2019年11月19日 13:07:58|来源:国际在线|编辑:平安互动
3The fact diseases have a smell comes as no surprise - but finding someone or something that can detect them at an early stage could hold huge potential medicine.疾病总是带着一些气味儿,这很正常但如果能借此及早察觉到疾病,就很有可能及早治疗Breath, bodily odours and urine are all amazingly revealing about general health. Even the humble cold can give off an odour, thanks to the thick bacteria-ridden mucus that ends up in the back of the throat. The signs are not apparent to everyone - but some super-smellers are very sensitive to the odours. Joy Milne, example, noticed her husband smell had changed shortly bee he was diagnosed with Parkinson disease.呼吸、体味、尿液,能够极其准确地预测人的整体健康状况 多亏了喉咙里的浓浓的阻挡细菌的粘液,我们患了小感冒也会有“味道” 这些标志并非对所有人都很明显,但是一些“超级鼻”对这些气味很敏感比如,乔伊米尔恩在她丈夫被诊断出有帕金森之前,就察觉到了他气味的变化Humans can detect nearly ,000 different smells. med by chemicals in the air, they are absorbed by little hairs, made of extremely sensitive nerve fibres, hanging from the nose olfactory receptors. And the human sense of smell is ,000 times more sensitive than the sense of taste.人类可以分辨出将近一万种不同的气味这些气味与空气中的化学物质结合,被细小的毛发吸收,让我们极其敏锐的神经纤维感受到,传导到鼻子里的嗅觉接受器里而且,人类的嗅觉比味觉灵敏一万倍But dogs, as the old joke might have had it, smell even better. Their ability to detect four times as many odours as humans makes them a potential early warning system a range of diseases. Research suggesting dogs could sniff out cancers, example, was first published about years ago. And there have been many tales of dogs repeatedly sniffing an area of their owner body, only it to turn out to be hiding a tumour.What they are smelling are the ;volatile molecules; given off by cells when they become cancerous. Some studies suggest dogs can be 93% accurate. Others suggest they can detect very small tumours bee clinical tests can. And yet more studies have produced mixed results.不过,就像我们经常开玩笑说的那样,鼻子更灵它们能嗅出的味道数量是人类的四倍,这使得我们能对很多种疾病建立一个早期警示系统,比如,十年前发表的一个研究表明:能嗅出癌症的味道据说,如果主人某个部位有隐藏肿瘤,会不停地嗅那个地方,嗅癌变细胞散发出的“挥发性微粒”有些研究表明,的嗅觉93%的几率是准确的还有一些研究表明它们能比临床检测更早的感知到小肿瘤但是还有很多研究发现了混合的结果Does cancer smell?癌症有气味吗?At Milton Keynes University Hospital, a small team has recently begun to collect human urine samples to test dogs ability to detect the smell of prostate cancer. The patients had symptoms such as difficulty urinating or a change in flow, which could turn out to be prostate, bladder or liver cancer.米尔顿凯恩斯大学医院的一小队伍最近开始收集人类气味的样本来测试鉴定前列腺癌的能力这些病人都患有一些症状,比如排尿困难或尿流变化,这可能是前列腺癌或膀胱癌或肝癌的前兆Rowena Fletcher, head of research and development at the hospital, says the role of the dogs - which have been trained by Medical Detection Dogs - is to pick out samples that smell of cancer.此项研究和医院发展的领头人罗威纳弗莱彻表示,经过医疗检测犬项目训练的能挑选出癌症的气味接着,临床检测能够显示的判断是否正确以后将有可能将用在这类的用途上,这一点是意义深远的,即使在每台手术时都配一只不太现实;We hope one day that there could be an electronic machine on every GP desk which could test a urine sample diseases by smelling it,; she says. ;But first we need to pick up the pattern of what the dogs are smelling.;她说:“我们希望有一天,每个医生的桌子上都能有一个电子机器,通过嗅觉来检测就医的人是否得了病,但是我们首先要知道嗅的是什么”And that the key. Dogs cant tell us what their noses are detecting, but scientists believe that different cancers could produce different smells, although some might also be very similar.这就是问题关键了不能告诉我们他们在嗅什么,但是科学家相信,即使有些癌症的气味非常相似,但不同癌症气味还是有区别的Electronic noses电子鼻Lab tests to understand what these highly-trained dogs are smelling could then inm the development of electronic noses to detect the same molecules. These might then give rise to better diagnostic tests in the future.通过实验室测试去探索这些训练有素的所嗅到的东西可以帮助“电子鼻”的发展,以此来辨别气味这可能在将来会促进诊断测试的发展The potential using smell to test a wide range of diseases is huge, Ms Fletcher says. Bacteria, cancers and chronic diseases could all have their own odour - which may be imperceptible to only the most sensitive humans, but obvious to dogs. It may be possible in the future to use disease odours as the basis a national screening programme or to test everybody at risk of a certain cancer in a particular age group.弗莱彻女士说,使用气味来诊断很多疾病的可能性很大细菌、癌症、慢性病都有它们独特的气味,这些气味可能对极其敏感的人类来说都不太明显,但是对来说却很明显在将来,这些疾病的气味可能会作为国家筛选项目的基础,或者去测试可能患癌症的特殊年龄群里的每个人However, there are fewer than dogs in the UK trained to detect cancer at present. Training more will take more funding and time. On the positive side, all dogs are eligible to be trained provided they are keen on searching and hunting. Whatever their breed or size, it our four-legged friend astounding sense of smell which could unlock a whole new way of detecting human diseases.但是,目前英国只有不到只受到过检测癌症的训练越多的训练意味着越多的时间和资金不过,从积极的一面来说,所有对搜寻和追捕有兴趣的都有资格接受训练,不论他们是什么品种、大小如何,毕竟,是他们惊人的嗅觉为我们检测人类疾病的新道路提供了可能 1973A: Can you tell me where it hurts?B: I am so glad they called you. It feels like something is really wrong with my stomach!A: Does it hurt when I push here?B: It’s mostly on my right side. Right here!A: Have you been feeling this way awhile?B: I started feeling kind of sick last night after dinner, but this morning the pain got really bad!A: Have you eaten anything unusual lately?B: No, not that I remember.A: We are going to take you to an emergency room right now.B: I will feel better when I know what the problem is. Thank you. 31

Conversation A: Good morning, sir. May I help you?A:早上好,先生,有什么能效劳的吗?B: I want to try on a pair of shoes in the display window.B:我想试橱窗内的一双鞋子A: Would you please show me, sir?A:您告诉我哪一双好吗?B: This one.B:这双A: I see. What your size, sir?A:好的,先生,请问您穿什么尺码的鞋?B: ty-three.B:3号的A: Just a moment, please… Here you are.A:请等一会……给你鞋B: (Tries it on) It fits me. But let me fasten up the shoelace and walk a few steps to see how it feels.B:(试穿上)很合适,让我系上鞋带走走,看感觉如何?A: Sure, sir. Make sure there is little space to see how it feels.A:好的,先生,请注意鞋头必须留下点空间B: Hm… the sole is too hard. Could you give me that one with soft sole?B:唔……鞋底太硬了,你可以给我双软底鞋吗?A: Certainly, sir. Here you are.A:当然可以,先生,这就是了B: This one is much better. What is it made of?B:这双好多了,是什么做的?A: Pig-skin. It very durable, sir.A:是猪皮做的,先生,非常耐穿B: Do they need special care?B:要特别护理吗?A: Nothing special, sir. Just put them in a dry and cool place. Dont put them into water. Polish them regularly. Lastly, put some paper in to keep it in shape when youre not going to use it a long period of time.A:也没什么特别只需放在干爽的地方,不要放进水里,要经常揩抹,还有,当长时间不穿时,放些纸在鞋内,以保持它们的形状B: Thank you the inmation.B:谢谢你告诉我这么多 19957

Scientists are struggling to understand why a burst of ;scary; warming at the North Pole has pushed Arctic temperatures nearly ℃ higher than normal this time of year.科学家们都难以理解,为何北极突然出现的;可怕;变暖现象,导致北极地区的气温较同期水平高出近摄氏度Experts in the US and Europe say they have been shocked by the soaring temperatures recorded in November, when much of the region is plunged into freezing winter darkness.美国和欧洲的专家表示,今年月记录的不断飙升的气温让他们感到震惊,这个时候北极地区很多地方已经进入了冰冷的严冬Temperatures this month have been as high as almost minus 5℃ when they are normally closer to minus 5℃.北极本月气温最高曾逼近零下5摄氏度,而通常都是在零下5摄氏度左右;Weve been processing this data since 1958 and we havent really seen anything like this at this time of year,; said Rasmus Tonboe, a sea ice expert at the Danish Meteorological Institute.丹麦气象研究所的海冰专家拉斯穆斯·汤波表示:;我们从1958年开始处理这些数据,确实没有在一年的这个时候看到过这么高的气温,;;We are watching the situation and trying to analyse what is going on but it very surprising.;;我们正在关注这一情况,试图分析其中的原因,但这确实非常奇怪;The unusual warmth has come as officials at the UN World Meteorological Organization said they were 95 per cent sure that would be the hottest year since records began in the 19th century.在北极出现不同寻常的变暖之际,联合国世界气象组织的官员称,他们有95%的把握相信,年将是自19世纪有纪录以来最热的一年It would mean that of the warmest years on record have been this century.这将意味着,在有记录以来的个最热年份中,有个出现在本世纪 819

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