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2019年11月13日 12:39:34|来源:国际在线|编辑:大河生活
HONG KONG — Uber is spending money at a breakneck rate to crack the China market — even paying its drivers more than the fares they collect.香港——优步(Uber)正在以极快的速度投入资金,进军中国市场——甚至在提供比司机赚取的车费还要高的补贴。Fat with almost billion in venture capital, Uber, based in San Francisco, is doling out bonuses up to three times the amount of its fares, in a bet that its exceptional rise in the ed States can be matched in China.总部位于旧金山的优步坐拥将近60亿美元(约合370亿元人民币)的风险资本。它给中国司机发放的补贴至多达到乘客车费的三倍,希望借此在中国市场上复制它在美国的惊人崛起。So far, its strategy is working, shattering prevailing assumptions that young American tech companies cannot compete against local rivals.到目前为止,优步的策略发挥了作用,推翻了盛行的一种说法,即新兴的美国科技企业无法与中国当地的对手展开竞争。The spending spree has attracted droves of drivers like Jacky, a systems analyst at an international telecommunications company, who recently began moonlighting for Uber with his Ford Fiesta in Shanghai. In late May, Uber said it had created more than 60,000 jobs in China over the past month, with the sp of its service spurring protests from some taxi drivers.发放优厚补贴的热潮吸引了大批司机,比如在一家国际电信公司担任系统分析员的杰基(Jacky)。他最近开始成为优步的兼职司机,在上海开着自己的福特嘉年华(Ford Fiesta)赚外快。优步在5月底宣称,公司过去一个月在中国创造了六万多个就业机会。优步务的盛行还导致一些出租车司机发起抗议。“This is a really great opportunity for me to make some extra money,” said Jacky, 34, who declined to give his full name because he was releasing internal information about Uber.“这是我赚外快的大好机会,”34岁的杰基说。他拒绝提供全名,因为他透露的是有关优步的内部讯息。Though other ride-hailing services also offer driver bonuses, Jacky said Uber pays the most. In the first three weeks of May, he said, he made the equivalent of about ,000 from Uber — or almost half of his ,100 monthly salary at the telecommunications company — with the majority of his earnings as a driver coming from the subsidies.虽然其他打车软件也为司机提供补贴,但杰基表示,优步给得最多。他透露,在5月的前三周里,他通过优步获得了大约1000美元的收入——几乎是他在电信公司的2100美元月薪的一半。作为司机,他的大部分收入来自优步提供的补贴。While China represents huge scale as a market, it has fended off the entry of just about every major Western technology start-up. Uber, a five-year-old company that operates in more than 310 cities and 58 countries worldwide, faces homegrown Chinese rivals like Didi Kuaidi, which has more than 90 percent of the market and is backed by two of the largest Chinese Internet companies, Alibaba and Tencent. It may also have to grapple with a fickle central government that could shut it out of the market overnight.虽然中国市场规模庞大,但它阻止了几乎所有主要的西方科技初创企业进入市场。优步这家成立五年已在58个国家逾310座城市运营的公司在中国面对的是滴滴快的等本土竞争对手。滴滴快的占据的市场份额超过了90%,背后是中国的两大互联网巨头阿里巴巴和腾讯。优步可能还需要应对变化无常的中央政府,防止被其突然赶出中国市场。Yet more affluent and cosmopolitan Chinese have flocked to Uber’s service, attracted by fares that are on average at least 35 percent cheaper than taxis, with the cars generally more luxurious than cabs and drivers who offer free water and are typically more polite.不过,越来越多富裕而国际化的中国人纷纷开始使用优步的务。他们被优步的质优价廉吸引。优步的乘车费用平均比出租车的车费低至少35%,而提供务的汽车又通常比出租车高档,司机会提供免费的水,一般也更有礼貌。Uber is providing more than 100,000 rides a day in China, according to two people with knowledge of the company’s internal metrics, who declined to be identified because the numbers are confidential. That is about 10 percent of the total one million rides a day that Uber said it was getting companywide in December.了解公司内部数据的两人表示,优步每天会在中国提供逾10万次接送务。由于相关数据属于商业机密,这两人要求不具名。优步称,去年12月,全公司的接送务总量为每天100万次。前述数据相当于这个总量的10%左右。In the central Chinese city of Chengdu alone, Uber has attracted 20,000 drivers since 2014, compared with 26,000 in New York City who have come aboard since 2011. Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, is teaming up with the Chinese Internet giant Baidu and making multiple visits to the country, including one last month to the provincial capital of Guiyang in the southwest.从2014年开始,优步仅在中国中部城市成都就吸引了2万名司机,而在纽约市,从2011年开始提供务算起,累积的数字为2.6万。公司首席执行官特拉维斯·卡兰尼克(Travis Kalanick)正在与中国网络行业的巨头百度开展合作。他多次访华,上个月还曾到访位于中国西南部的省会城市贵阳。“Uber is doing quite well in the first-tier cities, and it’s a bit of a surprise,” said You Na, an analyst at IC International based in Hong Kong. “The subsidies make a big difference.”“优步在一线城市的表现非常好,有点意外,”工银国际驻香港的分析师尤娜说。“补贴产生了很大的影响。”An Uber spokeswoman declined to comment on the scale of the company’s business in China. Uber is in talks with investors to raise another .5 billion or so in a financing that would value it at billion.优步的一名女发言人拒绝就公司在中国的业务规模置评。目前,优步正在与投资者进行协商,意图通过新一轮的融资再筹集大概15亿美元。届时公司估值将达500亿美元。Uber still faces many hurdles in China, where the market is highly competitive, regulated and, at times, eccentric. Chinese tend to favor Chinese-branded services, said Mark Natkin, founder of the research firm Marbridge Consulting in Beijing, though sometimes using a globally leading brand — like Uber — has cachet.优步在中国仍然面临着重重阻碍。中国市场的竞争十分激烈,监管严格,有时还颇为反常。调研企业北京迈瑞咨询有限公司(Marbridge Consulting)的创始人马克·纳特金(Mark Natkin)认为,中国人倾向于持本土品牌的务,尽管有时使用全球著名品牌——比如优步——会让人感觉良好。Uber has attracted Chinese customers like Li Yufang, 28, a Beijing resident and an employee at a property developer, who switched to Uber in January from other ride-hailing services.优步吸引了许多中国顾客,28岁的李云芳(音)就是其中之一。在北京生活的李云芳是一家房地产开发公司的员工,于今年1月弃用其他打车务,开始使用优步。“The reason I love Uber is because the price is really low compared with taxis or private limos,” Ms. Li said.“我喜欢优步,因为跟出租车和私人豪华轿车相比,它的价格很低,”李云芳说。On Chinese social media, jokes that Uber provides a convenient, self-selecting pool of potential husbands for single women have even made the rounds.在中国的社交媒体上,有人开玩笑,优步为单身女性提供了一个有筛选性的便利择偶途径。这种说法甚至已传播开来。Uber began tests in China in late 2013 in the southern cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, focusing on a service that would let people hail rides from licensed limousine companies. Instead of following other Western tech firms, which at times have relied on foreign managers with little knowledge of China, Uber hired and empowered local people to act as managers to run city operations as they saw fit. It now operates in nine Chinese cities.优步从2013年年底在中国南方的广州和深圳开始试运行,只提供让用户从有执照的豪车公司叫车的务。西方科技企业时常会依赖对中国毫无了解的外国经理人,但优步没有遵循这一路线,它聘请本地人才从事管理岗位,让他们放手用自己觉得最佳的方式去运作。现在优步在中国的九座城市运营。The company also took a more cautious, cooperative approach in China, unlike in other countries, where it has brazenly flouted authorities. In December, Uber sold a stake in itself to Baidu and began working to offer its service directly on Baidu’s popular maps application. Uber recently earned praise from the head of a major Chinese Internet industry group for behaving more like a Chinese company than like an eBay or an Amazon.在别的国家一向敢于公然挑衅权威的优步,在中国采取了一种更谨慎、更合作的态度。去年12月,优步向百度售出了一部分股份,并开始在百度很受欢迎的地图应用中直接提供优步务。中国一家主要互联网行业团体的负责人最近称赞优步更像是一家中国公司,而不是像eBay和亚马逊(Amazon)那样。In October, however, Uber expanded a new service that put it on questionable regulatory footing in the country. The service, playfully called People’s Uber after the Marxist language favored by the Communist Party, resembles what Uber does elsewhere by letting private drivers register and shuttle passengers for pay. The service runs counter to what is offered by companies like Didi Kuaidi, which either enable customers to hail taxis directly or use contracts with private limo companies to offer high-end cars at luxury prices.然而在10月,优步拓展了一项新务,让它在中国处在了暧昧的监管处境。这项务借用了共产党青睐的马克思主义式的语言,戏谑地称作“人民优步”(People’s Uber),它类似于优步在其他国家的做法,即让私家车注册并收费搭载乘客。这项务与滴滴快的等公司提供的务构成了竞争,后者要么直接允许乘客叫出租车,要么通过与私人豪车公司签约,以高昂价格提供高端车辆。It also drew scrutiny from local governments since the drivers are unlicensed. In the last two months, local authorities in Chengdu and Guangzhou have raided Uber offices in response to the questionable legality of People’s Uber.由于司机都没有执照,所以这项务受到了地方政府的严厉限制。成都和广州的地方政府,因为人民优步的合法性存疑而突击检查了优步的办公室。Local traffic authorities in Guangzhou and Chengdu did not respond to requests for comment. At the time of the raids, Uber said it was cooperating with officials. People’s Uber is still operating in both cities.广州和成都的地方交通部门没有回应置评请求。在突击检查之时,优步表示配合官方行动。人民优步在这两个城市仍在经营。The raids have spurred driver protests. In Chengdu last month, hundreds of Uber drivers lashed out at the local traffic police after one driver’s car was impounded.突击检查招致了司机的抗议。上个月在成都,一名司机的汽车被扣押后,数百名优步司机对当地交警进行了围攻。People’s Uber has also prompted a battle with Didi Kuaidi, which last month started its own service for private drivers, called Kuaiche. A few weeks later, Didi Kuaidi announced an initiative to spend 1 billion renminbi (0 million) subsidizing the program in the form of discounts to passengers and driver incentives.人民优步也对滴滴快的发起了战斗,后者上个月推出了自己的私家车叫车务——快车。几周之后,滴滴快的宣布,将启动十亿元人民币的补贴项目,向乘客提供折扣,向司机发放奖金。“We welcome all good competition,” said Jean Liu, Didi Kuaidi’s president, at a May 22 media briefing. “This is our home market; we love this market so much, we want to make sure it grows in a healthy, sustainable, safe way.”“我们欢迎所有良性的竞争,”滴滴快的总裁柳青(Jean Liu)在5月22日的新闻发布会上说。“这是我们的主场,我们很爱这块市场,我们希望确保它以一种健康、安全、可持续的方式增长。”The inducements from both sides are stirring resentment from taxi drivers, similar to what Uber has faced in other countries. In recent weeks, cabdrivers in Tianjin have lashed out at private car drivers.双方的补贴都招致了出租车司机的怨恨,这与优步在其他国家面临的处境相似。最近几周,天津的出租车司机袭击了专车司机。One woman, whose husband and father-in-law share a taxi in Tianjin, confirmed the protests but declined to be named. She said the popularity of services like Uber has cut what taxi drivers can make during the day by about a third.天津一名不愿具名的女性的丈夫和公公合开一辆出租车,她实了抗议事件的发生。她表示,优步这样的务开始流行,使得出租车司机每日的收入下降了三分之一。Another problem for Uber may be its own drivers. On Taobao, Alibaba’s e-commerce site, vendors run a thriving black market for driver accounts, allowing purchasers to circumvent Uber’s background checks. Jacky also confirmed reports in local news media that many drivers log fraudulent Uber rides using fake passenger accounts to get some of the bonuses the company is offering.优步面临的另一个问题是自己的司机。在阿里巴巴旗下的电子商务网站淘宝上,卖家推动了一个销售司机账号的活跃黑市,买主可以藉此绕开优步的背景核查。杰基也实了当地媒体的一些报道,即许多司机使用虚假的乘客账号,骗取该公司提供的一些奖金。Uber isn’t deterred.优步并没有退缩。“We’re particularly optimistic in China,” Mr. Kalanick said in a speech in China last month. “I’ve just seen cities everywhere and have found that mayors and city governments are far more focused on progress in their cities here in China than I’ve seen elsewhere, and it makes me incredibly optimistic.”“我们对中国尤其乐观,”卡拉尼克上个月在中国的一次演讲中说。“我在很多地方见到过很多城市,我发现在中国,市长和市政府与我在其他国家见到的相比,都远更关注于自己城市的进步,这让我异常乐观。” /201506/380098HONG KONG — An online auction house for used cars in China has attracted 0 million from big name investors including the search engine company Baidu, the private equity group K.K.R. and Coatue Management, a New York investment firm.香港——一家中国二手车网络拍卖公司获得了一些知名投资商的1.7亿美元(约合10.5亿元人民币)投资,其中包括搜索引擎百度、私募股权公司科尔伯格-克拉维斯-罗伯茨公司(Kohlberg Kravis Roberts,简称KKR)和纽约投资公司蔻图管理公司(Coatue Management)。Uxin, which operates used-car auction websites in China that focus on dealers and businesses, said Wednesday that it would use the funds to expand a new website and mobile app aiming at individual consumers. The company also provides inspections, quality guarantees and financing for the vehicles sold on its platforms.优信在中国运营二手车拍卖网站,主要面向经销商和企业。公司在周三表示将会利用这笔资金开设新网站,研发针对个人消费者的移动应用程序。该公司还为通过该平台出售的汽车提供检查、质量保障和融资务。“Uxin hopes to use the strengths of its Internet technologies and experience in the used-car market to improve the efficiency of transactions, and to help dealers identify potential buyers with greater accuracy,” Chris Dai, the chief executive of the Chinese company, said in a statement.优信首席执行官戴琨发表声明称,“优信希望利用互联网技术的优势以及在二手车市场的丰富经验提高交易效率,帮助经销商更准确地识别潜在买家。”China is the world’s biggest market for new car sales, but the market for used cars is still comparatively small. Many Chinese are first-time car buyers and see owning a new vehicle as a status symbol. The country’s used-car market has traditionally been highly fragmented and lacking information on the service and repair history of the vehicles being sold. But things appear to be changing rapidly.中国是世界最大的新车销售市场,但二手车市场仍然相对较小。很多中国人都是首次购车,他们认为拥有新车是一种社会地位的象征。中国的二手车市场向来高度分散,缺乏有关在售车辆务及维修记录的信息。但情况似乎正在迅速改变。Transactions in China’s used-car market rose 26 percent in 2014 from a year earlier, to 368 billion renminbi, or about billion. The number of used cars changing hands rose 16 percent to about six million vehicles in the same period, according to figures from the China Automobile Dealers Association cited by Uxin.2014年,中国二手车市场的交易额同比增加了26%,增至3680亿元人民币。根据优信引用的中国汽车流通协会的数据,同一时期,二手车交易数量增加了16%,增至约600万辆。Online sales and auctions of used cars accounted for a small segment of the market, but they have the advantage of connecting buyers and sellers in different cities or provinces. Uxin said it handled more than 150,000 online and offline car auction transactions a year.网络销售和二手车拍卖只占很小一部分市场份额,但它们有联系不同城市或省份的买家和卖家的作用。优信表示,一年之中,它总共处理了超过15万笔线上和线下汽车拍卖交易。The terms of the shareholdings were not disclosed, but for Baidu, China’s biggest online search engine company, investing in Uxin gives it a new market where it can leverage its vast stores of data and large user base. For K.K.R., the deal is the latest by its China Growth Fund, which last summer invested about 0 million in a chicken breeder in Fujian Province in southeastern China.公司尚未公布持股情况,但是对于中国最大的网络搜索引擎公司百度,投资优信可以给它提供一个新的市场,它可以在这个市场上利用自己的大量数据和庞大的用户群。对于KKR而言,这是中国成长基金(China Growth Fund)最近的一笔交易。去年夏季,该基金为中国东南部省份福建省的一家养鸡场投资了大约4亿美元。“China’s online used-car market is set to boom in the coming years, and K.K.R. is very positive about this industry and about Uxin,” Julian J. Wolhardt, the private equity company’s regional leader for China, said in the statement.KKR大中华地区业务主管华裕能(Julian J. Wolhardt)在声明中称,“未来数年,中国的网上二手车市场必将得到迅速发展,KKR非常看好这个行业和优信。” /201503/365909

The Use of Negative Numbers负数的使用The introduction of negative numbers is a great contribution to mathe-matics by ancient Chinese mathematicians.In Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art(Jiuzhang Suanshu),negative numbers were used in the eighth chapter on solving systems of simultaneous equations. For instance, revenue num-bers are considered positive,while expense numbers are deemed negative;or sur-plus amounts are viewed as positive,while deficit amounts are seen as negative.In a problem calculating grains,the increased grains are considered positive,and the lost grains,negative. At the time,calculation was done by the method of Suan Chou(counting rods)Red rods were used to denote positive coefficients,and black ones to denote negative ones. Or in another case,the normal position of Su-an Chou denoted positive,while an inclined position denoted negative.负数的引进,是中国古代数学家对数学的一个巨大贡献。在《九章算术》的第八章“方程”中,就引人了负数解联立方程组。如负数出现在方程的系数和常数项中,把“卖(收人钱)”作为正,则“买(付出钱)”作为负,把“余钱”作为正,则“不足钱”作为负。在关于粮谷计算的问题中,是以益实(增加粮谷)为正,损失(减少粮谷)为负等。当时是用算筹来进行计算的,以红筹为正,黑筹为负;或将算筹首列作正、斜置作角。Rules for the calculation of signed numbers were also given in Jiuzhang Suanshu.According to the book, the deduction(or subtraction)of two numbers with the same sign(from another number) equals the deduction of the absolute values of the two numbers,while the deduction of two numbers with different signs equals the addition of the absolute values of the iwo numbers. Also一a positive number subtracted from zero gives a negative number,whereas a negative num-ber subtracted from zero gives a positive number. The addition of two numbers with different signs equals the deduction of their absolute values,while the addition of iwo numbers with the same sign equals the addition of their absolute values.Zero plus a positive number is still a positive number,and zero plus a negative number is still a negative number. Until the 17th century,it was the most complete depiction on the rules for adding and subtracting positive and negative一 numbers in the world.在《九章算术》中,除了引进正负数的概念外,还完整地记载了正负数的运算法则:同号两数相减,等于其绝对值相减;异号两数相减,等于其绝对值相加;零减正数得负数,零减负数得正数。异号两数相加,等于其绝对值相减;同号两数相加,等于其绝对值相加;零加正数得正数,零加负数得负数。直到公元17世纪以前,这还是正负数加减运算最完整的叙述。Negative numbers appeared very late in the West.Many noted mathemati-clans did not admit negative numbers,because they consider zero as“nothing”and could not understand that something could be even less than“nothing,”and so considered negative numbers“absurd.”It was only in the 17th century when Descartes invented the coordinate system,which gave a geometrical explanation and an actual meaning for negative numbers,that negative numbers began to be accepted gradually.在西方,负数出现得很晚。许多著名数学家一直不承认负数。他们把零看作“没有”,他们不能理解比“没有”还要“少”的现象,因而认为负数是“荒谬的”。直到17世纪,笛卡儿创立了坐标系,负数获得了几何解释和实际意义,才逐渐得到了公认。The introduction of negative numbers is an important contribution of Chinese mathematicians to world mathematics. With the introduction of negative numbers,the whole numbers and rational numbers became complete.负数的引进,是中国古代数学家贡献给世界数学的一份宝贵财富。负数概念引进后,整数集和有理数集就完整地形成了。 /201512/410705

Zhoubi Suanjing《周髀算经》The oldest mathematical classic in China, Zhou,bi Suanjing or The Arith-metical Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven,is an astronomy text as well.It is thought to have been compiled sometime between 500 and 200 AD.During the Tang Dynasty, the book was listed as the first of all the texts included in the Ten, Mathematical Classics.It contains some important mathe-matical sections and measures the positions of the heavenly bodies.How a gno-mon might be used is described in a conversation between Duke of Zhou and his as astrologer Shang Gao in the text:《周髀算经》是中国历史上最早的一部数学典籍,也是一部天文学著作。成书时间大约在公元前5世纪与公元2世纪之间,唐代被收入《算经十书》,并被列为《十经》的第一部。该书包括许多重要的数学内容,还对天体方位作了测定。例如书中周公与商高的一段对话描述了如何用日圭标竿进行测量:Duke of Zhou: How great is the art of numbers? Tell me something about the application of the gnomon.周公日:“大哉言数!请问用矩之道?”Shang Gao: Level up one leg of the gnomon and use the other leg as a plumb line. When the gnomon is turned up, it can measure height; when it is turned o-ver, it can measure depth and when it lies horizontally it can measure distance.Revolve the gnomon about its vertex and it can draw a circle; combine two gno-mons and they form a square.商高日:“平矩以正绳,偃矩以望高,覆矩以测深,卧矩以知远,环矩以为圆,合矩以为方。”Zhoubi Suanjin,g is a collection of 246 problems encountered during the conver-sations between the Duke of Zhou and Shang Gao. Each question has stated their numerical answer and corresponding arithmetic algorithm. The author of the Zhou-bi Suanjing writes that Emperor Yu quells floods, deepens rivers and streams, sur-veys high places and low places by using the Gougu rule. And this book contains one of the first recorded proofs of the Gougu rule, or the Pythagorean Theorem in the world.《周髀算经》中周公与商高之间的对话涉及246个问题,每个问题都以相应数学算法得到解决。其中谈到了勾股定理(亦称毕达哥拉斯定理)及其在测量上的应用,记载了大禹如何运用勾股定理治理水灾、加深河床、测量高低。这是世界上关于勾股定理最早的文字记录之一。The text of the Zhoubi Suanjin,g also explains that the reason that mathematics can be applied to so many different cases i-s as a result of the way that mathemati-cal reasoning allows one to pass from particular to general situations. This realiza-tion of the abstract nature of mathematics is important.《周髀算经》还解释了数学在各方面广泛应用的一个原因,即数学推理使人们能够从个别推及普遍,这是对抽象的数学性质的一个重要认识。Zhoubi Suanjin,g contains calculations of the movement of the sun through the year as well as observations of the moon and the stars, particularly the pole star.此外,《周髀算经》还计算了太阳在一年内的运动,并对月亮和星星,尤其是北极星作了观察。 /201512/410707

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