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襄阳男科专业医院Canada’s government recently made an abrupt decision that could have repercussions for Australia’s aly overvalued residential property market.加拿大财政部长费海提取消了为吸引具有购买力的外国买家的政策,可能会对澳大利亚已经被高估的住宅物业市场带来不利影响。Canadian Finance Minister Jim Flaherty on February 11 announced that a 28-year-old visa scheme designed to attract wealthy foreigners to the country would be axed, effective immediately.加拿大财政部长费海提在本月11号宣布即时生效的新政:取消已存在28年的旨在吸引富有的外国人的签政策。Under the now defunct Immigrant Investor Program, as long as you had a cool $C1.6 million (.6 million) in net assets, then all you needed to do was lend the Canadian government $C800,000 for five years on an interest-free basis and you were assured permanent residency for you and your family and a fast-track to citizenship.原有政策规定,拥有净资产达160万美元的外国人,无息贷款给加拿大政府达五年,借款人及其家人即可获得永久居留权并可提前获得加拿大国籍。The decision raised some eyebrows, not least because preceding the decision there had been growing chatter that the country’s aly expensive housing market was being inflated even further by a wave of wealthy Chinese entrants into the country, and in Vancouver in particular.有一些人并不持原有的政策,很大一部分原因是越来越多人认为加拿大国内原本已高企的楼价被富裕的中国人进一步推高了,在温哥华尤为明显。At the time the immigration scheme was axed, there was a backlog of 65,000 applicants, of which 45,500 were mainland Chinese – and 80 per cent of those were bound for the province of British Columbia, according to analysis by the South China Morning Post.据《南华早报》的分析,在政策被取消时,有六万五千名申请者的申请被积压,其中有四万五千五百名为中国大陆人,他们之中百分之八十准备前往位于加拿大西部的不列颠哥伦比亚省。Indeed, The Economist rates Canada’s residential property market as one of the world’s most expensive. The magazine’s analysts say housing is 76 per cent overvalued against long-term averages on a rental basis – the highest among the 23-country league table – and 31 per cent against disposable incomes.《经济学人》杂志将加拿大的住宅物业市场评为全球最贵之一。该杂志的分析员认为在租赁方面,住房和长期以来的平均数值相比被高估了百分之七十六,是参评的二十三个国家中最高的,超出可配收入百分之三十一。The ratio of Canadian household debt to GDP has risen to almost 100 per cent, and has grown at the fastest rate in the world since 2006, according to the World Bank. In April 2012, the former governor of the Bank of Canada, Mark Carney – now the head of the Bank of England – warned of the risks of foreign capital inflating the housing market.根据世界的数据,加拿大的家庭债务与国内生产总值的比值接近一比一,是2006年以来增长最快的国家。2012年4月,前加拿大主席、现任英格兰行长马克·卡尔尼,警告外国资本具有使房地产市场膨胀的风险。More buyers to look in Australia更多的买家考察澳大利亚Canada may seem like a long way away but any move by Canadian authorities to reduce the risk of a -potential bubble and subsequent burst should be welcomed by Australian investors, says Tyndall Asset Management’s head of fixed income, Roger Bridges.廷德尔资产管理公司固定资产部门的负责人罗杰·布瑞吉斯表示,加拿大可能提早许多作出调整,但加拿大当局做出的减少泡沫出现的风险的举措应该受到澳大利亚投资者的欢迎。The country’s housing market is one on a list of “low probability, high impact” events the bond strategist is keeping an eye on.加拿大的房地产市场属于安全性高,影响力大的类型,正被债务研究人士密切注意。That’s because while our local lenders have little direct exposure to Canadian banks, the similarity between our two economies could cause a fresh wave of risk aversion among global investors, many of whom aly believe our property market is a bubble y to pop.上述现象的原因是,澳大利亚的本土放贷者与加拿大方面的只有很少的联系。两国经济的相似程度会使很大数量的全球投资者选择规避风险,他们之中的很多人已经认为澳大利亚的房地产市场的泡沫将要破裂。Of course, rich foreigners can only push up prices at the margin, and usually only in specific areas; low interest rates have helped fuel Canadian demand for mortgages, against the background of an economy that avoided a GFC-inspired recession thanks to its heavy emphasis on -commodity exports.当然,富有的外国人只能在边缘上推高价格,并且通常只在特定的领域。低利息率使加拿大,在严重依赖商品出口的经济背景之下对贷款的需求增大。All this might be sounding familiar to Australians, particularly those who have been house hunting in Sydney, where anecdotal evidence suggests auctions in some areas have been heavily attended by wealthy Chinese buyers willing to pay lofty premiums.所有上述的情况对于澳大利亚来说都很熟悉,特别是那些曾在悉尼购房的人。一些据显示,悉尼的某些地方的拍卖会已经有愿意出高昂额外费用的中国买家出席。And the decision by Canada to restrict access to such rich individuals can only boost interest in our market.而加拿大限制那些富有的人进入该国后,只会使澳大利亚市场利率升高。Research by HS Bank suggests more than one-third of affluent Asians own overseas property, and that our market is the number one destination for further investment. Of the wealthy mainland Chinese surveyed by HS, 9 per cent owned property in Australia, while of the respondents from Hong Kong, 10 per cent did.汇丰的调查显示超过三分之一的富有的亚洲人拥有海外资产,澳大利亚是他们进行海外投资的首选目的地。参加调查的来自中国大陆的人中有百分之九的人在澳大利亚拥有房产,来自香港的被调查者中有百分之10拥有澳大利亚房产。Of the rich Indians surveyed 18 per cent owned Australian property, 19 per cent of Indonesians and Singaporeans, 26 per cent of Malaysians, and 5 per cent of wealthy Taiwanese.其他地区参与调查的同样拥有澳大利亚房产的情况是,百分之十八的印度人、百分之十九的印度尼西亚人和新加坡人、百分之二十六的马来西亚人和百分之五的台湾人。But while home buyers may -complain, it’s great news for local -property developers, such as the listed Australand.尽管想要购买房产的人对这种情况不满,对于澳大利亚国内的地产商确是有好处的,例如澳洲置地。It revealed in its annual results on February 17 that it sold about 15 per cent of its residential developments to offshore investors in 2013, primarily mainland Chinese, almost double the historical average of 8 per cent.该公司在本月17号发布的年报显示,在2013年有百分之十五的住宅卖给了海外投资者,主要来自中国大陆,几乎是历史记录百分之八的翻倍。The sales were made through its Hong Kong office, which Australand opened some 10 years ago. The company said it expected demand from that segment to remain at the same level in 2014.交易在该公司十年前开始设立在香港的办事处进行。该公司表示他们预期2014年在该类型的房产的需求上会同2013年持平。But on the evidence of growing overseas interest in grabbing a slice of the Australian dream, that may be a -conservative view.但从不断增长的海外投资对于澳大利亚前景十分看好这方面来看,这似乎是保守看法。 /201403/278438襄阳南漳县妇幼保健院中医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱 On Tuesday, India#39;s space agency will launch a spacecraft designed to boldly go where no Asian nation has gone before: Mars. 印度航天部门周二将发射一枚航天器,按照设计方案,该航天器将前往亚洲国家此前还没有去过的地方:火星。 The mission, if successful, would be a technological leap that would propel India ahead of space rivals China and Japan in the field of interplanetary exploration. 该任务如果成功,这一技术上的飞跃将令印度在行星际探测领域超过空间对手中国和日本。 It will take more than 10 months for India#39;s Mars satellite, equipped with instruments that can examine the surface of the Red Planet from above, to reach Martian orbit and begin beaming information back to Earth. 印度的卫星将需要10个多月的时间才能到达火星轨道并从那里向地球发送信息。该卫星配备了能够从上方检测这颗红色行星表面的设备。 #39;This is a major turning point in our space program--towards exploration,#39; said Koppillil Radhakrishnan, chairman of the Indian Space Research Organization, the country#39;s civilian space agency. It will bring #39;technological advantage for the country.#39; 该国的民用航天机构印度空间研究组织(Indian Space Research Organization)的主席拉达克里希南(Koppillil Radhakrishnan)说:这是我国空间项目一个重大的转折点,在空间探测方面的转折点。他说,这将给印度带来技术优势。 Decades after the U.S. and Soviet Union battled for supremacy in space during the Cold War, Asian powers have embarked on their own space race-a contest with political, military and technical ramifications here on Earth. 美国和前苏联在“冷战”期间的太空争霸赛几十年后,亚洲大国已经纷纷开始了自己的空间竞赛,而这一竞赛将对地球上的政治、军事和技术等方面的力量对比产生影响。 In recent years, Japan, China and India-in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration-have put satellites into lunar orbit. China has also put astronauts into Earth orbit and conducted spacewalks. 近些年来,日本、中国和印度(与美国国家航空航天局(NASA)合作)已经把卫星送到了月球轨道。中国还把航天员送到了地球轨道,并完成了空间行走。 India spends 68 billion rupees (.1 billion) a year on its space program and has 20 satellites in orbit for communication and remote sensing. 印度每年花在空间项目上的资金有680亿卢比(合11亿美元),有20颗在轨卫星,执行通讯和遥感等任务。 Critics argue that a country where more than 350 million people live on less than .25 a day and where a third of the population lacks access to electricity should be focused more on terrestrial problems. 批评人士辩称,在一个有3.5亿人口每天生活费不足1.25美元、三分之一的人口用不上电的国家,更多的精力应该用来解决地球上的问题。 #39;The b or gun argument#39; is real for India, said Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan, a space-security expert at the Observer Research Foundation, a New Delhi think tank. #39;But India doesn#39;t live in a benign neighborhood.#39; 总部位于新德里的智库组织印度观察家研究基金会(Observer Research Foundation)的空间安全专家拉贾戈帕兰(Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan)说,这种“要面包还是要机”的争论的确是印度面临的一个现实问题,但印度的周边环境并不怎么友好。 Ms. Rajagopalan said that while India is focused on peaceful use of outer space, #39;this is the background against which the Mars mission is taking place. There is a sort of arms race,#39; especially since China in 2007 successfully tested an antisatellite missile. 拉贾戈帕兰说,印度正专注于和平利用外太空,火星项目的背景就是如此;但这有点像军备竞赛,特别是在中国于2007年成功试射了一枚反卫星导弹之后。 In August, India launched its first dedicated military satellite for naval intelligence gathering, amid mounting concerns about the Chinese naval presence in the Indian Ocean. 随着对中国在印度洋的海军力量的担忧不断加剧,今年8月印度发射了首颗专用军事卫星,用来搜集海军情报。 Boosters also point to the civilian benefits of the space program, such as improved meteorological forecasting, which prompted the government to evacuate 1 million people from areas along the southeast coast before a major cyclone last month-a move credited with saving thousands of lives. 持者还指出,空间项目也有民事用途,例如提高气象预报能力。上个月印度政府就在一场大飓风来临前从东南沿海疏散了一百万人,据信挽救了成千上万人的性命。 India#39;s Mars satellite, dubbed Mangalyaan, or Mars craft in Hindi, is scheduled to reach Martian orbit on Sept. 24 after a journey of 422 million miles. If it makes it, it will join two rovers and two orbiters belonging to NASA and a European satellite aly exploring Mars. 印度的火星卫星名为“Mangalyaan”,在北印度语中是火星飞行器的意思。按计划,该卫星将在行驶了4.22亿英里后,于9月24日到达火星轨道。如果获得成功,这颗卫星将加入已经在探索火星的美国国家航空及太空总署(NASA)的两辆火星车和两颗卫星及一颗欧洲卫星的行列。 China#39;s 2011 attempt with Russia to send the Yinghuo-1 satellite to Mars failed after the Russian rocket carrying it was unable to leave Earth orbit. A Japanese 2003 mission to Mars was unable to place a satellite into Martian orbit. 中国和俄罗斯曾于2011年合作尝试发射萤火1号火星探测卫星,由于搭载该卫星的俄罗斯运载火箭未能飞离地球轨道,发射失败。日本在2003年试图发射的一颗卫星也未能进入火星轨道。 China#39;s National Space Science Center has been ed in Chinese media as saying that it won#39;t attempt another voyage to Mars until at least 2016. 中国媒体援引中国国家空间科学中心(National Space Science Center)的话称,至少在2016年之前,中国不会再有火星探测新动作。 India#39;s Mars mission, with a budget of million, is far cheaper than comparable missions including NASA#39;s 1 million Maven satellite that is expected to set off for Mars later in November. The program was approved by the government in 2012. 印度的火星探测项目在2012年获得政府批准,预算为7,300万美元,比包括NASA 6.71亿美元的Maven卫星在内的同类项目要低的多。NASA的Maven火星探测卫星预计将在11月晚些时候发射。 #39;Our previous experience has helped a lot,#39; said Deviprasad Karnik, spokesman for the Indian Space Research Organisation. #39;We had an indigenous space craft bus aly available from our moon mission and the design [for the satellite] was aly available so we could do it quickly.#39; 印度空间研究组织(Indian Space Research Organisation)发言人Deviprasad Karnik称,印度之前的经验帮了大忙,有来自月球探测项目的现成宇宙飞船可以用,(卫星)设计也已经有了,因此火星探测可以很快成行。 Ram Jakhu, a professor at the Institute of Air and Space Law at McGill University in Canada, said the space contest among India, China and Japan was different from the U.S.-Soviet race, because #39;to some extent it#39;s about a rush for natural resources.#39; He said India#39;s Mars mission #39;is a signal to the world about equality and efforts and capabilities to look for resources.#39; 加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)航空航天法研究所(Institute of Air and Space Law)教授Ram Jakhu称,印度、中国和日本之间的空间竞赛与美国和苏联之间的空间竞赛不同,因为从某种程度上说前者是为了争夺自然资源。他称印度的火星探测计划是向全世界释放的一个关于在寻找资源方面的平等、努力和能力的信号。 If India were to land upon a major deposit of titanium, for instance, during future missions, it would be a boost to the economy, he said. #39;India and China want to be major world players and feed their huge populations so they need natural resources.#39; 例如,若印度在未来的探测行动中发现了大量的钛储备,那么印度经济将获得提振。他称,印度和中国希望成为世界强国并养活大量人口,因此它们需要自然资源。 /201311/263583枣阳市第一人民医院割包皮价格

襄阳第四医院盆腔炎多少钱Rand Paul loves to present himself as a political pioneer. This week, however, the Kentucky senator and darling of the Tea Party is carving out new frontiers in finance. Announcing a 2016 presidential bid on Tuesday, he said he would collect donations via bitcoin. That makes him the first US politician to raise funds using thecryptocurrency. The move is likely to be wildly popular with his libertarian supporters, given the Republican party’s deep suspicions of fiat currency and the US Federal Reserve.兰德#8226;保罗(Rand Paul)十分喜欢以政治先锋的形象现身。然而,最近这位肯塔基州参议员、茶党(Tea Party)红人开始在金融领域开辟新土。在宣布参加2016年美国总统竞选时,他称自己将通过比特币接受捐款。这使他成为首位将利用加密电子货币(cryptocurrency)筹集资金的美国政客。鉴于共和党对法定货币及美联储(Fed)极度不信任,此举可能会广受其自由派持者的欢迎。But there is another bitcoin saga that investors should watch. Behind the scenes Wall Street financiers, too, are embarking on market experiments — not in relation to the retail payments or donations with which bitcoin is normally associated but rather the wholesale financial world. Notably, initiatives are being launched to use bitcoin for back-office financial markets settlements. And, while they are at an early stage, they could become important; not least because they are attracting support from wealthy investors.但是,还有另一场关于比特币的大戏值得投资者关注。华尔街的金融人士正在幕后开启市场实验——这些实验无关于通常与比特币联系在一起的零售付或捐款,而与批发金融有关。特别是一些利用比特币进行金融市场后台结算的项目正在筹备之中。而且,尽管这些项目仍处于早期阶段,它们可能会变得十分重要;尤其是因为它们吸引了富有的投资者的持。To understand what is going on, think for a moment about the six-year-old bitcoin technology. Cryptocurrencies are often described in popular culture, and by Mr Paul’s Tea Party followers, as “electronic money”. But it is better to visualise them as financial ledgers — a public record book that keeps track of how many units of the currency each user’s bitcoin “wallet” contains.为了解眼下的情形,我们应该利用片刻时间思考一下已诞生6年的比特币技术。在流行文化以及保罗的茶党追随者中,加密电子货币常常被描述为“电子货币”(electronic money)。但是,更准确地说,应该把它们视为金融账簿——一个记录着每个用户的比特币“钱包”中包含多少数量比特币的公共记录簿。The ledger is mathematically signed in a way that prevents unauthorised doctoring. To own a bitcoin is to possess a secret code that identifies you as the holder of a particular wallet, to whose contents the public ledger (or “blockchain”) attests. Trust in the system is created not by a third party (a central bank, say, as with official currencies) but by a type of cryptography. This can make bitcoin a store of value (albeit a lousy one recently; the price has roughly halved in the past 12 months).该账簿采用数学化签名,以此防止非授权篡改。拥有一枚比特币即拥有一个密码——它将你确定为一个特定钱包的所有者,公共账簿(或者叫“区块链”(BlockChain))会明钱包内东西的归属。对系统的信任,并非由第三方(比如说,对官方货币体系的信任就是由作为第三方的央行建立的),而是由一种密码系统建立起来。这可以使比特币成为一种价值储存手段(尽管最近成了糟糕的储值手段;过去12个月比特币的价格下跌近一半。)But the cryptoledger can also be used to make financial transactions through blockchain technology, which has three notable features. First, in theory a blockchain can execute transactions instantly. Second, blockchains can also perform transactions anonymously. Third, transactions can occur without the need to use third parties, or pay fees to a bank or clearing house. That is because the “cost” of running the bitcoin network is borne by the anonymous owners of servers that connect computer code in exchange for receiving new bitcoins as the system expands (this is known as “mining”).但是这种加密账簿也可以用于通过区块链技术进行金融交易,该技术有三个显著特点。第一,理论上讲区块链可以即时执行交易。第二,区块链也可以匿名完成交易。第三,无需使用第三方、或向(或清算机构)付费用,就可以进行交易。这是因为比特币体系扩大过程中的运行成本,由那些连接计算机代码、以获得新比特币(这个过程就是所谓的“挖矿”)的务器的匿名所有者承担了。These features make the system attractive for retail-style trades and money transfers, legitimate and illicit. But they could theoretically be useful for financial markets. Bankers often say they are at the cutting edge of innovation, but many of the systems they use are lamentably old-fashioned. It can take days, and significant fees, to settle trades in loans or derivatives. That makes the system ripe for disruption.这些特性使比特币对零售型交易和资金转账(无论是合法的还是非法的)都颇具吸引力。但理论上,这些特性可能对金融市场很有用。业人士总是说他们处于创新的前沿,但他们使用的很多系统极为老旧。要结算贷款或者衍生品交易往往要花费数天时间和不菲的费用。这让金融系统亟需被颠覆。And some names are aly jumping in. Last month, Blythe Masters, the former JPMorgan banker, unveiled a company called Digital Asset Holdings to develop bitcoin-based settlement systems. Don Wilson, a Chicago markets luminary, and Sunil Hirani, a derivatives and exchanges veteran, are also working with the company. Separately, JPMorgan Chase has applied for a patent for a technology that sounds similar to bitcoin; and patents are pending from other banks and financial groups.一些知名人士和机构已踊跃加入其中。上月,前根大通(JPMorgan)家布莱思#8226;马斯特斯(Blythe Masters)将一家名叫Digital Asset Holdings的公司带入公众视野之内,这家公司在开发比特币结算系统。闻名芝加哥金融市场的唐#8226;威尔逊(Don Wilson),以及衍生品和外汇专家苏尼尔#8226;希拉尼(Sunil Hirani)也为该公司工作。此外,根大通也申请了一项听上去与比特币类似的技术专利;其他和金融企业的专利也正在申请中。It remains to be seen if these initiatives succeed. One obstacle is that the stance of regulators is unclear. Another is that the bitcoin name carries stigma because the currency has sometimes been used by criminals. Then there is the issue of anonymity. DAH says it wants to provide much-needed transparency for bitcoin. This will be hard in a system organised by anonymous computer scientists — unless DAH itself becomes a third-party intermediary and charges fees, in which case part of the attraction of bitcoin disappears.这些计划是否能成功还有待观察。其中一个障碍是监管者立场不明。另一个是比特币因有时被犯罪者利用而沾染了污名。然后还有匿名性的问题。Digital Asset Holdings表示想为比特币提供其亟需的透明度。然而,在一个由匿名计算机专家管理的系统中,要做到这一点十分困难,除非该公司本身也成为一个第三方中介机构,并收取费用,但那样的话比特币会丧失部分魅力。Such problems do not deter the enthusiasts; after all, they point out, most financial innovations appear unlikely to take root at first. When people such as Ms Masters developed credit derivatives three decades ago, for example, they seemed truly bizarre.这些问题都无法阻拦比特币狂热者;他们指出,毕竟大多数金融创新一开始看上去都不太可能成功。比如,当马斯特斯等人30年前发明出信用衍生品的时候,那些产品似乎也很奇怪。So perhaps the real lesson for investors is that the focus on “innovation” is changing: in an ultra-low interest rate world, the idea of creating financial products looks less exciting. It is boring back-office technology that is the new innovation frontier. Consider it another consequence of the peculiar post-crisis financial system — or, as Mr Paul’s supporters might argue, an era when money is so distorted that normal assumptions are turned upside down.因此,对投资者而言或许真正的教训是“创新”的焦点在变化:在超低利率的环境下,创造金融产品的想法看上去不那么令人兴奋。乏味的后台技术才是新的创新前沿。就把它看做奇特的后危机时代金融体系的另一个后果吧,保罗的持者可能会说,这个时代金钱已被扭曲至此,以至于常规的假设都被颠倒了。 /201504/370413 The world faces an unprecedented challenge: to change the high-carbon energy DNA of the global economy in the next three decades to low carbon. This requires directed technological change on a historic scale.世界面临史无前例的挑战:在未来30年将全球经济的能源DNA从高碳转变为低碳。这需要一种历史性的有控技术革新。It could well fail, and with failure will come a planet wrecked by climate change. At Tuesday’s UN climate summit, nations began the negotiations to last through 2015 that are our last chance to change course.这一变革很可能失败,如果失败的话,气候变化将给地球带来巨大的破坏。在上周二的联合国(UN)气候峰会上,各国开始了将持续至2015年的谈判,这是我们做出改变的最后机会。The reasons we need to change course on the economy, energy and environment are diverse and interconnected. They include persistence of extreme poverty and rising inequality; human-induced climate change; the destruction of biodiversity; and, most generally, the many challenges of a large and growing world economy and population that press far too hard on the earth’s fragile ecosystems and resources.我们需要在经济、能源和环境方面做出改变,改变的理由是多样化的、彼此关联的。这些理由包括:难以根除的极度贫困,日益加重的不平等;人为导致的气候变化;生物多样性遭到破坏;而最主要的理由是,庞大并日益增长的世界经济和人口带来了许多挑战,这对地球脆弱的生态系统和资源造成了极大的压力。The question is not the need for change but how to achieve it. The challenges of global-scale social and economic change are profound, not least high levels of inertia visible in the world’s economic and technological systems – industry, energy, transport, production, trade and investment.问题不在于是否有必要改变,而是如何做出改变。要在全球范围内从社会和经济方面做出改变,挑战是艰巨的,尤其是全球经济和技术体系——工业、能源、交通、生产、贸易和投资——存在显而易见的巨大惰性。The inertia of the global economy results from several powerful factors: long-term infrastructure, vested interests (perhaps no lobby is more powerful than Big Oil), geopolitical competition, short-termism and massive technological uncertainties and challenges. The world needs to chart a new low-carbon energy trajectory, but what will it be? Of course, different countries will make different choices and should be supported to do so.全球经济的惰性源于多个强有力的因素:长期基础设施建设、既得利益者(或许没有比大型石油公司更强大的游说集团了)、地缘政治竞争、短期主义和巨大的技术不确定性和挑战。世界需要绘制新的低碳能源轨迹,但这种轨迹是什么样子?当然,不同的国家将会做出不同的选择,而且我们也应该持他们的选择。For the politicians, the issue of climate change is deeply unpleasant. It is filled with uncertainty and technical complexity; it involves time horizons far beyond election cycles; it requires patient long-term investments; and it requires new public-private institutions that are no joy to design and implement over the din of lobbyists. And these issues involve counterintuitive choices, such as stranding fossil fuel reserves that have been discovered but cannot safely be burned because of the need to limit carbon emissions.对政客们来说,气候变化问题令人头疼。它充斥着不确定性,技术上也非常复杂;它的时间跨度远远长过选举周期;它需要耐心的长期投资;而且它需要建立新型的公私合作机制——在游说者的吵吵嚷嚷中,这种机制是很难成功设计和实施的。这些问题还涉及一些违反直觉的选择,比如停止开采已被发现、但由于需要限制碳排放而无法安全燃烧的化石燃料储藏。These considerations have so far caused 22 years of inaction since the signing of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. So how to move forward? Here’s my take. First, we should hold on for dear life to the globally agreed commitment to keep the rise in mean temperature below 2C. This is not meant to be a target, mind you; it is meant to be an upper limit. By all accounts, right now we are on a 4C-6C trajectory instead.基于上述问题,世界在自签署《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)以来的22年间无所作为。那么应该如何推进进展?我的建议有如下几点。首先,我们应该坚持全球达成一致的承诺,让平均气温升幅低于2摄氏度。提醒人们注意的是,这并不是目标,而是上限。人人都说,我们现在实际上已经处于气温上升4至6摄氏度的轨迹当中。Second, each of the countries that is a big emitter (and many other high-income and smaller middle-income countries) should agree to design – and present to the world – a country-specific pathway to deep decarbonisation by 2050 that is consistent with the 2C limit. Such deep decarbonisation pathways would provide country-level scenarios of how each of the world’s leading economies proposes to cut emissions to 1-1.5 tons a head by 2050, implying a reduction of about 90 per cent in the US, and about 80 per cent in China and Europe.其次,每个温室气体排放大国(以及其他许多高收入国家和规模较小的中等收入国家),都应该同意设计(并向世界展示)本国到2050年深度脱碳的路径规划,该规划要与气温升幅不超过2摄氏度的上限相符。此类深度脱碳规划应让我们从国家层面上看到,所有全球主要经济体计划如何到2050年将人均排放削减到1-1.5吨——这意味着美国减排约90%,中国和欧洲减排约80%。Third, the world’s governments and leading businesses (especially in energy, transport, industry and construction) need to undertake a massive and co-operative programme of research, development, demonstration and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. A clear, predictable carbon tax would help those technologies by giving a market-based incentive to shift from carbon; but carbon pricing is not enough to generate the rapid development and uptake of new technologies, or the network infrastructure to deploy them.第三,世界各国政府和大型企业(尤其是在能源、交通、工业和建筑领域)需要大规模地开展合作项目,对低碳技术进行研发、论和传播。明确而可预测的碳税将对放弃高碳提供市场激励,从而有助于这些技术的发展,但现在的碳价还不足以让新技术迅速发展和实施,也不足以促进用于实施这些技术的网络基础设施的发展。Such public-private partnerships in low-carbon technologies are not a new type of co-operation. They are familiar from the military sector, informatics, computing, space science, genomics and physics (as in the government-backed hunt for the Higgs boson). Several leading economies are indeed very good at directed technological change. But when it comes to low-carbon energy, we just haven’t really tried.低碳技术上的此类公私合作并非新的合作模式。它们常见于军事部门、信息学、计算科学、空间科学、基因组学和物理学领域——寻找希格斯玻色子(Higgs boson)的政府持项目就是这样。多个主要经济体实际上非常擅长于有针对性的技术变革。但就低碳能源来说,我们甚至没有真正尝试过。There is a narrow path up to climate safety. It involves holding on to a clear goal, in this case the 2C limit. It involves finding practical pathways to success for each of the big emitting countries. And it requires a well-funded, generation-long effort to develop the low-carbon technologies that we will need.通往气候安全的道路狭窄。它包括坚持明确的目标,也就是2摄氏度的升温上限。它还包括为每个排放大国成功减排找到切实可行的道路。它需要资金充裕、长达一代人之久的努力来开发我们需要的低碳技术。As the politicians met at the UN this week, they had not yet decided on such a bold, co-operative, generation-long effort. Yet our survival depends on it. Tuesday’s gathering will have mattered if its pushes political and business leaders in the direction of survival. We can save our planet and ourselves if we decide to do it. With crucial negotiations ahead in 2015, next year will be the year of decision.当政客们上周在联合国会晤之际,他们还没有就如此大胆、需要一代人之久的合作努力做出决定。然而,这关系到我们的生死存亡。如果上周二的峰会把政界和商界领导人推向为人类存活而努力的方向,那么峰会将是具有重要意义的。如果我们决定这么做,就可以挽救我们的星球和我们自己。2015年将举行关键的谈判,那将是决定性的一年。 /201410/332609枣阳市康复医院割包皮襄阳市东风人民医院子宫肌瘤多少钱

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