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于都县人民医院口腔科最新频道

2019年08月25日 10:18:55 | 作者:安大全 | 来源:新华社
The Southern Song was a Han regime founded by Zhao Gou (known as Emperor Gaozong ),with its capital in Lin’an (present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang).南宋是北宋灭亡后,由宋皇族在江南建立起来的、以汉族为主体的封建王朝,建都临安(今浙江杭州),开国皇帝为宋高宗赵构。The Southern Song was in a consistent menace of the Jin in the north and tried in vain in recovering its ruling of the northern part of China until it was destroyed by the Yuan Dynasty.南宋王朝自建立以来,一直在金国的威胁之下,直至被元消灭时,也未能恢复宋朝在中国北方的统治。The Southern Song had nine emperors who ruled for 153 years.南宋共历九帝,前后153年。Its territorial boundaries in the north extended from the Huaishui, through Tang(present-day Tanghe in Henan), Deng (east of present-day Deng County in Henan) to Dasanguan (southwest of Baoji, Shaanxi) in the Qinling Mountain, bordering the Jin and in the southeast and southwest line, it remained the same as those of the Northern Song.其疆域北以淮水,经唐(今河南唐河)、邓(今河南邓县东)二州至秦岭大散关(今陕西宝鸡西南)一线与金为界,东南、西南同北宋时期。The 1st year of Jingkang( 1126) saw the conquest of Kaifeng, the Northern Song capital, by the Jin army.北宋靖康元年(1126),金军攻占北宋都城开封。次年二月,废宋徽、钦二帝,北宋灭亡。In 1127, Emperors Huizong and Qinzong were deposed, ending up the Northern Song. In the same year, Zhao Gou, the Prince of Kang and former marshal in Hebei, ascended the throne in Nanjing (south of present-day Shangqiu in Henan) after the withdrawal of the Jin troops. Zhao Gou still called his regime the “Great Song”,which became known as the Southern Song, and chose the title of his reign Jianyan.同年,原任河北兵马大元帅的赵宋皇族康王赵构,在金军退走之后,于南京(今河南商丘南)即位,仍沿用大宋国号,史称南宋,年号建炎,是为宋高宗。Instead of appointing competent people, carrying out reforms and devising effective defensive strategies. Emperor Gaozong did the opposite by blocking his talented Chief Minister Li Gang and changed the dominant military strategy from one of active resistance to passive defense.南宋新立,当务之急是选贤任能,革新军政,制定积极进取的战略计划。然而,宋高宗昏聩无能,任用佞人,排斥贤相李纲,改积极抗战方针为消极防御。Consequently, Li Gang^ policies to develop the state could not be implemented, Zong Ze’s efforts to establish Kaifeng as a fighting base for the Jin troops were wasted and the anti-Jin activities in the Central Plains were discouraged.结果导致李纲建国十策难以完全落实,宗泽经营的开封基地前功尽弃,中原抗金义军的活动遭受打击。The Song fled to Lin,an,abandoning the Huai River valley and the Yangtze River.随后,宋庭采用弃淮守江的战略,放弃两淮,南逃临安。However, the Lin’an garrison mutinied and the Jin troops took advantage of the situation to march south. Emperor Gaozong fled to the East China Sea. The Southern Song was in dire straits.结果造成临安卫军政变,金军亦乘机南下,宋高宗航海走避,南宋险些亡国。As the Jin troops had failed to capture the Song emperor despite their hot pursuit, they started withdrawing to the north. But at Huangtiandang (slt; present-day Nanjing) the withdrawing Jin troops were held up and almost crushed by the Southern Song army led by General Han Shizhong.金军穷追宋高宗不获,由江南北撤,被南宋韩世忠部拦截在黄天荡,北撤金军险遭灭顶之灾。After that, the Jin forces dared not cross the Yangtze River and the Southern Song could stand on its own feet.此后,金军不敢轻易渡江,南宋朝庭得以立足江南。Then the Southern Song took some strategic defence measures which were quite successful.南宋在江南的统治稳固之后,实施了几项相对成功的战略举措。First of all, it strengthened its defensive forces in Sichuan and Shaanxi. Secondly, a complete system of defensive works was built to link the Yangtze River and the eastern bank of the Huai River midstream. Thirdly, it pursued a strategy of attacking the Central Plains with Jingxiang as its base to link up with He-shuo.一是加强川陕防御,阻挡金军入川之举;二是建立以长江中游地区为重点、连结淮东的江淮防御体系,以阻止金军进攻;三是实施以荆襄为基地,联络河朔,乘隙而进,直捣中原的战略方针。It also attached great importance to developing military hardware, reforming the military system and increasing the army,s manpower. As a result,the situation became more favourable.同时,南宋还重视发展军事技术,改革军事制度,加强军队建设,从而使国防力量有所增强,从屡战屡败到胜多败少,战略形势逐渐向有利于南宋方面转化,曾一度出现北进的较好形势。However, the Southern Song pursued a policy of suing for peace and had no plan to recover the Central Plains. Moreover, its policy of appointing civil officials to control and restrain military officers greatly discouraged its generals and hindered the development of military strength.但南宋以妥协求和,偏安自保为基本方针,贯彻以文制武的军事指挥原则,极大地抑制了领兵将帅才能的发挥,妨碍了军事的发展。The measures taken in the 11th year of Shaoxing( 1114) that depriving three great generals of their commanding power, killing the outstanding anti-Jin general Yue Fei, reduceing the number of the soldiers led to its self-destruction.尤其在绍兴十一年均为(1114)采取的解除三大将领兵权、杀害抗金名将岳飞、缩编军队等错误措施,无疑是自毁长城。Consequently, the Southern Song went into decline.After the emergence of the Mongols, the three powers in the north—the Mongols, the Western Xia and the Jin—constantly fought against each other. This should have been the best opportunity for the Southern Song to expand.结果,南宋在偏安中逐步走向衰弱。蒙古兴起之后,蒙古、西夏、金三国在北方激战,此时是南宋向外发展的最佳时机。But, its rulers, having adopted a self-defence strategy, took no action at all.但是,南宋统治者在消极防御的战略方针指导下,对北方三国撕杀作壁上观, 没有任何积极的行动。It was not until the Xi Xia vanished and the Jin, having lost most of its northern territories, turned to attack the Southern Song that it was forced to fight.待西夏灭亡,金北方尽失,战略转移,南攻宋地,南宋才被迫应战。Although the Southern Song troops held the southward marching Jin army at bay, they also suffered heavy losses. When the Mongolian forces entered at the northern bank of the Yellow River, the Southern Song no longer had any strength left to march north.南宋虽能阻止金军南下,但兵力受损,蒙古势力也进入黄河以北,南宋再无力北攻。Worse still, when the Jin was doomed, the Southern Song even made a decision to join with the Mongols to resist the Jin,not knowing that it would soon follow the Jin’s fate.金垂亡之际,南宋尚不知唇亡齿寒,大祸将至,竟作出联蒙灭金的决策,结果寸土未得,实力暴露,最终走向灭亡。In the 2nd year of Deyou (1276),the army of Yuan invaded Ling’an,the Empress Dowager Xie and the Emperor Gong surrendered.南宋德祐二年(1276),元军攻克临安,宋廷谢太后及恭帝投降。Some anti-Yuan ministers such as Wen Tianxiang, Lu Xiufu and Zhang Shijie etc. moved to the south in Fujian and Guangzhou and tried to revive the Southern Song by establishing a mini-Song court.In the first year of Xiangxing( 1278), Wen Tianxiang was captured by the Yuan army at Wulingpo( now north of Haifeng, Guang Dong) and was enjailed to Dadu, the capital of the Yuan.部分抗战派大臣南下福建、广东建立南宋行朝,文天祥、陆秀夫、张世杰等共撑危局,南宋祥兴元年(1278)十二月,文天祥在五坡岭(今广东海丰北)兵败被俘,元朝统治者将他囚禁在大都。Wen was no single idea of giving in facing the alternate coercion and intimidate of the Yuan. At last he died a martyr at the capital of Yuan.面对元朝的种种威逼利诱,文天祥始终坚贞不屈,于至元十九年(1282) 十二月就义于元大都。In the 2nd year of Xiangxing( 1279),The fleet of the,Yuan led by Zhang Hongfan assaulted Yashan, the last decisive battle with the remaining Southern Song.祥兴二年(1279)正月,元将张弘范率水军攻打崖山,与行朝进行最后决战。In February, the Southern Song’s troop was defeated and Lu Xiufu jumped into the sea, carrying the last emperor Zhaorui on his back. Soon Zhang Shijie pursued the same end.二月,宋军大败,陆秀夫身背末帝赵肩跳海而亡,之后张世杰堕海殉国。The Southern Song was ruined.南宋至此灭亡。The political system in the Southern Song generally followed its Northern Song counterparts. But the administrative organizations were streamlined and re-struc-tured to accommodate the new practice of autocratic centralization of power.南宋的政治制度基本上是沿袭北宋,但行政机构比北宋精简集中,适应于新形势下的专制主义中央集权。The three secretariats and six boards of the former Northern Song Dynasty were merged in order to reduce the number of official posts and administrative organizations.首先对中央最高行政机构三省六部进行了调整,除户部以事务繁多未减少外,其他五部通过兼领、合并而大量省并。But changes were not so drastic with respect to local governments. Reforms were also introduced into the military system.Early in the Southern Song, the former Northern Song,s Military Council was replaced with various bodies.地方府、州、军、监 级和县级机构,基本沿袭北宋制度。But at the end of the Jianyan reign (1131), the Military Council was restored to its position as the highest military body.建炎末(1131),恢复北宋枢密院管军旧制,枢密院又成为最高军事机构。At the same time, more military and paramilitary organizations were set up in regional areas to maintain order and to resist the Jin forces.南宋建立后,为了加强对地方的统治,先后设置一些军事统御机构,对维护地方治安和抗击金军起到一定的作用。After the Southern Song became more politically stable, the social economy began to develop.南宋在政局稳定之后,社会经济在某些方面比北宋发达。Two-fifths smaller than its predecessor, the Southern Song^ advanced agricultural techniques saw it reap rich harvests.尽管南宋国土比北宋减少2/5,但农业生产发达地区都在南宋境内。Hence the gross productive capacity was at the same level as that of the Northern Song.因此,南宋农业生产的总体水平并不亚于北宋。To meet its militar-y needs, the Southern Song paid great attention to weapon manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, and shipbuilding. As a result, the Southern Song surpassed the Northern Song in technique and scale of these industries.而军器制造、采矿冶炼、造船等手工业生产的技术、规模等方面都超过北宋。The Xiangyang, Hanzhong, Zhejiang and the area to the east part of the Yangtze River were the bases for food supply.南宋立国后,襄阳、汉中、两浙和江东地区渐成为粮食生产基地,农作物的栽培技术比以前也有进步。Meanwhile, more advanced agricultural implements were put to use and the irrigating systems were greatly improved.在农业工具方面出现了人工踏犁、竹龙等先进工具,水利灌溉系统也更为发达。In handicraft industry, sericiculture, baldachin, silk and textile were also bettered.手工业方面,养蚕织锦、丝织业、棉织业有较大发展。Techniques of publishing and painting were highly advanced and widely used which rendered mass production of books. The development of paper-making skills resulted in disparate papers which enhanced the culture development of the Southern Song.雕板印刷与活字印刷业非常发达,印制了大量书籍,造纸业也随之发达,可以造出各种用 途的纸张,促进了南宋时期文化事业的发展。Pottery industry grew quite rapidly, the famous blue and white porcelain wascreated. The most common porcelain was the type known as Celadon near the end of the Song Dynasty, and celadon, bearing with the subtle lines, was made in Longquan County of Zhejiang. The exporting of the pottery wares was increased in the Southern Song Dynasty.瓷器制造业也颇发达,著名的带有碎纹(称“百圾碎”)的青瓷——就是南宋浙江龙泉县烧造的,运销海外的瓷器比过去也增加了。Shipbuilding industry reached its height.南宋造船业十分发达。The trades and business in city were flourishing and the bazaar of vary kinds could be found anywhere in the city with various goods on display.城市工商业繁荣,各种市场遍布城中,出售的商品门类繁多。The paper money—kuaizi was first used in trade.首创在商业中使用纸币会子。Under the encouragement of the government, trades overseas was expanded to the Southeast Asia, Dashi (now Arab), Korea and even countries in the Eastern of Africa.政府鼓励海外贸易,当时与东南亚、大食(今阿拉伯)、朝鲜、乃至东非诸国都有贸易往来。One noticeable cultural development during the Southern Song was the flourishing of moral science, especially the Neo-Confucianism which came to be the official ideology of the day.南宋的文化事业非常发达,出现了理学家朱熹、陆九渊,文学家辛弃疾、陆游等人。其中影响最大的是理学逐步取得了官学地位。南宋时期,思想道德教育有了很大的发展,新儒家学派成为统治阶级倡导的思想信条。Zhu Xi was one of the people who helped develop Neo-Confucianism. While not the only person to write about Confucianism, he was the one who combined others works with his and best organized these beliefs. He selected ,from the ancient writings on Confucianism, the Four Books and also synthesized the writings of previous philosophers who had been active earlier during the Northern Song era.朱熹是新儒家思想的代表人,与其他的人不同,他将自己的观点与别人的观点结合起来,追古溯源,将古书《四书》有关孔子的学说与宋时活跃的哲学思想结合起来。Zhu Xi believed that “reason” in things existed before things themselves and all the changes in things were governed by it.朱熹认为,万事万物中的“理”是先于事物本身而存在的,万事万物的变化皆受制于“理”。As far as men were concerned, “reason” was nothing but men’s nature which was inherently good; all the feudal moral standards originated in it. Blinded by the desire for material gains, man could become evil and commit violations of the feudal moral standards.就人类来说,“理”就是人类的本质,而人类的本质本来就是善良的,国家的一切道德标准皆来自“理”,盲目的物质追求会使人的本质变坏,进而违反社会的道德标准。The purpose of these remarks, as far as Zhu Xi was concerned, was the justification of the feudal moral standards and the necessity for people to observe them.朱熹的目的在于说明封建伦理道德的合理性,从而促进人们自觉地去遵守。An important part of Neo-Confucianism is the attempt to “repossess the Way. ” Pursuiting of the Way through disciplined self-cultivation formed a person’s character.新儒家思想试图重新回到“道”上,强调修身齐家以治国和安定天下。This was important because it encouraged the nobles to live up to the Confucian ideals by being less selfish.这在当时是很重要的,因为它 要求人们遵循儒家思想不要只重一己之私利。While poetry and painting gained importance, some poets began using the vernacular styles in their writings.In the past it had been very unusual to use phrases from everyday life.南宋时期诗歌和绘画也有了重大的发展,诗人在写作中运用多种表现手法,与以前不同的是他们从日常生活中吸取了大量的词语。The well-known form of poem was ci.这一时期,最有名的是词的发展。Both Lu You and Xin Qiji were famous ci poets and both had participated in the anti-Jin struggle. Their works, therefore, reflected their concern for their country and their lofty sentiments and emotions.陆游和辛弃疾都是著名的词人,他们参加过南宋抗金的斗争,因此作品中多半表现出为国家命运担忧的主题。Li Qingzhao was a poetess who enjoyed a special position in Chinese literature.李清照是南宋著名的女词人。General Yue Fei, known for his military exploits, wrote impressive ci.抗金将领岳飞也擅长作词。In its simple form, drama or zaju made its appearance during the Northern Song Dynasty. Humorous and satirical, it consisted of recitations and dialogues; later, it was accompanied by songs and dances.杂剧这种艺术形式出现在北宋,它形式简单、幽默而具有讽刺意味,包括叙述和对话两种形式,后来又加人了说唱和舞蹈形式。The zaju of the Jin was not much different from that of the Southern Song. During the Southern Song Dynasty a most popular kind of2咖 was the “Wenzhou drama”or “southern drama” developed in Wenzhou and other coastal regions of Zhejiang Province.金时的杂剧和南宋时相似,南宋时最流行的杂剧形式是“温州剧”,也叫南剧,起源于浙江温州的其它沿海地区。Through the medium of songs, recitations, and dances, it told complicated stories with a variety of characters.通过说唱、叙事和舞蹈表达具有许多人物的复杂故事。In the Jin as well as in the Song, there were also dramatic ballads known as zhugongdiao orgongdiao . By songs and recitations, they told long stories.在金、宋时期,还有叙事民谣叫做诸宫调或宫调,通过说唱可以讲述很长的故事。In terms of vocal style, zhugongdiao absorbed the characteristics of major melodies, ci , and folk ballads of the Tang and Song dynasties.从旋律上讲,诸宫调吸收了宋词和唐宋时期民谣的主要特点。Both zaju and zhugongdiao had contributed to the development of the Yuan drama.诸宫调和杂剧对元朝时戏曲的发展做出了很大贡献。Hua ben or vernacular tales consisted of two kinds : the long ones and the short ones.话本也叫地方故事,有两种形式:长剧和短剧。The short ones, known as xiao shuo , or short stories, dealt with such topics as loves, ghosts and spirits and heroic adventures.短剧主要表现有关爱情、鬼神和惊险故事。The long ones, known as jiangshi or historical episodes, related historical events that occurred in a certain period. They described wars and the rise and fall of dynasties and portrayed heroes and their military exploits.长剧也叫讲史,主要是叙述一定时期的历史,它讲述战争、王朝的兴衰和军事征。Revealing the seamy side of society, they were literature of realism.它反映社会丑陋的一面,是文学中的现实主义。By the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, vernacular tales had made considerable progress. They advanced further during the Southern Song Dynasty and served as the forerunner of the novels of the Yuan and Ming dynasties.北宋末年,地方剧发展很快,在南宋时期又取得了进一步的发展,是后来元、明小说的前身。Painting reached new heights during this time. There were two main schools of painters. The first created decorative, yet realistic, paintings that show a great attention to details. The second tried to paint inner realities, as they viewed painting to be an intimate personal expression.南宋时的绘画也有了一定的发展,主要有两种绘画风格,一种是表现外在的现实,另一种 是内心的现实,后者认为绘画就是表现亲近的内在感受。While being one of the most technologically and culturally advanced people in the world at the time, the Song were not militarily powerful.尽管宋朝的科技和文化在当时都是领先的,但宋朝的军事却不强大。Part of the reason for this may be that Confucianism held military in very low regard. Confucianism did not recognize the military as being part of the four official classes of occupations.有可能是因为对儒家思想的信奉降低了军事的地位,儒家思想讲究仁政,并不把军事职位 列人统治者管理的职能类别。Therefore, the military positions consisted of the poor, uneducated peasants, mercenaries or allies. Diplomacy was the favored form of dealing with enemies. This pracice was prolonged the period of paying tribute to enemies. In addition being not meant to be militarily strong enough to defeat them, the Southern Song was left susceptible to be attacked from others.所以军事职位主要是由穷人、文化程度较低的农民和唯利是图的人担当,因而外交就成为对付敌人的主要手段,这就使宋代的历史有 很长的一段都是进贡,而不是将敌人彻底打败,这也使宋朝极易受到外敌的入侵。This weakness allowed for two non-Chinese kingdoms to exist to the north of the Song and finally the Southern Song was defea-ted by the later grown minority tribe, the Mongolian in the Yuan Dynasty lished by Kublai Khan.这种软弱使两个非汉族建立的王国得以在其北面存在,而宋本身也被日后成长起来的少数民族部落——蒙古人忽必烈汗建立的元朝所灭。 /201602/426211On Friday, CNN reported that a JetBlue passenger en route from Anchorage to Portland, Ore., stood up and urinated on passengers sitting in front of him and others around him. When the plane landed, he was arrested by Portland police, charged with criminal mischief and offensive littering, two misdemeanors, and later released.星期五,CNN报道一位搭乘捷蓝航空公司(JetBlue)飞机的旅客在从安克雷奇飞往俄勒冈州波特兰的途中站起身来向坐在前排和周围的旅客身上小便。飞机降落时,他被波特兰警方逮捕,遭到刑事恶作剧和冒犯性乱丢物品两项轻罪起诉,后被释放。In the annals of bad flights, this one certainly ranks among the most disgusting, but it is not a total outlier. Days later, an American Airlines flight from Miami to Chicago was diverted, according to the A affiliate in Chicago, because of a passenger’s “erratic” behavior that witnesses said involved kicking a seat, kissing a flight attendant and then punching her in the face. What — if anything — can travelers do about this kind of behavior? We asked Gary Leff, co-founder of Milepoint.com, a frequent flier discussion site, to weigh in. The following are edited excerpts from a conversation with Mr. Leff.在各种不良飞行记录中,这件事可以算是比较恶心的,但还不是那么出格。几天后,一次从迈阿密飞往芝加哥的航班被迫转向,根据A台在芝加哥的分报道,是因为一名乘客“古怪”的行为,据目击者说,他踢椅子,亲吻空,然后又打她的脸。万一在飞机上遇到这种事,旅客们该怎么办?我们请飞机旅客讨论网站Milepoint.com的联合创始人加里·莱夫(Gary Leff)发表一下意见。以下内容来自与莱夫先生的对话,经过编辑和节选。Q: Do fliers have any recourse when exposed to such bad behavior in the air? 问:乘客们如果在飞行时遇到这种恶劣的事件,有什么追索权?A. They wouldn’t have any more recourse, really, if it happened at a sports stadium. People behave badly all the time, and as gross as this is, it’s a relatively minor thing to pursue recourse over. Anyone doing this is probably relatively judgment-proof anyway, so no, you don’t have much recourse.答:如果这种事发生在体育馆里,其实也没有什么追索权。总有那种表现恶劣的人,尽管很糟糕,但要去追索赔偿,这种事又显得太小。能干出这种事的人又多少有可能不具备履行判决的能力。所以,对,乘客没有什么追索的权利。If you sense something is not right with your seatmate, what can you do?问:如果你觉得旁边坐着的人有点不对劲,那你该怎么办?It depends on how “not right” it is. The only thing you can do is inform the crew. If it’s reasonably minor, your hope is that there’s a free seat somewhere on plane and they can move you to it. If the plane is full, you can fly in your seat or hope to divert, but the crew will divert only in really serious situations. That’s up to the pilot’s judgment. In any place where it’s not completely full, consult with the crew to change seats. The first incident happened within 30 minutes of landing so there wasn’t going to be somewhere to divert quickly. They were almost there. If it happened early in the flight they could have wound up diverting the flight.答:这取决于对方有多“不对劲”。你唯一能做的事就是通知乘务人员。如果事情确实很小,你就只能指望飞机上还有多余的座位,让乘务人员帮你换位子。如果飞机满员了,你就只能呆在自己的座椅上,或者指望飞机备降,但机组人员只有在非常严重的情况下才会这么做。而且这取决于飞行员的判断。如果飞机上还有空位,你可以和乘务人员商量要求换位子。第一件事(乘客小便)发生时,飞机还有不到30分钟就要降落了,所以没有备降。目的地马上就要到了。如果事情发生在飞机起飞不久,他们可能会备降。How common are indignities of this caliber in-flight? 问:飞行中这种程度的冒犯举动经常发生吗?This is very uncommon. There’s no question people behave badly on planes because there are lots of people in a confined space and there are people who behave badly everywhere. So we do see altercations everywhere in the sky, whether it’s the guy who brings the [Knee] Defender on and gets in a fight with person in front of him because he can’t recline his seat. But I’ve also seen bad behavior in premium cabins; it’s not just a function of economy travel.答:这么糟糕的事并不是经常发生的。不过,人们在飞机上常常会表现恶劣,因为那么多人处在一个狭小的空间,而且还有人无论走到哪儿表现都很恶劣。所以我们也经常看到飞机上有人吵架,有人带着膝盖捍卫者(Knee Defender,一种令前座的椅背无法放倒的小玩意——编注)上飞机,结果前座的人没法把靠背放倒,双方大动干戈。但是我也见过头等舱里有人表现恶劣,糟糕的行为并不是经济舱的专利。If you are urinated on or in some way your property is damaged by another traveler, can you seek compensation from the airline or were you just unlucky?问:如果你被尿到身上了,或者你的物品被其他旅客毁坏了,你能从航空公司获得赔偿吗,还是只能认倒霉?You were probably just unlucky. As long as it’s not a member of the crew, the airline doesn’t owe you anything. They are not actually at fault. They might offer a good-will gesture because you had a bad experience on their airline and they want to win back your business. You are more likely to get one based on your frequency of travel because they are interested in preserving the relationship. But you’re not likely to have a successful lawsuit against an airline for being urinated on.答:很可能只能认倒霉。如果你不是机组成员,航空公司就不欠你什么。这并不是他们的错。他们可能会对你做出一些善意的表示,因为你在乘坐他们的航班时遇到了不好的体验,他们想挽回你这个乘客。你得到的待遇很可能和你乘机出行的频率有关,因为他们只对和你保持客户关系感兴趣。但你如果因为被小便淋了就起诉航空公司,多半是不会胜诉的。 /201509/400019With many of us contemplating marathons or other prolonged endurance events in 2016, we, our spouses and other family members most likely have wondered whether such strenuous training could be harmful to our hearts. Could any of us, in making ambitious resolutions, exercise too much?有很多人都考虑在2016年参加马拉松比赛或其他长时间的耐力活动,然而,这样的雄心会不会造成运动过度?如此艰苦的锻炼会不会损伤我们的心脏?我们的配偶、其他家庭成员、当然还有我们自己不由产生了担忧。A newly published scientific review offers both reassurance and some caution. It found that while most athletes’ hearts can withstand most exercise, there are exceptions. For some people in seemingly good health, heavy loads of exercise might be problematic. That’s why all of us who work out should be as informed as possible about our family’s cardiac history and our own potential genetic risks.最新发表的一项科学综述让我们大为安心,但它同时也提出了一些警告。该研究发现,尽管大多数运动员的心脏都能承受大部分的运动,但也有例外。运动的沉重负荷可能为某些看似身体健康的人造成麻烦。正是出于这个原因,所有平日锻炼的人都应该尽可能详细地了解自己家族的心脏病史以及自己潜在的遗传风险。Exercise, of course, is in general extremely beneficial for heart health. Dozens of large-scale epidemiological studies have found that people who exercise in any amount, whether five minutes a day or two hours a day or more, are much less likely to develop or die from heart disease than people who are sedentary.当然,一般而言,锻炼对心脏健康大有益处。数十项大型流行病学研究都发现,无论是每天锻炼5分钟还是2个小时,锻炼身体的人患心脏病或因心脏病死亡的风险要比久坐不动的人要低得多。But these studies, while encouraging, contain a disquieting subtext. Their plotted data typically shows some type of bell curve to the heart benefits from exercise, meaning that the more people work out, the less they are at risk of cardiac problems — up to a point, and then the benefits plateau or decline.但这些研究在给予我们鼓励的同时,也隐含着些令人不安的信息。根据数据绘制出的锻炼的心脏效益曲线往往呈钟形,这意味着,在某个点之前,锻炼得越多,人出现心脏问题的风险就越低,但越过这个点之后,锻炼的效益就会出现平台期或者有所下降。To some scientists, that finding made little intuitive sense. If a little exercise is good for the heart, why shouldn’t more be continually better?有些科学家直觉地认为这一发现说不通。既然少量锻炼有益于心脏,那为什么加大锻炼量却不会带来更大的好处呢?Dr. Paul Thompson, the chief of cardiology at Hartford Hospital in Connecticut and for years a dedicated marathon runner, was particularly drawn to that issue. He and his colleagues at Hartford Hospital, along with scientists at the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, recently decided to delve more comprehensively than had yet been done into the available data on the topic.作为一名有多年经验的马拉松跑者,哈特福德医院(Hartford Hospital,位于康涅狄格州)的心脏科主任保罗·汤普森(Paul Thompson)士对这一问题特别感兴趣。最近,他和他在哈特福德医院的同事们以及荷兰内梅亨大学医学中心(Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen)的科学家们决定一同对这一课题的现有数据进行更深入全面地研究。Many past studies have looked at individual aspects of prolonged exercise and heart health. But no past review had comprehensively examined all of the ways in which prolonged endurance exercise might affect the heart and whether, on aggregate, those studies indicated that we should — or should not — worry about the effects of heavy training.以往有许多研究着眼于从个人角度来探讨长期锻炼与心脏健康。然而,却未曾有综述全面审查过长时间的耐力训练对心脏的效应,或总结这些研究是否提示我们应警惕高强度锻炼带来的影响。So for the new study, being published next month in Physiological Reviews, Dr. Thompson and his collaborators gathered all of the studies they could find from the past 30 or more years related to exercise and heart health, and parsed their findings both singly and collectively.因此,在这项1月发表在《生理学》杂志(Physiological Reviews)上的新研究中,汤普森士及其同事收集了他们能找到的过去30多年来与锻炼和心脏健康有关的所有研究,并个别和综合分析了这些研究的结果。Their findings should reassure most of us and our concerned loved ones.他们的研究结果应该可以让我们和我们那些忧心忡忡的亲人放下心来。“There is no evidence that there is a level of exercise that is dangerous or too much for a normal, healthy person,” Dr. Thompson told me.汤普森士告诉我:“目前没有据说明某种运动水平会给正常、健康的人带来危险或让人‘锻炼过度’。”At the same time, those of us who work out should understand that frequent exercise training causes “profound changes in cardiac physiology and structure,” as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write in their review.另一方面,正如汤普森士及其同事们在该综述中所写:平日锻炼的人也应该明白,频繁的运动训练确实会引起“心脏的生理和结构发生重大改变。”In the short term, these changes can mimic heart damage, they point out, with cardiac cells often becoming “leaky” after strenuous workouts or events, releasing proteins into the bloodstream that, in other circumstances, could indicate a heart attack. These proteins usually disappear within a few days, and the heart seems to recover fully, Dr. Thompson said.他们指出,短期看来,这些改变有点像心脏损伤,也就是说,在剧烈运动之后,心脏细胞往往会“漏”,将蛋白质释放入血液——换了别的情况,这可能预示着心肌梗死。不过,这些蛋白质通常几天内就会消失,心脏也完全“康复”了,汤普森士说。But in the process, the heart adapts and changes. Its left and right ventricles enlarge. It begins to look quite different than a non-athlete’s heart.但是在这个过程中,心脏出现了适应性改变:左、右心室扩大,从形态上开始与那些非运动员的心脏有了很大差异。For most people, these changes are beneficial and also necessary for successful athletic performance. But, as Dr. Thompson and his colleagues write, their review of the studies indicates that there are outliers, seemingly healthy people for whom strenuous exercise holds unexpected dangers.这些变化对于大多数人来说都是有益的,对于取得优异的运动成绩也必不可少。不过,正如汤普森士和他的同事所写的那样,他们在做完研究综述后发现,世事总有例外,有些人表面上健康,但剧烈运动却可能给他们带来意想不到的危险。Perhaps most surprising, older marathon runners can be just as susceptible as their sedentary counterparts to atherosclerosis, or the buildup of dangerous plaques in the arteries, the studies show. Strenuous exercise does not prevent these plaques in people who are predisposed by heredity or lifestyle to the condition.也许最令人惊讶的是,研究表明,中老年马拉松选手与久坐不动的人一样容易患动脉粥样硬化(也就是危险斑块在动脉中堆积)。在因遗传或生活方式原因更容易患这种疾病的人当中,剧烈运动对斑块没有预防效果。The act of exercising, however, may increase the risk that the plaques will rupture, precipitating a heart attack. Someone with atherosclerosis is more likely, studies show, to have a heart attack while running than while sitting quietly.而且,运动时的动作可能会增加斑块破裂的风险,引发心肌梗死。研究显示,与静坐时相比,动脉粥样硬化患者在跑步时更可能发生心肌梗死。But many older athletes with atherosclerosis have no idea they suffer from the condition, which often causes few symptoms.但是,很多患有动脉粥样硬化的中老年运动员对自己的病情一无所知,虽然有些症状已经出现。Similarly, according to the new review, people with certain inherited heart abnormalities, such as cardiomyopathy (an enlarged heart) or long QT syndrome, a disorder of the heart’s electrical activity, may exacerbate their conditions with strenuous exercise. The cardiac remodeling that is beneficial for most exercisers, the reviewers write, is undesirable for them and could lead to premature death, possibly contributing to the statistical downturn in health benefits from extreme exercise seen in some studies.这项新综述还显示,某些遗传性心脏异常,如心肌病(心脏肥大)或长QT综合征(心脏电活动的紊乱)的患者在剧烈运动时,病情可能加剧。作者们在综述中写道,虽然心脏重构对大多数锻炼者有益,但对上述患者却有害,可能会导致他们过早死亡。一些研究发现剧烈运动的健康效益从统计学上偏低,可能有这方面的原因。The best response to this information is not, however, to panic and avoid strenuous exercise, Dr. Thompson said. The best response is “to know your family history of sudden death,” he said. If a close family member has died unexpectedly of heart problems, talk to your doctor about whether you need to be tested for conditions such as atherosclerosis or cardiomyopathy.不过,汤普森士表示,对这些信息的最佳反应不是恐慌并避免剧烈运动,而是“了解自己家族的猝死病史”。如果你有近亲因为心脏问题而意外死亡,请与你的医生谈谈,看你是否需要接受测试,以检查有无动脉粥样硬化或心肌病等疾病。The rest of us should pay attention to symptoms such as unusual fatigue, shortness of breath or chest pain during exercise, he said, but are much more likely to strengthen our hearts with exercise than harm them.其他的人也应该注意在运动中是否出现了不寻常的疲劳、呼吸急促或胸痛等症状,汤普森士说,但总的说来,锻炼更可能强健我们的心脏,而不是伤害它们。 /201602/426530

A treatment that uses “molecular scissors” to edit genes has been used for the first time by UK medics successfully to treat a one-year-old girl with an “incurable” form of leukaemia.英国医生第一次依靠使用“分子剪刀”修改基因的疗法,成功地治愈了一名患有“无法治愈的”白血病的1岁女孩。The case at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London involved the creation of “designer immune cells” programmed to hunt and kill the disease. The girl, called Layla, is now cancer free and doing well, according to the hospital.伦敦大奥蒙德街医院(Great Ormond Street Hospital)的这一病例,生成经过设计的“人工培育的免疫细胞”去捕捉并治疗疾病。医院称,这个名叫“莱拉”(Layla)的女孩目前摆脱了癌症,身体状况很不错。The breakthrough will add to excitement over the fast-emerging field of gene-editing — a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, replaced or removed from genes to fix faults or fight disease.这次突破将令人对基因编辑这一快速发展的新兴领域感到更加兴奋。基因编辑是基因工程的一种,向基因中插入DNA,替换或取下其中的DNA,从而修复缺陷或战胜疾病。Gene-editing has caused controversy because of its potential to be used in ethically dubious ways, such as the creation of “designer babies”. However, the London success helps show why many scientists are so enthusiastic about the technology.基因编辑引发了争议,因为它可能导致令人产生道德疑虑的用法,比如生成“设计婴儿”。然而,这家伦敦医院的成功也明,为何很多科学家那么热衷于这项技术。The so-called UCART19 cells used at Great Ormond Street had shown promise in animals but had never been used in humans before they were administered as a last-ditch attempt to save Layla after other drugs failed.大奥蒙德街医院使用的所谓UCART19细胞在动物身上已显出良好前景,但除了此次为救活莱拉而做的最后努力之前,该细胞从未应用于人体。此前在莱拉身上使用的其他药物全部失败了。The treatment, developed by a French biotech company called Cellectis, consisted of 1ml of UCART19 cells injected into Layla’s bloodstream. After several weeks it was clear the leukaemia cells were disappearing.这一疗法是由法国生物科技公司Cellectis开发出来的,把1毫升的UCART19细胞注入了莱拉的血流中。几周后,白血病细胞明显开始消失。The treatment is similar to cancer therapies in development using modified T-cells from companies including Novartis of Switzerland and Juno and Kite of the US. However, whereas others use cells extracted from the patient’s own blood, UCART19 cells come from healthy donors.该疗法类似于瑞士的诺华制药(Novartis)以及美国的Juno和Kite等公司开发的使用修饰T细胞治疗癌症的办法。然而,其他疗法使用从病人自身血液中提取的细胞,而UCART19细胞则来自于健康的捐献者。This overcomes the problem of many leukaemia patients not having enough healthy T-cells — a type of white blood cell that fights off disease — to be harvested after chemotherapy.这就克了从化疗后的许多白血病患者体内难以提取到足量健康T细胞的难题。T细胞是一种能够对抗疾病的白血细胞。A further possible advantage is that donor cells can be mass produced for use in any patient, making them potentially more affordable than rival treatments that must be personalised for each individual. High costs are viewed as one of the biggest drawbacks of the so-called CAR-T therapies under development by Novartis, Juno and Kite.一个更有可能的优势在于,捐赠细胞可以大规模生产,并用于任何患者,与因患者而异的其他疗法相比,在成本上更低。诺华制药、Juno和Kite正在研制中的所谓CAR-T疗法的最大缺点之一,就是被认为价格太高。 /201511/408543

Deep within a South African cave palaeontologists have found a burial chamber of bones of primitive humans previously unknown to science.在南非的一个岩洞深处,古生物学家们发现了一个埋葬着原始人类骸骨的墓穴,这种原始人类是此前科学家不知道的。The hominids seem to have placed the bodies of their deceased there over many years — the first time such a ritual has been observed in a species other than Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.这种原始人类似乎在很多年里一直将逝者的遗体放置在那里——这是科学家首次在智人(Homo sapiens)和尼安德特人(Neanderthals)以外的人种观察到这样的仪式。The discovery of Homo naledi, as the new species is called, was announced at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg and press briefings in the UK. Details of the fossils, which are an extraordinary mosaic of primitive and modern features, are published in eLife and National Geographic.这种新人种被称为“纳莱迪人”(Homo naledi),研究者在约翰内斯堡金山大学(Witwatersrand University)和在英国举行的新闻发布会上宣布了这种新人种的发现。这些化石不寻常地混合了原始人类和现代人类的特征,相关细节发布在《eLife》期刊和《国家地理》(National Geographic)杂志上。An international team of 60 scientists has worked on characterising the bones of 15 individuals removed from the Rising Star cave 50km from Johannesburg since the initial discovery in 2013.2013年初次发现后,由60名科学家组成的一个国际团队一直在致力于表征从距离约翰内斯堡50公里的“新星洞”(Rising Star)发掘出的15具骸骨。“With almost every bone in the body represented multiple times, Homo naledi is aly practically the best-known fossil member of our lineage,” said professor Lee Berger, the project leader. The species is named after its discovery site; naledi means star in the local Sesotho language.“鉴于遗骨中几乎每一块骨头都出现多次,纳莱迪人实际上已经是人类世系中得到最完整了解的化石成员,”项目负责人李伯杰(Lee Berger)教授表示。该人种根据其发现地命名;“纳莱迪”在当地的塞索托语中意为星星。Yet many mysteries remain; above all, the age of the fossils. The usual geological dating techniques have not yet given a result, leaving open the possibility that Homo naledi might have lived as long as 2.5m years ago, or at the other extreme, tens of thousands of years ago.然而现在还有很多未解之谜;首先是化石的年代。通常使用的地质年代测定法还未给出结果,这意味着各种可能性都不能排除:纳莱迪人可能生活在远至250万年前,或者另一种极端情况下,他们生活在数万年前。“Homo naledi is similar to modern humans in some ways, such as the shape of its hands, wrist and feet,” said Professor Chris Stringer, head of human origins research at the Natural History Museum in London. “On the other hand, Homo naledi’s small brain [just a third the size of an adult brain today] and the shape of its upper body are more reminiscent of prehuman and very early human species such as Homo habilis, which lived more than 1.5m years ago.“纳莱迪人在某些方面和现代人类很像,如手、手腕和脚的形状,”伦敦自然历史物馆(Natural History Museum)人类起源研究主管克里斯斯特林格(Chris Stringer)教授表示,“另一方面,纳莱迪人较小的脑部(仅为现在成年人脑部大小的三分之一)和上身的形状让人更多想起前人类和非常早期的人种,如生活在超过150万年前的能人(Homo habilis)。”“Based on these features, Homo naledi could be one of the earliest species of human yet discovered, or a species that retained many features from an earlier stage of human evolution,” he added.“根据这些特征,纳莱迪人可能是目前发现的最早的人种之一,或者是一种保留了许多人类更早期进化阶段特征的人种,”他补充。 /201509/398465

What if the cappuccino you had this morning was not, in fact, a cappuccino? Scary. More worrisome still: What if your flat white was?如果你今天早上喝的那杯卡布奇诺,其实不是卡布奇诺,那可怎么办?太可怕了。而更吓人的是:如果你的小白咖啡(flat white)才是地道卡布奇诺呢?There was a time when cappuccino was easy to identify. It was a shot of espresso with steamed milk and a meringue-like milk foam on top. But now the onetime king of specialty coffee drinks is having a bit of an identity crisis.曾几何时,卡布奇诺是很容易鉴别的。一份浓缩咖啡,加上热牛奶,最上面盖一层蛋白霜似的奶泡。然而,这个曾经的特种咖啡饮品之王,如今正遭遇一场身份危机。Even among experts, there is considerable disagreement concerning what exactly a cappuccino is, with some of those in the know focusing on the size of the drink as its distinguishing characteristic.卡布奇诺到底是什么,即使在专家中间也存在不小的争议,在行的都把重点放在咖啡的大小上,认为这是区分彼此的特征。“In the U.S., cappuccino are small, medium and large, and that actually doesn’t exist,” the food and coffee writer Oliver Strand said. “Cappuccino is basically a four-ounce drink.”“在美国,卡布奇诺有小杯、中杯、大杯,这其实是生造出来的,”美食和咖啡作家奥列佛·斯特兰德(Oliver Strand)说。“卡布奇诺基本上就是一种4盎司的饮品。”Todd Carmichael, a founder of La Colombe, a coffee roasting company with cafes in New York and other cities, is not so hung up on the ounce factor. “We’ve made the cappuccino mobile,” he said. “With 8 to 10 ounces, the flavors do not go away. They’re just less intense.”在纽约等地开有咖啡馆的咖啡烘焙公司La Colombe创始人托德·卡尔米切尔(Todd Carmichael)认为,不应该死盯着份量这一个因素。“我们让卡布奇诺灵活起来了,”他说。“8到10盎司的情况下,它的风味并没有消失。只是没那么浓烈了。”Others cling to old-school notions of what makes a cappuccino, with the layering of ingredients as the main thing. “The goal is to serve three distinct layers: caffè, hot milk and frothy (not dense) foam,” the chef and writer Mario Batali wrote in an email. “But to drink it Italian style, it will be stirred so that the three stratum come together as one.”还有人坚守着对卡布奇诺的老派定义,几种成分的分层是重点。“目标是三个不同的层:咖啡、热牛奶和有泡泡(不细密)的奶泡,”厨师、作家马里奥·巴塔里(Mario Batali)在邮件中说。“但是要按意大利人的喝法,必须要搅拌,让三层混合在一起。”With the stirring of the drink, one may see the distinctive red-brown color similar to that of the habits worn by men belonging to the Order of Capuchin Friars Minor, a resemblance believed by some to have given the beverage its name.搅拌后咖啡呈现一种特别的红棕色,跟方济嘉布遣会(Order of Capuchin Friars Minor)修士身上的道颜色接近,有人因此认为饮品的名字就是由此而来。Joe, a cafe with 13 locations in New York and Philadelphia, serves a cappuccino that is not layered, with no bubbly foam on top. “The consistency should be the same from the first sip to the last,” said Jonathan Rubenstein, one of Joe’s founders.Joe在纽约和费城有13家分店,它的卡布奇诺是不分层的,最上面也没有看得见泡泡的奶泡。“从第一口到最后一口,口感应该是一样的,”Joe创始人之一乔纳森·鲁本斯坦(Jonathan Rubenstein)说。The Joe version would seem to violate the cappuccino standards put forth by the Specialty Coffee Association of America (S.C.A.A.) and its Barista Guild, which advocate a one-centimeter layer, minimum, of milky foam.Joe的版本似乎违背了美国特种咖啡协会(Specialty Coffee Association of America,简称SCAA)及其下属咖啡师行会(Barista Guild)推行的卡布奇诺标准,该标准主张最少要有一厘米厚的奶泡。Only one centimeter? Sounds dangerously close to a latte. But who would know better than the S.C.A.A.? “It’s kind of ridiculous,” said David Schomer, the founder of Espresso Vivace in Seattle.才一厘米?感觉一不留神就要成拿铁了。但这可是堂堂SCAA的标准。“有点荒谬,”西雅图Espresso Vivace创始人戴维·舒默(David Schomer)说。Some coffee specialists pointed to “latte art creep” as responsible for the small amount of foam in the modern-day cappuccino, noting that it is easier for baristas to make intricate designs with less froth in a time of Instagram-y food and drink.有咖啡专家认为,都是那些“拿铁艺术婊”导致现代卡布奇诺的奶泡如此之少,他们说,在这个无Instagram不成炊的年代,较少的泡沫有利于咖啡师做出繁复的花式。Given the changes in what constitutes a cappuccino, some people may find themselves with an attachment to an incarnation of the drink that was in style when they came of coffee-drinking age. “Back in 1985, the best cappuccino was the one with five-inch mounds of froth sprinkled with cinnamon,” the restaurateur Daniel Meyer wrote by email. “We gave up on foam in 2006.”鉴于卡布奇诺的定义在变,有些人也许会对自己开始喝咖啡的那个年代时兴的版本特别有感情。“1985年的时候,最好的卡布奇诺是有一座五英寸的奶泡山的,上面撒肉桂,”餐馆业主丹尼尔·梅耶尔(Daniel Meyer)在邮件中写道。“我们在2006年告别了奶泡。”Mr. Carmichael of La Colombe recalled the cappuccino at an influential cafe in Seattle, Torrefazione Italia, long before specialty coffee drinks were common. “Cappuccino was coffee with really thick meringue-type foam,” he said. “You could set an olive on it and it wouldn’t sink.”在影响深远的西雅图咖啡馆Torrefazione Italia,La Colombe的卡尔米切尔回忆起特种咖啡远未普及的年代,卡布奇诺是什么样子。“所谓卡布奇诺就是有非常厚的、蛋白霜式的奶泡,”他说。“在上面放一颗橄榄不会沉下去。”Kenneth Nye, who founded the East Village cafe Ninth Street Espresso in 2001, grew so sick of customers’ insistence on what they believed to be a “real” cappuccino that he removed all the drink names from his s. “All it says is ‘espresso with milk,’ ” Mr. Nye said. “We stopped with the names because it’s all silly.”肯尼思·奈(Kenneth Nye)2001年在纽约东村开了第九街意式咖啡馆(Ninth Street Espresso),他不堪忍受那些深信自己知道什么是“正宗”卡布奇诺的顾客,去掉了菜单上所有饮品的名称。“全都是‘意式浓缩加牛奶’,”奈说。“我们不再用名称是因为,所有名字都很傻。”The new enthusiasm for the flat white, a drink made of espresso and milk that seems to have originated in Australia or New Zealand, is particularly nettlesome to Mr. Nye. “You put 10 people in a room who claim to be an authority on the flat white, you’re going to get at least five different opinions on what it should be,” he said. “People are trying to make the whole process intimidating to the consumer.”新近走红的小白咖啡让奈格外恼火,这种用意式浓缩咖啡和牛奶制成的饮品,似乎是澳大利亚或新西兰传来的。“你去找10个自称的小白咖啡权威来,问他们什么是小白咖啡,至少能得到五种说法,”他说。“这是要让顾客对整个制作过程心生敬畏。”Not everyone who cares about such matters has adopted Mr. Nye’s heck-with-it attitude toward coffee taxonomy. The Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian, for one, calls for “25 ml espresso and 100 ml steam-foamed milk.” Coffee lovers in Italy believe so strongly in the idea of an authentic cappuccino that in 2007, the head of the nation’s commission on agriculture, Marco Lion, proposed government certification for cafes that make the drink the right way. (The government was dissolved before any action could be taken.)并非所有关心这类问题的人都像奈这样,对咖啡分类学不屑一顾。比如国立意大利浓缩咖啡研究所(Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian)就呼吁使用“25毫升浓缩咖啡和100毫升蒸汽搅打奶泡”。意大利咖啡爱好者对地道卡布奇诺的理念是十分坚持的,以至于该国农业委员会主席马可·里翁(Marco Lion)在2007年提出,政府应向使用正确制作方法的咖啡馆颁发书。(那届政府还没来得及采取任何举措就解散了。)But the notion of an Italian ideal is dismissed by others. “Even in Italy, it varies,” Mr. Nye said. “The one commonality was that it was small and considered a morning drink.”但有人对所谓意大利完美标准也不以为然。“即使在意大利也是多样的,”奈说。“唯一的共通之处是份量较小,被认为是一种早晨的饮品。”The drink’s origins are likely Austrian, said Andy Smith, a culinary historian at the New School. It went mainstream with the rise of Starbucks, which Howard Schultz bought and began expanding (along with the sizing of cappuccino) in the late 1980s. “They should be given some credit,” Mr. Smith said.新学院(New School)烹饪史学家安迪·史密斯(Andy Smith)说,卡布奇诺可能起源于奥地利。是随着星巴克的崛起而普及起来的,霍华德· 舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)在1980年代末收购了这个品牌,而后越做越大(随之变大的还有卡布奇诺的份量)。“应该是有他们一份功劳的,”史密斯说。Perhaps the best cappuccino is made without the fancy barista work or other trappings. “For perfection,” Mr. Batali said, “see the Italian roadside version of fast food, the Autogrill.”也许最好的卡布奇诺不需要花哨的咖啡师技法或其他装饰。“什么叫完美追求,”巴塔里说。“去看看意大利路边摊版快餐Autogrill。” /201510/402724

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