, to cooperate in such a way? The answer is our imagination.在所有动物中,为什么只有我们这样合作?是我们的想象力。We can cooperate flexibly with countless numbers of strangers,我们之所以可以和无数陌生人一同合作,because we alone, of all the animals on the planet, can create and believe fictions, fictional stories.因为在这星球上的所有动物中,只有我们能创造和相信虚构的故事。And as long as everybody believes in the same fiction,只要大家一同相信同一个故事,everybody obeys and follows the same rules, the same norms, the same values.每个人从并执行一样的规则,一样的基准,一样的价值观。All other animals use their communication system only to describe reality.其它动物的沟通只限于描述真实的事物。A chimpanzee may say, ;Look! Theres a lion, lets run away!;黑猩猩说:“看啊!有狮子!快跑!”Or, ;Look! Theres a banana tree over there! Lets go and get bananas!;或是:“看啊!那有香蕉树!去摘香蕉吧!”Humans, in contrast, use their language not merely to describe reality,而人类呢,我们的语言不只是用来描述现实,but also to create new realities, fictional realities.更能用来创造新的现实,想象的现实。A human can say, ;Look, there is a god above the clouds!人可以说:“看啊!云上有神!And if you dont do what I tell you to do, when you die, God will punish you and send you to hell.;如果你不听从命令,神会在你死后惩罚你直达地狱。”And if you all believe this story that Ive invented,如果你相信我发明的故事,then you will follow the same norms and laws and values, and you can cooperate.你就会依循一样的基准、法则、价值观,你就会合作。This is something only humans can do.这件事只有人类做得到。You can never convince a chimpanzee to give you a banana by promising him, ;After you die, youll go to chimpanzee heaven;你永远无法说一只黑猩猩交出香蕉,就算你承诺它:“死后,你可以到黑猩猩天堂...”;And youll receive lots and lots of bananas for your good deeds. So now give me this banana.;“到时候你的善行,会为你赢得无数的香蕉。现在,快把香蕉给我。”No chimpanzee will ever believe such a story.没有一只黑猩猩会相信这种故事。Only humans believe such stories, which is why we control the world,只有人类会相信这种故事。这就是我们称霸世界,whereas the chimpanzees are locked up in zoos and research laboratories.而黑猩猩关在动物园或实验室的原因。Now you may find it acceptable that yes, in the religious field, humans cooperate by believing in the same fictions.或许你现在可以接受,在宗教领域,拥有相同信念的人一同合作。Millions of people come together to build a cathedral or a mosque or fight in a crusade or a jihad,百万人同心合力建造教堂、清真寺一同参加圣战,because they all believe in the same stories about God and heaven and hell.因为他们信仰神、天堂和地狱。But what I want to emphasize is that exactly the same mechanism underlies all other forms of mass-scale human cooperation,但我想说的是,同样的机制存在于人类各种的大规模合作,not only in the religious field.不限于宗教领域。Take, for example, the legal field.譬如,法制领域。Most legal systems today in the world are based on a belief in human rights. But what are human rights?现在世界上大部分的法律,都以人权为基础。但人权是什么?Human rights, just like God and heaven, are just a story that weve invented.人权,就像神和天堂,都是我们发明的故事。They are not an objective reality; they are not some biological effect about homo sapiens.它们不是客观的事实;它们不是某种智人的生理反应。Take a human being, cut him open, look inside, you will find the heart,解剖人体,往里探看,里面有心脏、the kidneys, neurons, hormones, DNA, but you wont find any rights.肾脏、神经元、荷尔蒙、基因,但你找不到什么权利。The only place you find rights are in the stories that we have invented and sp around over the last few centuries.权利只存在故事里,我们在这几个世纪里创造、散播的故事。They may be very positive stories, very good stories, but theyre still just fictional stories that weve invented.这些故事很好、很正面,但仍然是我们虚构的。The same is true of the political field.政治领域也一样。The most important factors in modern politics are states and nations.国家是今日政治里最重要的元素。But what are states and nations? They are not an objective reality.但国家是什么?它们不是客观事实。A mountain is an objective reality. You can see it, you can touch it, you can ever smell it.山陵是客观事实。你看得到,摸得到,甚至闻得到。But a nation or a state, like Israel or Iran or France or Germany,但国家,以色列、伊朗、法国或德国,this is just a story that weve invented and became extremely attached to.只是我们创造,并且非常依赖的故事。The same is true of the economic field.经济领域也一样。The most important actors today in the global economy are companies and corporations.公司和企业是今日全球金融中不可或缺的元素。Many of you today, perhaps, work for a corporation, like Google or Toyota or McDonalds.你们当中的许多人为企业工作,像谷歌或丰田或麦当劳。What exactly are these things? They are what lawyers call legal fictions.它们是什么?律师叫它们法人。They are stories invented and maintained by the powerful wizards we call lawyers.需要有巫师创造和维持,不过我们通常叫这些巫师叫律师。And what do corporations do all day? Mostly, they try to make money.企业都在做些什么?它们主要的功能是赚钱。Yet, what is money? Again, money is not an objective reality; it has no objective value.但钱是什么?钱也不是客观事实。Take this green piece of paper, the dollar bill. Look at it -- it has no value.这张绿色的纸,一元钞票。它其实一文不值。You cannot eat it, you cannot drink it, you cannot wear it.你不能吃它,不能喝它,不能把它穿在身上。But then came along these master storytellers但这些大故事家来了the big bankers, the finance ministers, the prime ministers, and they tell us a very convincing story:大家,各国的财政部长,总理,他们说着同一个动人的故事:;Look, you see this green piece of paper? It is actually worth 10 bananas.;“你看这张绿色的纸,它可以换十个香蕉。”And if I believe it, and you believe it, and everybody believes it, it actually works.如果我信了,你也信了,大家都信了,这事就成了。I can take this worthless piece of paper, go to the supermarket,我可以拿着这张一文不值的纸,到任何超市,give it to a complete stranger whom Ive never met before, and get, in exchange, real bananas which I can actually eat.把它交给一位素昧平生的陌生人,拿到我可以吃的真的香蕉。This is something amazing. You could never do it with chimpanzees.这未必太神气了。黑猩猩可办不到。Chimpanzees trade, of course: ;Yes, you give me a coconut, Ill give you a banana.; That can work.当然,黑猩猩也懂得交换:“你给我一颗椰子,我给你一根香蕉。”也行。But, you give me a worthless piece of paper and you except me to give you a banana?但如果你给我一张废纸然后要我给你一根香蕉?No way! What do you think I am, a human?想都别想!你把我当什么了,人类吗?Money, in fact, is the most successful story ever invented and told by humans, because it is the only story everybody believes.钱,其实是人类史上最成功的故事。因为它是唯一一个所有人都相信的故事。Not everybody believes in God, not everybody believes in human rights, not everybody believes in nationalism,不是每个人都相信神,不是每个人都追求人权,不是每个人都爱国,but everybody believes in money, and in the dollar bill.但每个人都相信钱,相信现金。Take, even, Osama Bin Laden. He hated American politics and American religion and American culture,就像拉登。他憎恨美国的政策和信仰、美国文化,but he had no objection to American dollars. He was quite fond of them, actually.但他绝对对美金没有意见。他其实挺爱它们的。To conclude, then: We humans control the world because we live in a dual reality.结论是:我们人类称霸世界,因为我们活在双重现实里。All other animals live in an objective reality.其他动物活在客观事实里。Their reality consists of objective entities, like rivers and trees and lions and elephants.它们的真实世界存在于客观现实,像河流、树木、狮子和大象。We humans, we also live in an objective reality.我们人类也活在客观现实里。In our world, too, there are rivers and trees and lions and elephants.我们也有河流、树木、狮子和大象。But over the centuries, we have constructed on top of this objective reality a second layer of fictional reality,但几个世纪来,我们在客观现实上建构了另一个层次的虚拟现实,a reality made of fictional entities, like nations, like gods, like money, like corporations.一个由虚拟现实组成的真实世界,比如国家、神、钱、企业。And what is amazing is that as history unfolded,厉害的是,在历史进程里,this fictional reality became more and more powerful so that today,虚构的现实日渐强大,直到今日,the most powerful forces in the world are these fictional entities.世界上最强大的力量,是这些虚构的主体。Today, the very survival of rivers and trees and lions and elephants今天,幸存的河流、树、狮子和大象,depends on the decisions and wishes of fictional entities,仰赖着这些虚构主体的决定和期待生存,like the ed States, like Google, like the World Bank -- entities that exist only in our own imagination. Thank you.像美国、谷歌、世界--这些只存在于我们想象中的主体。谢谢各位。Yuval, you have a new book out.乌瓦尔,你有一本新书即将出版。After Sapiens, you wrote another one, and its out in Hebrew, but not yet translated into...出版《人类大历史》后,你又写了一本,希伯来文的版本已经出版了,但还没翻译成...Im working on the translation as we speak.我现在正在翻译。In the book, if I understand it correctly, you argue that在这本书里,如果我想得没错的话,你说the amazing breakthroughs that we are experiencing right now not only will potentially make our lives better,我们现在经历的这些奇妙的技术突破,不只会让我们的生活更好,but they will create -- and I e you -- ;new classes and new class struggles, just as the industrial revolution did.;更有可能创造--你这么说--“新的阶级和新的阶级斗争,就像工业革命时期一样。”Can you elaborate for us?你可以多说一点吗?Yes. In the industrial revolution, we saw the creation of a new class of the urban proletariat.好的。在工业革命时期,我们创造了城市中的无产阶级。And much of the political and social history of the last 200 years过去两百年的社经历史,involved what to do with this class, and the new problems and opportunities.都在处理由此而生的新问题和机会。Now, we see the creation of a new massive class of useless people.现在,一群没用的人组成了一个新阶级。As computers become better and better in more and more fields,计算机在各个领域越来越强。there is a distinct possibility that computers will out-perform us in most tasks and will make humans redundant.很快的,计算机在许多领域上会胜过人类,人类将变得多余。And then the big political and economic question of the 21st century will be,这个世纪最大的政治和经济问题是,;What do we need humans for?;, or at least, ;What do we need so many humans for?;“我们需要人类做什么?”或者至少是,“我们需要这么多人做什么?”Do you have an answer in the book?书里会找到吗?At present, the best guess we have is to keep them happy with drugs and computer games...目前,我们只能用药物、尽量让他们开心...but this doesnt sound like a very appealing future.虽然好像也不是什么值得期待的前景。Ok, so youre basically saying in the book and now,所以你在书里和现在所说的是,that for all the discussion about the growing evidence of significant economic inequality,各种讨论和据都显示,所有的贫富差距、经济不平等,we are just kind of at the beginning of the process?都只是刚刚开始而已?Again, its not a prophecy; its seeing all kinds of possibilities before us.这不是预言;只是评估眼前的所有可能性。One possibility is this creation of a new massive class of useless people.其中一种可能是创造了一种无用阶级。Another possibility is the division of humankind into different biological castes,另一种可能是用生理把人类分成几种阶级,with the rich being upgraded into virtual gods, and the poor being degraded to this level of useless people.富人升等为神,穷人则贬到无用之人的阶级。I feel there is another TED talk coming up in a year or two.我想一两年内会有这个TED演说。Thank you, Yuval, for making the trip. Thanks!谢谢你远道而来。谢谢!201706/513992。

Google DeepMind is training its artificial intelligence software to detect early signs of eye diseases.谷歌DeepMind正在训练其人工智能软件来检测眼部疾病的早期症状。Its aimed at detecting two diseases — age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. The latter can lead to blindness if not detected early.它的目的是检测两种疾病,即老年性黄斑病变和糖尿病视网膜病变。如果没有及早发现,后者可能导致失明。DeepMind is analyzing about 1 million eye scans to develop an algorithm that can catch early warning signs of the conditions. DeepMind通过分析约一百万份眼部扫描来开发一种算法,能够捕获眼部情况的早期预警信号。If you have an OCT scan done, a machine learning algorithm will be able to tell you if its urgent versus something thats not so urgent.It will allow us to get much earlier detection of the blinding disease.如果你已经完成一次光学相干断层扫描,机器学习算法将能告诉你情况是否紧急,将让我们更早的检测到致盲的疾病。The company has caught flak from privacy critics in the past. It was using patient data to develop an app that identifies the risk of kidney failure. Some said it was allowed too much access to patient information. 谷歌公司过去因隐私问题受到指责。它使用病人的数据开发一个确定肾功能衰竭风险的应用程序。有人称其太多获取病人的信息。But DeepMind says the eye scans were handed over without any identifying information about the patients they came from and are supposed to be completely anonymous. 但DeepMind称眼部扫描不会登记病人信息,患者是完全匿名的。The U.K.s National Health Service and Moorfields Eye Hospital in London partnered with DeepMind to develop the machine learning system. 英国国民健康务和伦敦眼科医院与DeepMind合作开发这项机器学习系统。译文属。201607/453020。

Bei Bei, the Smithsonian National Zoos resident baby panda, is recovering from lifesaving surgery. 美国史密森国家动物园的熊猫贝贝正从救命手术中恢复过来。The baby bear had to undergo surgery after a lemon-sized clump of bamboo got stuck in his bowel.这只熊猫宝宝的肠道淤塞一团“柠檬般大的竹子”,必须接受手术治疗。Zookeepers noticed Bei Bei was acting a little funky earlier this week — the cub was sleeping more, not eating and showed some signs of a stomach problem. 本周早些时候,动物园管理员注意到贝贝表现得有些古怪,睡眠时间多于正常情况,停止进食,并且出现肠胃不适症状。A doctor at the zoo gave the bear an ultrasound and found something lodged in his small intestine. And unfortunately there was no way it would fix itself.动物园的医生给贝贝进行超声波检查,发现他的小肠内有东西。不幸的是,这是没有办法自己修复的。So the zoo removed the mass and now Bei Bei is recovering. Eventually hell be back on a normal diet and reunited with his mother, Mei Xiang.因此,动物园通过手术将团块移除,现在贝贝正在恢复。最终他将回归正常的饮食,并与他的母亲美香团聚。译文属。201611/480750。

Have you ever heard someone say shoulda? “Oh yeah, I shoulda done that!”你是否曾听过有人说“shoulda”?“Oh yeah,I shoulda done that!”Whats it mean? In this American English pronunciation , youre going to learn about shoulda, woulda, coulda.这是什么意思?在这节美式英语发音视频中,你将会学习关于shoulda,woulda,coulda的发音。Shoulda is a reduction of should have.“shoulda”是“should have”的缩略形式。I made a years ago about dropping the H in words like have – we do it all the time in spoken American English.几年前我录制过一个关于省略“have”这类词中的H的视频,美式英语中我们经常这样。But in shoulda, were going a lot further than just dropping the H.Were reducing the AA vowel to the schwa, and were dropping the V sound.但是在“shoulda”中,我们不只是省略H。我们把元音AA弱读成弱元音,并且省略掉V的音。All were left with is the schwa, uh (loop two times). Shoulda, woulda, coulda.我们剩下的只有弱元音uh(循环两次)。Shoulda,woulda,coulda.Note that the L is silent in these words, and they all have the UH vowel, as in book, where the lips flare a little bit and theres some tension in the back of the tongue as it lifts a bit.注意这些单词中的“L”是不发音的,并且他们都有和“book”中一样的元音UH,嘴唇微微撅起,舌头微抬,后部拉紧。Uh, should, uh, would, uh, could. Shoulda, woulda, coulda.Uh,should,uh,would,uh,could. Shoulda,woulda,coulda.Lets look at some sentences.I shoulda been there. You coulda been hurt! I shoulda seen it coming.我们来看一些句子。你本应该在那儿。你可能受伤了!我本应该看到它过来了。I woulda been there. We coulda tried harder. I woulda thought so.我会在那儿的。我们应该更加努力。我本来也是这样想的。Sometimes I pronounce these words like this, all the way reduced, and sometimes I make a light V sound, vv (loop three times).有时候我用完全省略的方式略读,有时候我会发出轻微的V音,vv(循环三次)Theres no reason why I do it one way or another, I just know that I do, and youll probably hear it both ways.两种不同的发音没有特别的原因,我就是这么做了,你也两种方法都有可能听到。Now, you dont want to try to write them this way, but speaking? Yes, do it. These reductions sound like natural American English.你并不想这么写,只想这么说?没问题。这些略读听起来就像纯正美式发音。Shoulda, woulda coulda. (loop two times) these three words together is a phrase we sometimes use to say oh well.Shoulda,woulda coulda.(循环两次)这三个单词连在一起是一个词组,我们有时会用来表示“哦,好吧”。Man, I wish I had bought Apple stock ten years ago. -Shoulda, woulda, coulda.Bonus: Lets learn the negative too: Should not have.伙计,我真希望十年前我买了苹果的股票。-哦,好吧。额外福利:我们也来学习一下否定:Should not have.Americans will say this: shouldn-uh (loop two times). Drop the word not and just make an N sound.美国人会这么说:shouldn-uh (循环两次)。省略单词“not”只发出N的音。So its going to sound like two or three syllables, depending on how fast you transition from D to N: shouldnt-uh (loop two times).所以根据你从D过渡到N的快慢,可以发出两个或三个音节。shouldn’t-uh(循环两次)Right after should, hold out an N: shouldnnnnn.The tongue position for D and N is almost the same. Shouldnnnnnnnnnn-uh.should后面,发出一个长的N音:shouldnnnnn。D和N舌头的位置几乎是一样的,Shouldnnnnnnnnnn-uh。Then just release the tongue to make the schwa. Shouldn-uh (loop two times).This is the same for couldnt have, couldna, and wouldnt have, wouldna.然后释放舌头发出弱元音。Shouldn-uh(循环两次)“couldn’t have”和“wouldn’t have”的发音同样如此。Lets look at some example sentences.我们来看一些例子。Shouldnt have, shouldna. I shouldnt have said that. Im sorry. It shouldnt have started aly. Shouldna.不应该,应该。我不应该那样说。对不起。它本来应该还没有开始。应该。Couldnt have, couldna. You couldnt have known. We couldnt have made it anyway. Couldna (loop two times).不能,能。你本不该知道的。无论如何,我们本不该做这个。能(循环两次)Wouldnt have, wouldna. I wouldnt have said that. It wouldnt have mattered. Wouldna (loop two times).Wouldn’t have,wouldna.我本来就没那样说过。本来应该没关系的。Wouldna (循环两次)I hope youll now be more comfortable identifying these phrases when you hear them, and reducing them yourself in conversation.我希望现在你听到这些词组的时候能更容易分辨,并且在自己的对话中进行略读。If theres a word or phrase youd like help pronouncing, please put it in the comments below.如果你有单词或者词组的发音需要帮助,请在下面。Dont forget to sign up for my mailing list by clicking here or in the description below to keep up with all my latest s – its free.不要忘记点击这里或者下面的描述免费订阅我的邮件,关注我最新的视频。Thats it, and thanks so much for using Rachels English.这次的学习就到这里,非常感谢使用Rachels English。201707/516212。

Paul Krugman, the Nobel Prize in economics, once wrote:诺贝尔经济学奖得主,保罗克·鲁格曼,曾经说过:;Productivity is not everything, but in the long run, it is almost everything.;“生产力不能代表一切,但长期来看,它差不多就是一切。”So this is serious. There are not that many things on earth that are ;almost everything.;这是个严肃的问题。世界上没有什么东西能“几乎代表一切。”Productivity is the principal driver of the prosperity of a society. So we have a problem.生产力是社会繁荣的主要推动力。那么我们面临着一个问题。In the largest European economies, productivity used to grow five percent per annum in the 50s, 60s, early 70s.在欧洲最大的经济体当中,50、60年代和70年代初期的生产力,曾经保持着每年5%的增长速度。From 73 to 83: three percent per annum. From 83 to 95: two percent per annum.在1973-1983年间,生产力年化增长率为3%。在1983-1995年间,生产力年化增长率保持在2%。Since 1995: less than one percent per annum. The same profile in Japan.自1995年以来,生产力年化增长率每年的增长一直低于1%。日本也是如此。The same profile in the US, despite a momentary rebound 15 years ago, and despite all the technological innovations around us:美国亦是如此,即便15年前出现了一次短暂的经济复苏,虽然我们身边的科技日新月异:the Internet, the information, the new information and communication technologies.例如互联网,信息技术,新信息技术和通讯技术的发展。When productivity grows three percent per annum, you double the standard of living every generation.生产力年化增长率为3%时,生活水平每个年代会翻一番。Every generation is twice as well-off as its parents.每一代人享受到的福利是其父母那代的两倍。When it grows one percent per annum, it takes three generations to double the standard of living.当增长率仅为1%时,需要3代的时间才能使生活水平翻一番。And in this process, many people will be less well-off than their parents.在这一进程中,许多人会过得还不如他们的父母。They will have less of everything: smaller roofs, or perhaps no roof at all,他们的一切都更差些:房子更小了,或者根本没房子,less access to education, to vitamins, to antibiotics, to vaccination -- to everything.受教育机会更少,获取维生素、抗生素、疫苗的机会也更少--一切机会都更少。Think of all the problems that were facing at the moment. All.考虑下我们当前所面临的所有问题。所有问题。Chances are that they are rooted in the productivity crisis.我们的问题有可能是扎根于生产力危机之上的。Why this crisis? Because the basic tenets about efficiency为什么说这个危机是根源呢?因为效率的基本原理effectiveness in organizations, in management -- have become counterproductive for human efforts.组织、管理的效率--往往会使人们的努力适得其反。Everywhere in public services -- in companies, in the way we work, the way we innovate, invest -- try to learn to work better.在公共事业的任何地方--在公司当中、我们的工作方式里、我们的创新、投资方式上--都在努力提高效率。Take the holy trinity of efficiency: clarity, measurement, accountability. They make human efforts derail.效率的三位一体是指:透明度、衡量和问责制。它们使人们的努力白费。There are two ways to look at it, to prove it. One, the one I prefer, is rigorous, elegant, nice -- math.有两个方式来看待、明这点。第一,也是我偏向的一种,是严谨,典雅,美观大方的数学。But the full math version takes a little while, so there is another one.但完整的数学评估方案需要一点时间,因此又有了另一种方式。It is to look at a relay race. This is what we will do today.就是通过接力赛跑来看。也是我们今天要用到的。Its a bit more animated, more visual and also faster -- its a race. Hopefully, its faster.这样会更生动、更直观也更快--这是短跑比赛嘛。当然,我们希望它更便捷。World championship final -- women. Eight teams in the final.世界杯决赛--女子项目。决赛共有八队。The fastest team is the US team. They have the fastest women on earth. They are the favorite team to win.最快的是美国队。美国有全世界最快的女运动员。她们是夺冠热门。Notably, if you compare them to an average team, say, the French team,显然,如果你把她们和一般的队伍比较,比如说,法国队吧,based on their best performances in the 100-meter race, if you add the individual times of the US runners,按照她们在100米短跑当中的最佳成绩,把美国选手个人的成绩相加起来,they arrive at the finish line 3.2 meters ahead of the French team.最后她们会在达终点线时比法国队领先3.2米。And this year, the US team is in great shape.今年,美国队状态很好。Based on their best performance this year, they arrive 6.4 meters ahead of the French team, based on the data.根据她们今年的最好成绩,她们在到达终点时应该要领先法国队6.4米,这是根据数据推算的。We are going to look at the race.那我们来看一下比赛。At some point you will see, towards the end, that Torri Edwards, the fourth US runner, is ahead.从某个角度来看,快到终点时,Torri Edwards,美国队第四棒,暂时领先。Not surprising -- this year she got the gold medal in the 100-meter race.毫不意外地--今年她在100米赛跑中获得了金牌。And by the way, Chryste Gaines, the second runner in the US team, is the fastest woman on earth.顺便说下,Chryste Gaines,美国队第二棒,是地球上跑得最快的女性。So, there are 3.5 billion women on earth. Where are the two fastest?那么,全世界有35亿女性。最快的两个在哪里?On the US team. And the two other runners on the US team are not bad, either.在美国队。美国队的另外两名选手也不赖。So clearly, the US team has won the war for talent.显然,美国队赢得了人才争夺战。But behind, the average team is trying to catch up. Lets watch the race.不过在其背后,普通的队伍也在奋力追赶。我们来看下比赛。So what happened? The fastest team did not win; the slower one did.所以视频里发生了什么?最快的队伍没有赢;慢的那一队反而赢了。By the way, I hope you appreciate the deep historical research I did to make the French look good.顺便说下,我希望你们能认可我做了非常深入的历史研究来使法国看起来很好。But lets not exaggerate -- its not archeology, either.但我们不要这么夸张--这也不是考古学。But why? Because of cooperation. When you hear this sentence:但是为什么呢?因为合作。当你听到这句话:;Thanks to cooperation, the whole is worth more than the sum of the parts.;“多亏了合作,整体大于部分之和。”This is not poetry; this is not philosophy. This is math.这不是诗歌;这不是哲学。这是数学。Those who carry the baton are slower, but their baton is faster.握着接力棒的人跑得慢了点,但她们交接棒更快。Miracle of cooperation: it multiplies energy, intelligence in human efforts.合作的奇迹:它能让人们努力的能量和智慧加倍。It is the essence of human efforts: how we work together, how each effort contributes to the efforts of others.这是人们努力的精髓:我们如何合作,个人的成果如何为团队做贡献。With cooperation, we can do more with less.通过合作,我们可以事半功倍。Now, what happens to cooperation when the holy grail -- the holy trinity, even -- of clarity, measurement, accountability -- appears?那么,当目标--包含了--清晰度、衡量、问责的圣神三位一体--出现时,会对合作产生什么影响?Clarity. Management reports are full of complaints about the lack of clarity.清晰度。管理报告充满了对缺乏清晰度的抱怨。Compliance audits, consultants diagnostics.合规性审核、咨询诊断。We need more clarity, we need to clarify the roles, the processes.我们需要更高的清晰度,我们要明确角色分担和过程。It is as though the runners on the team were saying, ;Lets be clear -- where does my role really start and end?就好比说队伍里的选手说,“我们明确下吧--我从哪里跑到哪里?Am I supposed to run for 95 meters, 96, 97...?; Its important, lets be clear.我要跑95米,还是96、97米...?”这很重要,我们要分清楚。If you say 97, after 97 meters, people will drop the baton, whether there is someone to take it or not.如果你说97米的话,那么跑完97米,人们就会把交接棒丢掉,可不管到时候有没有人接。Accountability. We are constantly trying to put accountability in someones hands.问责制。我们总是试图把责任规定给某个人。Who is accountable for this process? We need somebody accountable for this process.谁对这个过程负责?我们需要一个人对这个过程负责。So in the relay race, since passing the baton is so important, then we need somebody clearly accountable for passing the baton.所以在接力赛中,既然交接棒如此之重要,那么我们需要非常明确负责交接棒的人是谁。So between each runner, now we will have a new dedicated athlete,在两个选手中间,我们现在要规定一个新的专门的运动员,clearly dedicated to taking the baton from one runner, and passing it to the next runner.这个运动员要非常明确地专注于接过上一个选手的交接棒,然后再交接给下一个选手。And we will have at least two like that. Well, will we, in that case, win the race?而且我们至少需要两个这样的选手。那么,我们,这样以来会赢得比赛吗?That I dont know, but for sure, we would have a clear interface, a clear line of accountability.这个我就不知道了,但是可以肯定的是,我们有一个明确的分工,对责任有了非常明确的划分界线。We will know who to blame. But well never win the race.我们会知道由谁来承担过错。但我们不会赢得比赛。If you think about it, we pay more attention to knowing who to blame in case we fail, than to creating the conditions to succeed.如果你仔细想想,会发现我们在失败时把更多精力集中在确定谁来负责的问题上,而不是去创造有利于成功的条件。All the human intelligence put in organization design -- urban structures, processing systems -- what is the real goal?把所有的人类智慧都投入到组织设计当中--城市结构、处理系统--真正的目的是什么?To have somebody guilty in case they fail.目的是在失败的时候把责任归咎于某人。We are creating organizations able to fail, but in a compliant way, with somebody clearly accountable when we fail.我们创造了会失败的组织,但是以一种合规的方式来创造的,在这种组织中有明确的人来为失败负责。And we are quite effective at that -- failing.在失败这点上,人们做的相当有效率。Measurement. What gets measured gets done.衡量。东西衡量好了,事情也就完成了。Look, to pass the baton, you have to do it at the right time, in the right hand, at the right speed.你看,要传递交接棒,你要在对的时间、用对的手、以正确的速度来传递。But to do that, you have to put energy in your arm. This energy that is in your arm will not be in your legs.但要这么做的话,你要把能量分配到你的手臂里。你手臂中的能量不在你的腿里。It will come at the expense of your measurable speed.你必须牺牲掉可被衡量的速度。You have to shout early enough to the next runner when you will pass the baton,你将要交接的时候要及早喊出声,to signal that you are arriving, so that the next runner can prepare, can anticipate.发出信号说明你快到了,以便让下一位选手最好准备、有所预备。And you have to shout loud. But the blood, the energy that will be in your throat will not be in your legs.而且你要喊得够大声。但是这时血液、能量会集中在你的喉咙里,而不是你的腿里。Because you know, there are eight people shouting at the same time.因为你知道,这时候有8个人同时在喊。So you have to recognize the voice of your colleague. You cannot say, ;Is it you?; Too late!所以你要辨别得出你队友的声音。你可不能说,“是你吗?”这就晚了!Now, lets look at the race in slow motion, and concentrate on the third runner.那么,我们现在看下比赛的慢动作,大家注意第三棒选手。Look at where she allocates her efforts, her energy, her attention.你看她把力量、能量和注意力都分配在哪里。Not all in her legs -- that would be great for her own speed -- but in also in her throat, arm, eye, brain.并没有都在腿部--虽然这样对她的速度很有利--可也分配在了喉咙、手臂、眼睛、大脑里。That makes a difference in whose legs? In the legs of the next runner.那么这对哪个选手的腿产生了影响呢?是下一个选手的腿。But when the next runner runs super-fast, is it because she made a super effort, or because of the way the third runner passed the baton?但当下一名选手跑得特别快的时候,这是因为她自己特别使劲跑了呢,还是因为前面一名选手的交接棒传得好呢?There is no metric on earth that will give us the answer.这个地球上没有标准来给我们一个。And if we reward people on the basis of their measurable performance,如果我们根据可以测量的表现来对人们进行奖励的话,they will put their energy, their attention, their blood in what can get measured -- in their legs.人们就会把自己的能量、注意力和血液集中在能够被测量的部位--就是腿部。And the baton will fall and slow down.而这样一来交接棒会滑落然后传递速度会减慢。To cooperate is not a super effort, it is how you allocate your effort.合作不是一股超级力量,而是对力量的分配。It is to take a risk, because you sacrifice the ultimate protection granted by objectively measurable individual performance.这意味着冒险,因为你要牺牲可被客观测量的个人表现所能给予你的终极保障。It is to make a super difference in the performance of others, with whom we are compared.这对别人的表现有着重要影响,而这些人正是和我们相比较的人。It takes being stupid to cooperate, then. And people are not stupid; they dont cooperate.所以要合作就要当傻子。但是人们可不是傻子;所以他们不合作。You know, clarity, accountability, measurement were OK when the world was simpler. But business has become much more complex.你知道吗,在比较简单的世界里,清晰度、问责制、衡量都是可行的。但商业已经变得更加复杂了。With my teams, we have measured the evolution of complexity in business.我的团队,我们评估了商业复杂度的演变。It is much more demanding today to attract and retain customers, to build advantage on a global scale, to create value.如今要吸引并留住客户,打造世界级的优势并创造价值,是一件要求严苛的事。And the more business gets complex, the more, in the name of clarity, accountability, measurement we multiply structures, processes, systems.而商业越是复杂,我们就越是会以清晰度、问责和衡量的名义来让结构、过程和体制更加复杂繁多。You know, this drive for clarity and accountability triggers a counterproductive multiplication of interfaces,要知道,这种对清晰度和问责的推崇会引发一种反生产力的复杂化,导致出现更多的分界线、middle offices, coordinators that do not only mobilize people and resources, but that also add obstacles.中间部门、协调者,他们不仅能动员人力和物资,但也会增添障碍。And the more complicated the organization, the more difficult it is to understand what is really happening.组织越是复杂,就越难理解究竟发生了什么。So we need summaries, proxies, reports, key performance indicators, metrics.所以我们需要做总结、代理、报告、关键绩效指标、衡量标准。So people put their energy in what can get measured, at the expense of cooperation.所以人们都把精力放在了可以被测量的东西上,然后牺牲合作。And as performance deteriorates, we add even more structure, process, systems.当表现退步了,我们会增加更多的结构、过程、体系。People spend their time in meetings, writing reports they have to do, undo and redo.人们会把时间都用来开会、写报告,写了又改、改了又写。Based on our analysis, teams in these organizations spend between 40 and 80 percent of their time wasting their time,根据我们的分析数据显示,这些机构的团队会把40%到80%的时间用来浪费时间,but working harder and harder, longer and longer, on less and less value-adding activities.他们越做越辛苦,越做越耗时,而增值活动却越来越少。This is what is killing productivity, what makes people suffer at work.这才是泯灭生产力的罪魁祸首,这才是让人们工作痛苦的原因。Our organizations are wasting human intelligence. They have turned against human efforts.我们的组织在浪费人类智慧。它们和人类的努力背道而驰。When people dont cooperate, dont blame their mindsets, their mentalities, their personality -- look at the work situations.当人们不合作的时候,不要怪他们的思想、他们的心理、他们的性格--请看一下他们的工作环境吧。Is it really in their personal interest to cooperate or not,合作与否真的事关他们的个人利益吗,if, when they cooperate, they are individually worse off? Why would they cooperate?如果他们合作了,他们的个人表现会不会被削弱?既然如此他们为什么还会合作呢?When we blame personalities instead of the clarity, the accountability, the measurement, we add injustice to ineffectiveness.当我们责怪的是一个人的性格,而不是责怪清晰度、问责制和衡量方法时,我们在无效之上又加上了不公正。We need to create organizations in which it becomes individually useful for people to cooperate.我们要创造的组织,应该让人们觉得合作有益于个人。Remove the interfaces, the middle offices -- all these complicated coordination structures.把界线划分、中间部门取消掉--所有这些复杂的协调结构。Dont look for clarity; go for fuzziness. Fuzziness overlaps.不要强求清晰度;选择模糊。模糊没有明确分界线。Remove most of the quantitative metrics to assess performance.取消大部分的评估表现的量化指标。Speed the ;what.; Look at cooperation, the ;how.;速度指的是“什么”。可我们要看的是合作,即“如何。”How did you pass the baton? Did you throw it, or did you pass it effectively?你如何传递交接棒?你直接抛弃它吗,还是有效地传递过去?Am I putting my energy in what can get measured -- my legs, my speed -- or in passing the baton?我是不是把我的能量都集中在了可量化的方面--我的腿,我的速度-- 还是放在了如何传递交接棒上?You, as leaders, as managers, are you making it individually useful for people to cooperate?你们,作为领导和管理者,是否让人们觉得合作有益于个人了?The future of our organizations, our companies, our societies hinges on your answer to these questions. Thank you.我们组织、公司、社团的未来取决于你们对这些问题的。谢谢。201706/515075。