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2019年09月21日 11:18:33|来源:国际在线|编辑:最新解答
The zodiac animal of China#39;s coming Lunar New Year has caused much confusion in the English world, as its translation results in at least two candidates: sheep or goat.  中国农历新年即将到来,但今年的生肖却让英语国家的人们感到非常困惑,因为它至少有两种英文翻译:绵羊或山羊。  Chinese folklorists say the animal symbol can be either a sheep or a goat but more likely goat, given the latter#39;s popularity as a farm animal among Han Chinese。  中国民俗学家表示,羊年生肖的象征物既可能是绵羊,也可能是山羊,但山羊的可能性更大,因为在汉族地区山羊作为家畜更为常见。  The Chinese lunar calendar assigns an animal symbol to each year in every 12-year cycle. Yet the Chinese character for the eighth zodiac animal is ;Yang;, which can refer to either of the two ruminants when used without attributes。  中国农历以十二年为周期,每年以一种动物作为象征。十二生肖中的第八个生肖是“羊”,而这个字在没有修饰限定语的情况下可指绵羊或山羊任意一种反刍动物。  Huang Yang, a prominent researcher on the role of sheep/goats in Chinese culture, says tracing the origin of the zodiacal Yang could be difficult, as the Chinese zodiac first appeared after the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 ), when the Chinese people did not differentiate between sheep and goats in language or in sacrificial offering。  国内研究羊在中国文化中地位的知名学者黄洋称,追寻生肖羊的来历比较困难,因为此生肖最先出现在商朝(公元前1600-1046年)之后,而那时人们在语言和祭祀中是不区分绵羊和山羊的。  Both species have a long history of domestication in China and have appeared on oracle bone scripts and other artifacts since prehistoric times, according to Huang, who in 2012 challenged the saying that Chinese are ;descendants of the dragon; by arguing that the earliest Chinese actually worshipped the meek ruminants。  黄洋称,这两种动物在中国都有着较长的畜养历史,自史前时期开始,就已出现在甲骨文和其他手工艺品上了。黄洋曾在2012年质疑中国人是龙的传人,认为最早的中国人崇拜的是温顺的反刍动物——羊。  ;But if we judge from the fact that the Chinese zodiac is a Han tradition, Yang are more likely goats, which are more common livestock for the Han Chinese,; he tells Xinhua in a phone interview。  在接受新华社的电话采访时,他表示:“但如果我们基于生肖是汉族传统这个事实出发, 则‘羊’更可能指的是山羊,因为对于汉族人来说山羊是更为常见的家畜。”  Shaggy sheep are a common sight in north China#39;s prairies and were domesticated by Chinese earlier than goats, but goats are more commonly raised in areas populated by Han Chinese, Huang says。  他说,绒毛蓬松的绵羊在中国北方的大草原上很常见,其畜养的时间也比山羊要早,但在汉族聚居地山羊更为常见。  Images on China#39;s zodiac stamps and papercuttings are often bearded goats. The replica of the Yang bronze statue that once formed part of a zodiac fountain in the looted Old Summer Palace also has a goat head。  中国生肖邮票和剪纸上羊的形象往往都是带胡须的山羊。而惨遭洗劫的圆明园生肖喷泉一部分的青铜羊首复制品,也是山羊头。  Fang Binggui, a folklorist based in southeast China#39;s Fuzhou City, says the image of the zodiac Yang is open to regional interpretation. ;People depict the zodiac animal based on the most common Yang in their region. So it#39;s often sheep in the north while goats in the south.;  中国东南部城市福州的民俗学家方兵贵称,生肖羊的形象常有区域性的解释。他说:“人们基于当地最常见的羊来描绘生肖羊,所以在北方生肖羊往往是绵羊,在南方却是山羊。”  Few ordinary Chinese are troubled by the sheep/goat distinction。  很少有中国百姓因分不清绵羊和山羊感到困扰。  ;I#39;ve never thought about that question before. Do we have to tell them apart?; asks Chen Xufeng, an office clerk in Beijing。  北京白领陈旭锋说:“我以前从来没想过这个问题。我们有必要区分它们吗?”  ;I#39;ve seen more goats in zodiac images, but I prefer to buy a sheep mascot, as sheep are more fluffy and lovely,; he says。  他说:“在生肖图案里,山羊更常见,但我却更喜欢买绵羊吉祥物,因为绵羊毛茸茸的,非常可爱。”  However, the ambiguity has whipped up discussion in the West. A story run by the Associated Press said this year#39;s animal ;is subject to interpretation;。  然而,这个模糊不清的概念却在西方引发讨论。美联社刊文称,今年的生肖动物还有待解读。  ;We just had this discussion a few weeks ago. What exactly is it?; AP ed a worker in Brooklyn Chinatown as saying. ;It can be a ram, sheep or goat -- any ruminant mountain animal with horns.;  美联社援引布鲁克林唐人街一名上班族的话称:“我们几周前刚讨论过这个问题。今年的生肖到底是什么?它可以是公羊、绵羊或者山羊,只要是山上长角的反刍动物都有可能。”  In England, the Manchester Evening News also posed the question: ;Later this month, we will enter the Chinese Year of the Ram. Or should that be sheep? Or even Goat?;  英格兰《曼彻斯特晚报》也提出了这个问题:“月底我们就要跨入中国农历公羊年了,或者应该叫绵羊年?还是山羊年?”  Other media outlets, including Bloomberg, have described the coming Lunar New Year as the Year of the Sheep, Goat or Ram。  其他一些媒体包括彭社,也已把即将到来的农历新年称作绵羊、山羊或公羊年。  Xiang Daohua, a teacher of Chinese language and culture at China Foreign Affairs University, believes cultural connotations should be taken into consideration in translation。  北京外国语大学[微]中国语言文化学院教师向道华认为,翻译时应该考虑文化内涵的因素。  ;The English word #39;sheep#39; better fits the Yang image in traditional Chinese cultures, which is meek and even a bit weak,; he says。  他说:“英文单词‘sheep’(绵羊)更符合中国传统文化中羊温顺、甚至有点柔弱的形象。” /201502/359593

Drinking coffee is associated with a slightly reduced risk for skin cancer, a new study has found.一项新研究发现,喝咖啡能轻微降低患皮肤癌的风险。Researchers used health and dietary data on 447,357 non-Hispanic whites ages 50 to 71 who were cancer free at the start of the study and followed them for an average of 10 years. Over the course of the study, the researchers identified 2,904 cases of melanoma, the most serious kind of skin cancer.研究者们分析了447357名50至71岁的非西班牙裔白人的健康和饮食数据。研究开始时,这些人没患任何癌症。在对他们进行跟踪的平均十年时间里,研究者们发现了2904个黑素瘤病例。黑素瘤是最严重的一种皮肤癌。The more coffee consumed, the lower the risk. Drinking four or more cups of coffee was associated with a 20 percent risk reduction compared with those who drank none. The association did not hold for decaffeinated coffee or for melanoma in situ, melanoma in its earliest stages that affects only the top layer of skin.咖啡喝得越多,患黑素瘤的风险就越低。与不喝咖啡相比,每天喝四杯以上(含四杯)咖啡能降低20%的风险。这种联系不适用于低因咖啡或原位黑素瘤,也就是最早期的黑素瘤,它只影响皮肤表层。While the results may be encouraging for coffee drinkers, “they do not indicate that anyone should change their coffee drinking preferences,” said the lead author, Erikka Loftfield, a graduate student at the Yale School of Public Health. “The most important thing a person can do to reduce risk is to reduce sun and ultraviolet light exposure.”这项研究的主要作者艾丽卡·洛夫特菲尔德(Erikka Loftfield)说,虽然这一研究结果对咖啡饮用者具有鼓舞作用,但“并不是说人们应该改变自己的咖啡饮用习惯”,“要想降低风险,最重要的还是减少日晒和紫外线照射”。The study, in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, controlled for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and other health, behavioral and genetic factors, but the authors acknowledge that other unknown variables might help explain the association.这项研究发表在美国《国家癌症研究所杂志》(Journal of the National Cancer Institute)上。它控制了年龄、性别、教育背景、吸烟、锻炼、饮酒等健康、行为和基因因素,但是作者们承认,其他未知的变量可能也能解释这种联系。 /201502/357418

Leonardo da Vinci#39;s mother may have been aChinese slave according to new research by an Italian historian andnovelist.根据一位意大利历史学家兼小说家的一份最新研究,达芬奇的母亲可能是一个中国奴隶。Angelo Paratico has spent the last 20 years living and working in Hong Kong,researching the links between his homeland and China over the past half acentury. 这位叫做AngeloParatico的历史学家在香港工作和生活了20年,过去半个世纪以来都在研究自己祖国和中国之间的关联。Mr Paratico said documentation he hasuncovered during two years of research forms the basis of his latest bookLeonardo Da Vinci: A Chinese scholar lost in Renaissance Italy.他说他花费两年时间进行文档的挖掘工作,这些研究成果构成了他新书的主要内容,这本书叫做《列奥纳多·达·芬奇:一位迷失在文艺复兴时期意大利的中国学者》。The book, which is due to be published nextyear, uncovers evidence, Mr Paratico claims links Da Vinci and the FarEast.这本书将于明年出版,他说书中所披露的据表明了达芬奇与远东之间的关系。Speaking to the South China Morning Post, Mr Paratico said: #39;I am sure upto a point that Leonardo#39;s mother was from the Orient, but to make her anoriental Chinese, we need to use a deductive method.#39;他在接受《南华早报》采访时说:“我能从某种程度上肯定达芬奇的母亲来自东方,但是为了明她是来自东方的中国人,我们需要使用到演绎法。”#39;One wealthy client of Leonardo#39;s fatherhad a slave called Caterina. After 1452, Leonardo#39;s date of birth, shedisappeared from the documents. She was no longer working there.#39;“达芬奇父亲的一位富有的客户有一个叫做卡特琳娜的奴隶。在1452年达芬奇出生后,她就从文档中消失了。她不再在那里工作。”Da Vinci#39;s father was legal notary and itis believed his mother was called Caterina, who according to some reports, wasa local peasant.达芬奇的父亲是一名法律公人,据说达芬奇母亲的名字叫做卡特琳娜,根据某些报告的说法,她是当地农民。But Mr Paratico#39;snew work claims it is most likely Da Vinci#39;s mother was a slave.但是Paratico先生在他的新书中声称达芬奇的母亲最有可能是一个奴隶。Supporting his theory, Mr Paratico said:#39;During the Renaissance, countries like Italy and Spain were full of orientalslaves.#39;为了持自己的理论,他说:“文艺复兴期间,像意大利和西班牙这些国家里有很多来自东方的奴隶。”He claimed that there were certain aspects of Da Vinci#39;s life and work suggestan oriental link.他说达芬奇工作和生活中的某些方面表明了这样的东方关联。He added: #39;For instance, the fact he waswriting with his left hand from left to right... and he was also a vegetarianwhich was not common. Mona Lisa is probably a portrait of his mother, asSigmund Freud said in 1910. On the back of Mona Lisa, there is a Chineselandscape and even her face looks Chinese.#39;他说:“比如,他是左撇子,写字是从左往右,而且他还是素食主义者,这非同寻常。蒙娜丽莎可能就是他母亲的画像,正如西格蒙德弗洛伊德在1910年时说的那样。《蒙娜丽莎》的背景中有一处中国风景,而且她的脸看起来也像是中国人。”Mr Paratico said he believes the only way to solve the mystery is to exhume some of Da Vinci#39;s relations in Florence and extract someDNA. 他认为要想解开这个谜题,唯一的办法就是挖掘出达芬奇在佛罗伦萨的亲戚的遗憾,并进行DNA提取。 /201412/346124

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