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来源:久久大夫    发布时间:2019年10月22日 01:23:30    编辑:admin         

What do you picture in your mind, when you think of...robots?当你想到机器人时,脑海里会出现什么?Do you think of a walking, talking piece of metal, like this?你是不是想到了一个能走能说话的金属物体,就像这个?A lot of people do! Because some robots really do look sort of like people…很多人都这样想,因为有些机器人看起来确实有点儿像人类,But, despite what you see in the movies, most real-life robots don#39;t look like us.但除了你在电影里看到的那些机器人和人一样,现实生活中大部分机器人看起来并不像我们。They can look like animals, like Squeaks here, or like things you#39;ve never even seen before.他们看起来可能像动物 就像吱吱一样,也可能是我们从没有见过的物体。Robots come in all different shapes and sizes, because they all have different jobs to do.因为工作不同,机器人的形状和大小也不尽相同。And if you#39;re wondering what robots really are, and what they can do...You are not alone!如果你想知道机器人到底是什么,他们能干什么,那么,你不是唯一一个好奇的。Seven-year-old Rowan recently email to ask ;What is a robot, and how do robots work?;七岁的罗恩最近给我们发了一封邮件,问“什么是机器人,它们如何工作”Squeaks says ;Great, question, Rowan!;吱吱说“问得好,罗恩 ”。A robot is a machine that#39;s designed by people to do a specific job.机器人是人类设计出来做特殊工作的机器。And the scientists who design and build robots are called roboticists.设计并制作机器人的科学家被称为机器人专家。Most robots do jobs that people can#39;t do, or don#39;t want to do.大多数机器人做的都是人类无法做或不想做的工作。If a job is kind of boring—like if it involves doing the same thing over and over,比如有些无聊的工作,它需要反反复复做同一件事,or if a job is very dangerous—and it means going places where people could get hurt,又如非常危险的工作,它需要去一些人类容易受伤的地方。then chances are, a robot has been built to do it instead!那么机器很可能代替我们做这些工作。The very first robot was built over 50 years ago to help build cars in a factory.最早的机器人大约是在50年前创造的,用于帮助工厂生产汽车。Today, car factories still depend on robots a lot like that one to do all kinds of jobs:现在,汽车制造厂仍旧依赖机器人做各种各样的工作:from putting the pieces of car together to spraying them paint when they#39;re finished.从组装零件到喷漆上色。And robots work in lots of other kinds of factory jobs, too.机器人也做各种其他的工作,Like building computers,and even putting candies in their wrappers!像制造电脑甚至是包装糖果。Robots are good at jobs like these, because unlike humans,机器人很擅长这类工作,和人类不同they#39;re less likely to make mistakes when they#39;re working,他们工作时犯的错误更少,and they don#39;t go on vacation, or even lunch breaks.并且他们不需要放假 甚至不需要午休。Plus, they never get bored. They can keep going, and going, and going.除此之外,他们从不会觉得厌倦,能够一直工作。This makes nighttime jobs the perfect fit for rabots.这就使得机器人非常适合夜间工作。They can do things like control city trains after dark while we get our sleep!它们能在我们睡觉时替我们操控城市火车。Robots can also work in places that humans would have a tough time adjusting to—or where we could never go.机器人也能在人类很难适应的地方或者我们根本无法到达的地方工作。There are robots that work in really hot places, like volcanoes…有些机器人能在火山之类的炎热地带工作,...and really cold places like deep underwater in the ocean还有些能在深海等非常冷的地方工作。...and even in really smelly places like sewage plants.甚至有些在污水处理厂等非常臭的地方工作。There are even robots doing jobs for us on other planets.甚至有些机器人在别的星球上为我们工作。Yup, that means there are robots in space!是的,那意味着有些机器人在太空。There are two robots-on-wheels, named Opportunity and Curiosity,这是两个有轮子的机器人,一个叫机遇号,另一个叫勇气号that are cruising around on Mars right now!正在火星上漫步Scientists call them rovers, and they might look like cars or go-carts, but they#39;re considered robots, too,科学家叫它们巡游者, 它们看起来可能像小车或是手推车,但它们也是机器人because they get instructions from scientists here on Earth to do all kinds of important work因为它们能接收来自地球科学家的指令,去做各种重要的工作,like studying the planet#39;s air, digging up soil, and even drilling into rocks to see what they#39;re made of!像检测火星的空气,挖掘土壤,甚至钻取岩石来研究其组成成分。Scientists hope that the discoveries that are made by Opportunity and Curiosity科学家希望通过机遇号和勇气号的发现will help us figure out how we can one day send humans to Mars!能帮助我们研究出把人类送上火星的方法。Another robot called R2 was sent to the International Space Station,另一个叫R2的机器人被送上了国际空间站,making it the first human-like robot in space.因此它成为了第一个在太空的人形机器人。Even though they#39;re not very common,尽管他们并不寻常,there are other robots, like R2, that look and act sort of like people.还是有像R2这样的机器人,它们的外表和行为都有些像人类。One of them, called ASIMO, has been built to do some amazing, lifelike things.其中有一种叫阿西莫的机器人,能够做一些令人惊叹、十分像人类的事。Although he hasn#39;t been to space—yet!尽管它至今没去过太空ASIMO can walk, run, climb stairs, and even dance!阿西莫能走路、跑步、爬楼梯甚至跳舞。Robots like ASIMO show us just how far roboticists have come since they built the very first robot over 50 years ago.从50年前创造了第一个机器人至今,类似阿西莫这样的机器人向我们展示了机器人专家们取得了多大的进步。It#39;ll probably be a long time before a robot can do your homework with you,可能距机器人能每天陪你写作业,or fly you to school every morning.或早上载着你飞向学校还有很长时间,But they#39;re aly showing up in lot of homes, doing ordinary chores,但它们已经出现在了很多家庭,做一些寻常的家务,like mowing the lawn or vacuuming the house.如修理草坪或打扫房子。All we have to do is plug them in or press the START button.而我们所需要做的仅仅是插上插头或按下启动按钮。So, who knows what super-cool robots there will be in the next 50 years!所以,谁能想象得到在未来50年里,超级机器人会长什么样?I can#39;t wait to find out!我已经迫不及待地想知道了。Thanks to Rowan for asking such a fun question, and thanks to you for learning about robots with Squeaks and me.谢谢罗恩提出了这么有趣的问题,也感谢你和我与吱吱一起了解机器人。And remember, if you have a question about anything you#39;d like to learn more about,记住,如果你有任何疑问,或者想了解更多信息,just let us know by getting help from a parent,请爸爸妈妈帮助告诉我们and leaving a comment below or emailing us at kids@thescishow.com.在下方写下或者发送邮件到kids@thescishow.comSee you next time!我们下期节目再见 Article/201707/516872。

So the first lesson is don’t kill motivation.第一课是不要扼杀积极性You know businesses are often not about just increasing it, it is by stop decreasing it.企业通常不是增加积极性而是不要阻止积极性下降I’ll tell you a story I gave a talk at a company in Seattle a few years ago.我来讲个故事 几年前我给一家西雅图的公司做演讲It’s a big software company and I was giving a talk and I was in this room with 200 really depressed engineers talking to them.它是一家规模很大的软件公司 在那个房间听我演讲的是两百名很沮丧的工程师It turns out they were working on whatever the next version of the they were working on something really important and big for that company原来 他们之前正在致力研发新一代的(软件)那是个大项目 对公司非常重要and the week before I showed up the CEO of the company came to them and canceled the project.然而在我去的前一周公司的CEO将项目取消了And they were incredibly devastated.他们为此深受打击This was a group that worked for two years on something that they felt would be the next great thing for that company and the week before he just canceled it.那个团队致力于研究那个项目已经有两年的时间了 而且他们认为那对于公司来说将是下一个伟大的奇迹 就在一周之前他将项目取消了And they did not show up on time. They were just devastated.(演讲的时候)他们没有准时到场 他们只是太沮丧了They were just morally devastated and by the way after that many of them just left the company.而且信念受到了打击 那之后他们中的很多人选择离开公司They were very good people. They were just so demoralized.他们都是很优秀的人 只是受到的打击太大了And I asked them I said okay, let’s just assume the CEO had to cancel the project.然后我就问他们 我说好吧 让我们就当他必须取消这个项目Let’s assume he had to cancel for whatever reason. Let’s not question that.让我们假设他因为某些原因必须这样做 我们先不要质疑这个What could the CEO have done not to get you to be so depressed?那么CEO怎样做才能让你们不这么失望?And they came up with all kinds of ideas.然后他们提出了各种想法They said what if he allowed them to make a few working prototypes and distribute them within the company for a few years.他们说如果CEO允许他们去做一些雏形 然后在公司内部分配使用几年Just kind of see what people do with them.只是看看人们会用它们做些什么They say what if he allowed them to take parts of this new technology that we’re developing他么说如果CEO允许他们拿正在开发的新技术and see which parts will be useful in other parts of the organization, right, have some kind of leftovers from the project.去试看看新技术的哪部分在系统里的其它地方可以充分利用即项目剩下来的部分给他们测试看看They said what if you would allow them to do a workshop for the whole company to show them the journey of the last two years.他们说如果允许他们去做一个面向整个公司的研讨会去展示他们过去两年的历程What they’ve accomplished, what they’ve learned, what they struggled with, what they figured out.展示他们两年来的成就 他们学到的东西 他们克的困难 他们发现的东西And the thing about all of those suggestions, all of them would have needed some time, money and effort,然而所有的这些建议 都需要时间 金钱以及努力才能完成Right. And if the CEO thinks that those people are just like rats in a cage he said oh, I told you to go this way, you went this way.而且如果CEO认为这些人只是像笼子里的老鼠 他说我让你走这边 你就走这边Now I want to go somewhere else. I’ll close that gate.现在 我想去其他的地方 我要把这边的门关上I’ll tell you to go somewhere else. Then you don’t need to worry about motivation.我会告诉你去其他的地方 这样你就不需要担心积极性But if you understand that motivation is incredibly important then you say how do we get these people who have invested a lot in this and how we don’t just crush their spirits.但是如果你知道积极性非常重要 你会问要怎样做这些人为这个项目已经投入很多 我们怎样做才能不摧毁他们的信念But what he did was to crush their spirits.而这个CEO干的就是摧毁人信念的事So lesson number one is stop crushing people’s spirit.所以第一课就是 停止摧毁人们的信念And, you know, it might seem like a ridiculous obvious thing to do but if you look at lots of companies you’ll see lots of places好吧 你可能会觉得 这是谁都知道的事但是 如果你看得多where not because people intend to do harm but just because we don’t truly appreciate where meaning comes to life.你会看到有很多时候人们并不是有意去伤害只是因为我们无法领会到那些行为的意义We do lots of those things. We get people to start projects and we cut it in the middle.我们做很多这样的事情 我们让人们开始一个项目 然后中途又停止We get people to prepare presentations and they never get delivered.我们让人去准备发布会 然后永远不给人机会发布We do all kinds of things that eliminate motivation.我们做各种各样的扼杀积极性的事情Imagine we were doing this little segment and we knew all along there’s a good chance it will never see the light of day.想象我们正在做一个小视频 我们知道很可能它没有机会让人们看到It will just never be posted or anything like it.永远不会被发布或公开A black hole where it’s being posted and nobody, nobody, nobody will see it.它像是被放在一个黑洞 永远 永远 永远没人能看见How exciting would that be. You know lots of people are working in an environment like that.这难道会令人激动 你知道很多人都是在这样的环境下工作Now Now the more important question is how do we get people to be, you know, get more motivation,现在更重要的问题是 我们怎样做才能 你知道的 使人有更多的积极性not just stop decreasing motivation but increasing the sense of meaning.不只是停止降低积极性 还有要增加工作的意义Lots of ways to do it and maybe the best example is to think about the open source community.有很多方式可以做到 可能最好的例子就是像开源社区一样思考One of the things that happened in the open source community is that在开源社区 有一个前提规定there was a legal advance where they basically agreed that everybody who writes a piece of code their name would always be connected to it.社员们基本上认同 即每当一个人写一段代码他的名字就与这段代码关联起来Now you can say who cares. People care.现在你可能说 谁会关心 创作者会关心If your name is connected to a piece of code you’re going to maintain that piece of code forever.如果你的名字和一段代码联系在一起 你就会去维护它直到永远There was a period in time where people were worried about getting open source software.有一段时间 人们不敢使用开源软件They said who’s going to maintain it?他们担心没人维护它If your name is connected to it you’re going to maintain it.可是如果你的名字与代码关联 你就会去维护它And indeed people maintain all kinds of software in all kinds of unlikely events.而且人们也确实在各种看似不可能的情况下 维护着各种软件And people invest in it and knowing that if I create something and人们在上面投入时间精力金钱 知道如果我创造一些东西 其他人会在此基础上继续建造other people build on it, it would always have my name and my connection and my sense of contribution is incredibly motivating.它将一直带着我的名字 和我相关 是我奉献的意义所在这就是最不可思议的动力So just think about that simple idea of where do we put people’s names.所以只要解决一个简单的小问题 我们要怎么把人的名字On every piece of software.放到每一个软件上Like why on the hood of the car all the people who are involved could sign their name in a very small print.像所有相关的人都可以在汽车引擎盖上签下自己的名字用非常小的字迹And then of course there’s other things, right.当然 还有其它需要注意的It’s not just about name association.那并不只是一个名字大集合It’s about the feeling of contribution and the feeling that you have a say, autonomy right.它事关人们的奉献感 以及 你可以说是 自主感是吧That you’re not just told what you’re going to do, it’s that you are doing it.不再是你被告知要做什么 而是你自己选择去做There’s a very cute experiment in which they take kids.他们用孩子做了一个非常有趣的实验They come with their mother to a lab and they go into a separate room with the research assistants.他们跟他们的妈妈一起走进实验室 然后孩子们跟助理一起走进和妈妈不同的房间And they do a drawing together and one time the research assistant does the drawing and the kid tells them what to do.孩子和助理一起合作画画 第一次是助理画画 孩子告诉助理怎么画画So the kids give the instructions and the research assistant does the mechanical work.所以孩子给出指示 研究助理只是机械地画画Another condition the research assistant gives the instruction and the kids, the kid does the mechanical work.另一种情况是助理给出指示 孩子机械地画画And then as they finish it the research assistant takes the drawing in their hand,当他们完成后 助手把画拿在手里go out of the room first before the kid, shows it to the mother and says look what I did.在孩子之前走了出去 并且把画展示给母亲们看 说“看 这是我做的”And the question is when will the kid be more upset, right.问题是哪种条件下 孩子们会更加不安So the research assistant takes credit for the kid’s job.助理把孩子占据了孩子的作品然后得到了赞扬When will the kid be more upset?哪种情况下孩子们会更沮丧When the kid did the drawing but the idea was somebody else’s or when the idea was the kid’s and somebody else did the mechanical thing?当孩子执笔但想法来自其他人的时候 还是想法是孩子的别人只是照着画的时候And the kids get more upset when it was their idea, which was their idea.当作品是出自孩子的想法时孩子更沮丧Think about how much we don’t give credit in this world to other people’s ideas.想一下我们多少时刻没有给人们的想法给予赞扬How many people feel that their ideas were taken, somebody else is using it and they don’t get credit.多少人感觉他们的想法被别人拿去使用 而他们自己却得不到赞扬Credit is free, right. Credit is great. Give everybody credit, right.赞扬是免费的 是吧 赞扬是无价的 赞美每个人 对吧There’s a team of a 100 people, give everybody credit. Why not?团队有100个人 给每一个人赞扬 为什么不呢?Why are we so stingy with giving people credit.为什么我们都那么不喜欢给予别人赞扬Anyway, so there’s lots of other examples like this无论如何有很多像这样的例子where you could just say let’s look at all the things所以让我们着眼于所有可以给予人们意义的事情that give people a sense of meaning and let’s just try to give more of it on an every day basis.让我们努力将每一天都过得更有意义 Article/201706/514965。

从零开始学口语 第9讲:夸赞(上) 相关专题:英语口语社交美语五分钟英语快餐日常口语会话120分钟 /200808/45652。

An analysis of 2016 U.S. fertility data shows that nurseries could have some extra space in the near future.2016年美国生育数据分析表明,育儿室在不久的将来可能会有更多的空间。Just over 6 percent of women ages 15-44 gave birth in 2016. That rate decreased by about 1 percent compared with 2015 and has some researchers concerned about the population.2016年,只有百分之6的14岁至44岁女性生育。与2015相比,比率下降了约1%,一些研究人员担忧人口问题。There are a few reasons why the birthrate is getting lower. For one, teen births went down 9 percent. That#39;s seen as a positive, as studies show the children of teen moms are often at a disadvantage to their peers.出生率下降的原因有几个。其一,青少年生育下降了9%。这被认为是积极的,因为研究表明,在同龄人中,青少年妈妈的孩子往往处于不利地位。But women in their 20s also aren#39;t having as many bundles of joy either. Researchers think that could be due to economic uncertainty,couples tend to have fewer children when the future of the economy is up in the air.但是20多岁的女性也没有计划生育。研究人员认为,这可能是由于经济的不确定性。当未来经济悬而未决,夫妻往往生育更少的孩子。Instead, the birthrate was buoyed by older women. Rates for women between the ages of 40 and 44 went up by 4 percent.相反,年长女性生育有所增长。40至44岁女性的比率上升了4%。Researchers expect the overall U.S. birthrate to bounce back when there#39;s more economic certainty.研究人员预计,在经济更加确定的情况下,美国总体出生率将回升。译文属。 Article/201707/516643。

At first, he#39;d been innocent of the Lord#39;s design.最初 他也没有参透上帝的意图For years, he just led the life of an obscure East Anglian country gentleman.多年来 他只是盎格鲁东部 一名平庸的绅士Just as Cromwell was beginning to make his way in the world,正在克伦威尔开始闯荡世界时some sort of crisis happened to his modest fortune.他衣食无忧的生活遭受了挫折But what the world might have seen as misfortune was, through the cunning of the Almighty, his saving grace.然而在世人看来不幸的遭遇 经由上帝巧妙地安排 却成了对他的恩典He underwent some kind of religious conversion.他的宗教信仰发生了转变The vanities were stripped away so he might be opened to the light.浮华不再 他终于愿意接受光明Oh, I lived in and loved darkness and hated the light!我曾欣然藏身于黑暗之中 厌恶光明This is true. I hated Godliness,yet God had mercy on me.是的 我过去并不虔诚 然而上帝却仍眷顾着我Oh, the riches of His mercy!仁慈爱的主啊The sense that God had some special service for him made a new man of Cromwell.天将降大任于己身的信念 使克伦威尔面貌一新He knew where he was going. He knew what had to be done.他有着明确的方向 也清楚自己的使命What had been done was tear the sword out of the hands of the untrustworthy, Papist-loving king.他的使命就是夺过不可信赖的 宣扬教皇至上的国王手中的杀伐之剑He went to war as a complete novice with no military experience whatsoever.初入沙场时 他只是一名毫无军事经验的新手But his sense of divine appointment was his armour.但心中神圣的使命感 就是他的甲胄It made him supremely confident, cool under fire,but never reckless.这使他极度自信 遇事不慌 却从不鲁莽 /201703/501060。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201608/458804。

A boat carrying hundreds of migrants across the Mediterranean Sea capsized on Wednesday, and Italy#39;s navy was able to rescue at least 500.周三,一艘载有数百名移民的船在地中海沉没,意大利海军至少救起500人。According to the navy, there were too many people on board the boat and it became unstable, causing it to capsize. At least seven people died. 据海军消息,船上的人太多了,使其变得不稳从而导致倾覆。至少七人遇难。Photos show the boat tipping over near Libya#39;s coast, forcing some people in the water while others tried to hold on.照片显示,该船在利比亚海岸附近倾覆,迫使一些人掉入水里,而其他人试图抓住不放。It#39;s becoming more common for refugees from the Middle East and Africa to use North African countries — like Libya — as a gateway to Europe. 中东和非洲的难民通过北非国家如利比亚进入欧洲大门变得更为普遍。And some are predicting Italy will become a main entry point for migrants coming to Europe, as other countries like Greece are increasingly harder to get into. 一些人预测意大利将成为移民进入欧洲的主要入口点,因为像希腊这样的国家越加难以进入。The Italian navy saved more than 100 migrants in a separate accident later on Wednesday. 周三晚些时候,意大利海军在一次单独事故中挽救了100多名移民。译文属。 Article/201605/446166。

洋话连篇视频教学[15] /200703/11609。