南川区做隆鼻手术多少钱排名门户

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 南川区做隆鼻手术多少钱中国门户
Woodpeckers puncture the bark of dead or dying trees,also known as snags, to find the wood-boring insects that makeup their diet, and some species also excavate cavities in thesetrees for their nests.啄木鸟啄破死树或垂死的树的树皮,觅得吃木头的昆虫为食。有些物种也会在这些树上筑巢。So where does the fungus come in?那么真菌是从哪来的呢?Well, scientists observed that the snags woodpeckersexcavate generally contain decayed wood, which is caused by wood-decay fungi.恩,科学家们观察到啄木鸟啄洞的断枝通常包含由木腐菌造成的蛀木。Right. And thisled them to wonder whether woodpeckers are attracted to certain types of decay, or if theyrethe ones actually sping the fungus that causes the decay.是的。而且这引起观察家们思考:是某些类型的腐烂吸引了啄木鸟,还是说啄木鸟实际上传播了引起腐烂的真菌呢?So what did come first?那么到底哪个在先?Well, it turns out that the relationship between the two is pretty complex.恩,事实明两者关系相当复杂。When woodpeckers puncture bark, they provide a way for airborne fungal spores to infect the wood.当啄木鸟啄树皮时,它们为空气传播的真菌孢子感染树木提供了方便,They also act as vectors, unintentionally picking up fungal spores and other microbes from onesnag and carrying them in their beaks to another.它们同时也是带菌者,无意中携带了真菌孢子和来自某根断枝的其他细菌,它们的喙载着这些细菌再传播给其他树木。And not surprisingly, species of woodpeckersthat nest in cavities carry a significantly larger number of these, which is synergistic, because the decay makes it easier for them to excavate.毫不奇怪的是,那些在树洞里筑巢的啄木鸟携带着更大量的真菌,它们是协同作用着的,因为腐烂使得啄木鸟啄洞更容易了。So even though we still dont know which came first, this also isnt merely an intellectual exercise.因此,即使我们不知道先有哪个,这也不仅仅是一种智力测验。Woodpeckers are pretty important ecologically because the sites they excavate are used forforaging, roosting, and nesting by many other species as well.从生态学的观点看,啄木鸟的角色相当重要,因为啄木鸟挖掘的树洞可以用于觅食,栖息,还可以被其他物种用来筑巢。And now that theres debate overwhether snags contribute to forest fires and should be removed, its especially important to studypotential ramifications.既然人们关于断枝是否会导致森林火灾而应该被移除争论不休,那么研究一下可能出现的后果就特别重要了。 201405/296982

Finance and economics财经商业Global house prices全球房价Mixed messages喜忧掺杂America surges, much of Europe sinks美国突破,欧洲大部分沦陷HOUSING markets are prone to boom-and-bust cycles, with prices overshooting then undershooting sustainable levels.房屋市场倾向于陷入价格怪圈,房价急速上升然后跌至谷底。To work out whether they are over- or undervalued,The Economist uses two gauges.为了解决房价与价值不符这一问题,经济学人用了2种计量方式。One assesses affordability by comparing prices with disposable income.一种可行的方式是比较可配收入与房价水平。The other considers the case for investing in housing by comparing prices with rents.另一种定价方法考虑到了租金与房价的关系。If these ratios are higher than their historical averages property is overvalued; if they are lower it is undervalued.如果这些比率高于历史平均那么房价就过高,反之则过低。On this basis, Canada’s house prices are bubbly whereas Japan’s are undeservedly flat.通过这一方法可以看出,加拿大出现房产泡沫,而日本的房价则奇怪地维持着平稳。America’s formerly stricken market has rebounded: house prices have risen by 12.1% over the past year.而之前美国低迷的市场也有了回暖,房屋价格较前一年上升了12.1%。But the recovery still appears to be sound, since prices remain undervalued against income.但是这回暖仅仅是“似乎”,事实上根据收入水平,房价应更高。A sharp rise in mortgage rates since May, on signs that the Federal Reserve will shortly slow the pace of asset purchases, may in any case temper the boom.五月份以来,抵押率迅速上升,这标志着美联储将会立刻放缓资产购买的步伐。或许无论如何都要促使市场繁荣。Britain’s recovery is built on shakier foundations.英国市场的恢复建立在极不稳固的基础上。House-price growth has picked up in recent months to 3.9% and is likely to accelerate further, even though valuations are still overstretched.最近几月,房价上升3.9%,而且看上去这一上涨势头在未来会更加猛烈,尽管股价仍旧过高。The market is being buoyed through a subsidy scheme that lowers funding costs for mortgage lenders and through special help for low-deposit borrowers.房屋市场的好转由补贴政策撑着。该政策为抵押放贷者降低融资成本,并且通过特殊方法帮助低收入借款人。Despite favourable valuations, Japanese house prices continue to fall, though at a modest 2.2%.尽管房价处于较好的数值区间,日本房价也在持续下落,最新数据显示已下降了2.2%。The worst-performing markets are in the euro area, notably in southern Europe but also in some northern countries.欧洲市场表现最差尤其是南欧和部分北欧国家同时,The French market is also depressed.法国市场也令人失望。Valuations remain stretched in Spain even though house prices have fallen by 30% since early 2008.尽管从2008年以来西班牙房价已下跌了30%,但其定价仍旧过高。But the recent pick-up in the Irish market looks sustainable following a 49% price crash.最近数据显示,在暴跌了49%以后,爱尔兰的房屋市场还能够可持续发展。Brighter signs gleam elsewhere, especially in Germany, which avoided the pre-crisis frenzy.关于房市的好消息在其他地方有些许听闻,特别是德国。这个国家避开了之前的危机。Prices there have risen in the past year by 5.1%, which should bolster domestic demand and help support the economic recovery in the euro zone.在过去的一年里价格上涨5.1%,这能扩大国内需求并有利于欧洲地区经济恢复。 /201309/255192

Worker bees then take over, secreting wax to build the hive.工蜂从这一阶段开始接手,它们用蜂蜡建造蜂巢。Starting from the top and working down, they build combs–layers of hexagonally shaped cells with passageways along the walls to allow bees to move between combs.工蜂按照逐层往下的顺序进行建造,从每个蜂房都是六边形的巢基开始。而蜂房间要留有空隙以便蜜蜂出入。Each layer of cells has a specialized purpose.每个蜂房都有特殊的作用。The uppermost cells store honey, followed by pollen-storage cells.最上面的蜂房是储存蜂蜜的,接下来是用于储存花粉,The bottom layers are designated for infant-rearing.下层是育婴室,Just beneath the pollen cells are brood cells where larvae become worker bees, and off to the side are cells housing drone bee larvae.再下层是幼虫变成工蜂的孵化室,两侧居住的是雄蜂幼虫。Last, but certainly not least, special cells are set aside to shelter infant queen bees.当然,特殊的蜂房是留给有着尊贵地位的蜂王的。A typical nest has about 100,000 cells with a total surface area of about twenty-seven square feet.标准的蜂巢有100,000个蜂房,连上表层大概有27平方英尺。Most of the cells are used to store the more than forty pounds of honey required to feed a bee colony during the winter.大多数蜂巢会储存40多英镑的蜂蜜,这足以使得整个蜜蜂家族度过整个冬天。They may not win any awards, but bees are clearly some of natures most accomplishedarchitects.虽然蜜蜂从未摘得任何桂冠,但是它们无疑是大自然最杰出的建造师。201312/267187Business商业报道Canadian retailing加拿大零售业Drug deal 药品生意A merger to see off an American challenge实行兼并抗衡美国的挑战THEY met on July 11th in a minivan on a country road.7月11号,维斯顿·佳林,加拿大零售王朝的孙子和科库至·霍尔格,When they emerged Galen Weston, scion of a Canadian retailing dynasty, and Holger Kluge, chairman of the countrys biggest drugstore chain, had made a deal.乡村最大的药品连锁店董事长在一条乡村道路上的小货车里见了面并达成协议。The Weston groups Loblaw grocery chain, by far Canadas largest,agreed to buy Shoppers Drug Mart for 12.4 billion.维斯顿集团的罗伯劳连锁店,作为加拿大目前最大的食品杂货连锁店,同意以12.4亿加拿大元的价格购买其康药房。With this, the relatively cosy world of Canadian retailing comes of age.随着此合同的签订,加拿大零售业迎来一个比较舒适的氛围。To global retailers accustomed to merciless competition Canada is appealingly civilised.相对于国际零售商惯于的残酷竞争,加拿大则更偏向于文明的请求。Unlike Americans and Europeans, Canadians have not been hammered by a housing bust.不同于美国和欧洲,加拿大没有受到房地产泡沫的打击,Fewer big grocery chains are fighting for market share than they are south of the border.很少有大的百货公司连锁店像他们南边的邻居一样在争取市场份额时那么努力。Compared with the ed States, Canada has about 60% of the retail floor space per consumer and profit margins are higher.加拿大有美国60%的人均零售面积但利润却更大。But things are becoming less comfortable.但是,事情开始变得有点不乐观。Target, an American discount chain, moved into Canada this year, joining Walmart, a behemoth that has been there since 1994.塔吉特公司,一家美国的折扣连锁店,今年加盟沃尔玛,进入加拿大。沃尔玛,自1994年就进入加拿大的大公司。Safeway, another American grocer,pulled out in June,西弗伟公司,另一家美国百货公司,则在6月份退出。but only because a Canadian rival, Sobeys, made an irresistible offer for its stores.原因不仅因为加拿大内部的竞争,超市也为他的商店提供了令人不可抗拒的价格。Clothes retailing is getting more crowded, too.装零售业也人满为患,J.Crew arrived in 2011 and Nordstrom, an American department-store chain, is expected in 2014.J·克鲁2011年进入加拿大,诺斯通,一家美国连锁百货商场有望2014年进入。All this is happening as consumers are becoming less cheery: economic growth is sluggish and debt is high.面对这些,由于经济萧条,债台高筑,消费者越来越不怎么乐观。Century-old Loblaw is part of the Weston familys transatlantic empire, which ranges from food manufacturing to the Selfridges and Fortnum amp; Mason department stores in Britain.世纪公司罗伯劳是维斯顿家族横跨大西洋帝国的一部分。在英国,它涉及食品制造到塞尔福里奇和福特纳姆amp;梅森百货商店。Loblaw hit a rough patch in the mid-2000s, when it briefly fell into loss.罗伯劳公司经营曾在20世纪中叶的时候亮过红灯,陷入短暂的亏损之中。But it has since streamlined operations and upgraded its technology.但是从那时起,它就精简业务,提高科技。Shoppers Drug Mart has built its network steadily over the past half-century.其康药房在上半个世纪里建立了稳定的商业网。The merged group, with sales of C42 billion, is in part a counter to the American onslaught.合并之后的集团,售价高达420亿加拿大元,在某种程度上,是对美国冲击的一种反击。Shoppers will remain a separate unit and keep its top managers.商店依然是独立的单元,并保留其高级管理者。Even so, the partners expect to save C135m on annual technology and marketing costs.即使如此,合伙者希望每年能在科技和市场上节省13.5亿加拿大元。More important, says Ken Wong, who teaches business strategy at Queens University in Ontario, is the opportunity for both chains to wring more from their private-label product lines and loyalty programmes.王肯,安大略洲皇后大学商业策略讲师说,更重要是两个连锁店有机会从自有品牌和客户忠诚上赚取更多。By Canadian standards they are adept marketers of their own ranges.按照加拿大标准,他们在各自的领域里是熟练的经销商。But Canada lags private-label powerhouses such as Britain and Switzerland.但在,加拿大在自有品牌上落后于其他强手,比如英国和瑞士。There is much to be gained from selling Shoppers “Life” range of mouthwashes and plasters in Loblaws groceries and pushing Loblaws “Presidents Choice” food in Shoppers pharmacies, says Mr Wong.王先生说,在罗伯劳的百货店销售生活用品,从漱口水到药膏,在其康药房促销“总统的选择”的食物有很大的好处。Loblaws loyalty programme will get a boost from merging with Shoppers superior scheme and both will gain from having a bigger data lode to mine.和其康合并的方案,会让罗伯劳的客户忠诚项目参与人数大增,双方都会有一个更大数据脉矿开发。The deal will mark the arrival in Canada of another global fad.这个决议标志加拿大另一个全球风尚的到来。Until now Canadian grocers have largely ignored the trend in other rich countries to open “convenience” shops in the neighbourhoods where their customers live.目前加拿大百货店已经很大程度上忽视了在其他发达国家有客户居住的社区开便利店的趋势。The acquisition of Shoppers 1,242 stores, which are mainly smallish outlets in cities and towns, provides Loblaw with a full-fledged convenience chain at a stroke.超市的1,242家分店,多为市镇的小网点,这为罗伯劳公司的反击提供了充分的便利链。It places Loblaw “at the front of the pack”, says Kenric Tyghe of Raymond James, a financial-advice firm.金融咨询公司瑞士金融集团的Kenric Tyghe 说,合并让罗伯劳公司走在前列。The stockmarket likes the deal:股票市场看好这个交易:shares of both companies jumped on the news.消息传出之后两家公司的股票都上涨了,So did those of rivals Metro, a supermarket, and Jean Coutu, a drugstore chain.股票上涨的还有他们的对手一个超级市场和一个连锁药店,尚酷都。Investors are speculating that these two will join to form another Canadian champion. That is unlikely to deter further incursions from across the border.投资者认为这两个公司的联合会形成一个新的加拿大冠军并有可能阻止国外进一步的打击。 /201308/252296

Everyone knows that a sharp knife cuts better than a dull one,but do you know why, exactly?众所周知,锋利的刀刃的切割性远胜钝刀,但你知道确切原因吗?The purpose of the cutting edge of a knife is to concentrate the force thats being applied at the handle.刀刃的作用就是将人们用在刀把上的力集中起来。When you push down on the handle of a knife you exert a force.当你按下刀把时,实际上你施加了一种力。The force on the handle and the edge are the same, but the areas in which the force is concentrated are quite different.这种力无论是在刀把还是刀刃上都是等量的,但力的聚集区域不同,所产生的效果则有天壤之别。At the handle your hands force is sp over a wide area, but on the cutting edge it isconcentrated in a very small area, so therefore the pressure on the edge is much greater.在刀把上,力会在一个较广阔的区域传播,但在刀刃上,力会聚集在一个非常小的区域,因此刀刃上的压力会剧增。You can easily see how this works with a piece of modeling clay, a nail with a wide head, and a nail with a small head.只要借助一块橡皮泥、一枚宽头钉和一枚窄头钉,你很容易就能看到这一原理。First hold the nail with the wide head by its shaft and push it head-first into theball of clay.首先将宽头钉的杆竖起,将其头朝下推入橡皮泥球。Then do the same with the small-headed nail.然后对窄头钉做同样动作。The small-headed nail goes into the clay much more easily than the wide-headed nail.窄头钉比宽头钉更容易嵌入橡皮泥。Since thehead of the small nail has less surface area than the big one, the force of your push isconcentrated in a smaller area, exerts more pressure on the clay, and so the nail goes in moreeasily.由于窄头钉的头部面积比宽头钉小,你的推力将集中在一个更小的区域,对橡皮泥产生更大的压力,因此钉子更容易嵌入。The same principle causes pointed high-heeled shoes to sink into a soft surface more easilythan flat shoes.同理,尖高跟鞋比平跟鞋更易陷入表面柔软的物体。By applying this principle to the knife you can see that with a keener edge theres a greaterconcentration of the pressure on the edge, so it takes much less force to make the knife cut.将这一原理运用在刀上,你能看到,在锋利的刀刃上,压力能更好的聚集,因此切割起来更省力。201404/285979

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