时间:2019年07月17日 06:24:33

The intermingling of different religions and the position of Lamaism : Like the Tang Dynasty, when many religions came to China from the West and from the inland of Asia, Yuan China as open to the merchants coming from the West, who had different religious beliefs.各类宗教的兼蓄并容与喇嘛教的地位:和唐朝时期一样,当来自西方和亚洲内陆的各种宗教传人中国的时候,元朝总是敞开大门,欢迎这些来自西方的、具有不同宗教信仰的商人。Muslims were special allies of the Mongols and had therefore access to many positions prohibited from Chinese.穆斯林是蒙古人的特别盟友,因此其中的很多职位对于汉人来说受到限制。A special place in the Mongol empire was reserved for Lamaism. Lamaism enjoyed state protection.喇嘛教在蒙古帝国有其特殊地位,享有蒙古人的国家保护。As Buddhism in China had aly reached and even surpassed the summit, the history of Chinese Buddhism was y to be written down, like in the book F〇zu Lidai Tongshi.佛教在中国已经达到甚至已过了高峰期,因此,当时中国的佛教史已经可以著书立传了,即《佛祖历代通史》。Religion was also a tool for the masses to rebell against the harsh Mongol rule, the exploitation by the exclusive class of Mongols and the rich Chinese gentry.但是,宗教也是群众反对蒙古人残暴统治、反对蒙古阶级的剥削和汉人贵族的工具。The secret societies rebelling against Mongol rule with the protection of religions were the White Lotus Society (Bailianjiao), the White Cloud Society (Baiyun-jiao) and the Red Turbans (Hongjin).在反对蒙古人统治的历史上,曾经利用宗教做掩护的组织有白莲教、白云教和红巾军。Yuan songs and main writers: Yuan songs are as important as Tang poetry and Song ci, which represents the important achievement in the literature in Yuan Dynasty.元曲及其代表作家:元曲与唐诗、宋词并称,它代表了元代文学的主要成就。Yuan songs include Sanqu was and Zaju. Sanqu was the new style verses in the Yuan Dynasty, and zaju(Yuan dramas) was a kind of comprehensive drama.元曲包含散曲和杂剧两个部分,散曲是元代的新体诗,杂剧是一种综合性的戏剧艺术。The famous writers and their masterpieces in the Yuan Dynasty are: Guan Hanqing and his u Dou E Yuan 11, Wang Shipu and his u Xixiang Ji, Ma Zhiyuan and his Han Qiugong and Bai Pu and his M Wutong Yu yy and so on.元代著名的杂剧作家及其作品有:关汉卿的《窦娥冤》,王实甫的《西厢记》,马致远的《汉宫秋》,白朴的《梧桐雨》等。Of all the writers, Guan Hanqing had the greatest influence. He had written more than 60 plays, and more than ten of them have been handed down so far.其中关汉卿的影响最大,他写过60多个剧本,流传到现在的尚有10多个。In 1958, Guan Hanqing was listed as the world literary celebrity.1958年,关汉卿被列为世界文化名人。The science of history and Wen Xian Tong Kaoby Ma Duanlin : The science of history in the Yuan Dynasty has made achievements in many ways.史学及马端临的《文献通考》:元朝的史学成就是多力面的。The representatives of the historical works are the privately compiled w Wen Xian Tong Kao ty and the official revision of u The History of Song 11 , u The History of Liao and The History of Jin ry and so on.较有代表性的史学著作有私家编撰的《文献通考》等和官修的《宋史》、《辽史》、和《金史》等。Wen Xian Tong Kao was compiled by the historian Ma Duanlin in the early years of the Yuan Dynasty. It covers more than twenty-four fields such as tax, monetary, registered permanent residence and the positions etc. The book has three hundred and forty-eight volumes.《文献通考》是宋末元初史学家马端临编撰,分田赋、钱币、户口、职役等24门类,共348卷。Scientific achievements and uThe Official Calendar^ by Guo Shoujing: It had its development in science and technology in the Yuan Dynasty.科学成就与郭守敬的《授时历》:元朝科学技术也有所发展。Great achievements were made in mathematics, astronomy, calendar, geography, agriculture and medicine etc.在数学、天文历5法、地理学、农业科学、医药学等方面都有许多成就。A Book of Agriculture ty by Wang Zhen in the Yuan Dynasty is the most perfect encyclopedia about agriculture since the u Qi Min Yao Shu ty.元朝王祯的《农书》,是《齐民要术》以来最完备的农业知识百科全书。The scientist Guo Shoujing in the Yuan Dynasty was good at astronomy, calendar, mathematics and water conservancy, who stressed on the on-spot observation.元朝科学家郭守敬,精于天文历法、数学和水利,并重视实地观侧。He had made thirteen kinds of astronomic equipments and observed, measured the celestial phenomena.他制作了13种天文仪器,并对天象进行实侧。On the basis of his observation and research, Guo Shoujing made the u Imperial Calendar.郭守敬根据观侧和研究,制定了《授时历》。The Imperial Calendar 11 took 365. 2425 days as a year and which only missed 26 seconds compared with the real time needed that the sun goes around the earth once. It is same to the Geliego Calendar in use today, but it was three hundred years earlier than the Geliego Calendar.《授时历》以365. 2425天为一岁,和地球绕太阳一周的实际时间只差26秒,与和现行的公历(《格列高利历》)一年周期相同,但比现行公历的确立早300年。The communication of the Eastern and Western cultures: In the era of Song and Yuan, esp. in the Yuan Dynasty, the culture between China and the west got obvious development.元朝东西文化的交流:宋元时期,特别在元代,中国和西方的文化交流有了显著发展。The four great inventions of China (printing, compass, gunpowder and papermaking) were introduced to Europe by the Arabians and they played an important part in the development of economy and science in Europe.中国的四大发明(印刷术,指南针、火药和造纸术)先后经过阿拉伯人传人欧洲,对欧州的经济文化发展起了重要作用。The three west expeditions of the Mongols promoted the communication between China and Europe.蒙古贵族三次西征,客观上促进了中国同欧洲的联系。The ambassadors, merchants, travelers and priests from the west came to China continuously. The most famous one of them was Marco. Poro.西方各国的使臣、商人、旅行家、传教士络绎不绝来到中国,其中最著名的是意大利人马可?波罗。He came to China in 1271 and had stayed in China for seventeen years. He had been an official in the Yuan government and had traveled to many big cities in China then.马可?波罗于1271年来到中国,留居中国17年,曾在元朝做官,游历过中国许多大城市。He described vividly about China then in his u Journey of Marco. Poroy,, which stimulated the Westerners9 desire for the Chinese civilizations.他在《马可?波罗行记》中对当时的中国作了生动具休的描写,激起了西方人对中国文明的向往。 /201602/426235

Until nine months ago, Guo Pei was a Chinese haute couturier known by millions in the East yet virtually unheard-of in the West. That all changed last May when the pop star Rihanna wore one of Ms. Guo’s designs to the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Costume Institute gala in New York, after finding her work on the Internet. The look in question, a 55-pound canary-yellow fur-trimmed gown and cape, took seamstresses 50,000 hours and more than two years to make and landed on the cover of American Vogue — and Ms. Guo on the haute couture schedule in Paris.9个月前,中国高级定制时装设计师郭培在东方为数千万人所知,在西方却几乎无人知晓。去年5月,这一切都变了。流行歌星蕾哈娜(Rihanna)在网上看到郭培的作品后,身穿她设计的礼参加纽约大都会艺术物馆(Metropolitan Museum of Art)装学院(Costume Institute)的晚宴。那天蕾哈娜穿的是鲜黄色皮毛镶边长袍和披风,重55磅(约合25公斤),花费5万个小时、两年多时间制作。她的造型登上了《Vogue》美国版封面,而郭培的高级定制时装秀也计划将在巴黎举办。On Wednesday, the 48-year-old former children’s wear designer and daughter of an army platoon leader will formally present her collection for the first time at a major fashion week.周三(1月27日),这位48岁的前童装设计师、排长女儿将在著名时装周上首次正式展示自己的装系列。“The Met Ball marked a new start for my business, a brand new chapter that secretly I felt had been coming for years,” she said on Sunday, 5,000 miles from her Beijing headquarters in a tiny, all-white Paris showroom off the Rue St.-Honoré. “I knew there just needed to be a tipping moment to take me into a whole new world.”周日(1月24日),在离她的北京总部5000英里外的巴黎圣奥诺雷街上一个全白小展厅里接受采访时,她说:“大都会晚宴标志着我事业的一个新开端,一个新篇章,多年来我一直隐隐感觉这个时刻会到来。我知道,需要这样一个爆发时刻把我带入一个全新的世界。”In the two decades since the 1997 opening of Rose Studio, her fashion company specializing in evening wear, Ms. Guo has found fame in China by dressing actresses, folk singers and members of the political elite in her showstopping beaded and embroidered creations.1997年,郭培创立了专做晚装的时装公司玫瑰坊(Rose Studio)。20年来,她为女演员、民歌手和政界精英设计令人难忘的以饰珠和刺绣为特色的装,在中国赢得声誉。As China’s economy boomed and shopping became a national pastime, her studio swelled to a current staff of 300 embroiderers and 200 designers, patternmakers and sewers. Today, the house produces more than 4,000 pieces annually, with prices that start at ,000 and quickly tip into more eye-watering territory.随着中国经济蓬勃发展,购物成为中国人的一项消遣,她的作坊也随之壮大,目前有300名刺绣师以及200名设计师、图案设计者和缝纫师。如今,这家公司每年生产4000多件装,起价5000美元,并很快进入更令人艳羡的领域。But in her Paris showroom this night, just a handful of her Chinese team members were crouched at laptops amid cramped clothing racks, storage boxes and styling boards, while a French hairdresser fussed over models being fitted with creations from her latest collection.但是今晚(1月24日),在她的巴黎展厅里,只有她的几位中国团队成员蜷缩在手提电脑前,坐在狭窄的衣架、贮藏箱和造型板之间,一位法国发型师在忙着给身穿她最新系列装的模特们摆弄发型。“The funny thing is, when I began my own house I had no idea that this type of artistry had a rich and long tradition elsewhere,” she said, her Mandarin translated into English by her husband and business partner Cao Bao Jie. “This world as it existed in the West didn’t exist to me. I was just doing what I liked and thought was truly beautiful.”郭培在采访中说中文,她的丈夫兼商业伙伴曹宝杰帮她翻成英文。她说:“有趣的是,我开创自己的装公司时,完全不知道这种手工艺在其他地方有丰富和漫长的传统。这个世界一直在西方存在,只是我不知道。我只是在做自己喜欢的、自己觉得非常美丽的东西。”Fashion in China then was only just beginning in the way we understand it today, she added: “Very few clients could comprehend what I was trying to show. That craftsmanship and design could add enormous value to a garment, transforming it from a piece of tailoring to a true work of art, was very hard to grasp for them.”当时的中国装业刚走上如今我们理解的道路。她补充说,“几乎没有哪个客户能理解我努力展现的东西。那种工艺和设计能给装增加巨大价值,把装变成真正的艺术品,他们很难理解这一点。”As she gradually convinced them, her prices ballooned, as did the ambitions of her lavish designs. The elaborate excess that has become Ms. Guo’s hallmark — be it vast skirt volumes, lashings of beaded semiprecious stones or rich explosions of embroidered color — marries European silks with traditional Chinese design heritage.她慢慢说客户之后,她的价格飞涨起来,她奢华设计的雄心也跟着膨胀。精致、复杂、夸张已经成为郭培的特点——不管是宽大的裙摆、大量半宝石珠饰,还是刺绣色的大爆炸——她把欧洲丝绸与中国传统设计结合了起来。“I don’t consider my work to be within the limits of conventional fashion, nor do I follow trends creatively or commercially,” she said. “My work displays feelings and emotions that are precious enough to be handed down generation after generation, as well as the experience of developing gowns directly with my clients. They are reflections of myself, and of them, of the scale of my dreams and the pride I have for Chinese culture.”她说:“我认为自己的作品不受限于传统装,我也不在创意或商业上跟随潮流。我的作品展示非常珍贵的感受和情绪,它们应该代代传承,还有我与客户们直接改进礼设计的经验,也应该传承下去。那些礼反映出我自己、我的客户们、我宏大的梦想以及我对中国文化的自豪感。”Ms. Guo says that looking ahead, her efforts will focus on expanding her business internationally, with a second atelier headquarters in Paris, as well as on her bridal line as the wedding market in China continues to explode. She introduced a cosmetics line in collaboration with MAC last year, and she has branched out into demicouture from a store in Shanghai.郭培说,未来她会把重点放在扩展国际业务上,将在巴黎开设第二个工坊,并开发新娘系列,因为中国的婚礼市场仍在继续发展。去年,她与MAC合作推出了一个化妆品系列,还把上海的一家店变成了半定制装分店。The designer, who played down any concerns over China’s recent economic slowdown and its potential impact on the couture market, emphasized how grateful she felt for the opportunity to show her creations to a new audience in the days ahead. She was curious, she said, to hear how others interpreted her work, but was confident that her aesthetic would resonate.郭培表示自己对最近中国经济放缓及其对高级定制市场的潜在影响没有任何顾虑,强调她很感激有机会在未来的日子里向新观众展示自己的创意。她说,她很想知道别人会如何解读她的作品,不过她对自己的审美会引起共鸣充满信心。“This year is my 30th year in the fashion industry,” she said. “For the first 10 years I learned; for the second, I practiced, and now, during the third, I believe I am going to reap the rewards.”她说:“今年是我进入时装业30年。头十年,我学习;第二个十年,我实践;如今在第三个十年,我相信自己能得到回报。” /201602/425500

If anyone can afford to take the long view on investment, it’s surely the British monarch. Queen Elizabeth II on Wednesday passes Queen Victoria as the longest-reigning British head of state, after 63 years on the throne.要说有谁有条件着眼于长线投资的话,那肯定是英国君主了。周三,英国女王伊丽莎白二世(Queen Elizabeth II)超越维多利亚女王(Queen Victoria),成为在位时间最长的英国国家元首,已在位63年。She has seen 13 prime ministers, 12 US presidents and the invention of modern portfolio theory. Her predilection for horseracing is well known. But how’s her investment strategy? She has little choice in asset allocation. The castles, the crowns, the 3,000-carat Cullinan diamond and much else are held in trust, and cannot be rebalanced into equities. Valuation is tough, too, with 17th century royal headwear even less liquid than junk bond ETFs.她见了13位英国首相、12位美国总统以及现代投资组合理论的诞生。她对赛马的嗜好众所周知。但是,她的投资策略是什么?在资产配置上,她没有多少选择余地。城堡、、那枚3000克拉的“库利南”(Cullinan)钻石以及其他很多资产都由信托机构持有,无法调整为股票投资。估值也很困难,那顶17世纪的王室的流动性甚至还不如投资垃圾债券的交易所交易基金(ETF)。Still, the portfolio has a useful bias towards inflation protection, and assets that appeal to the burgeoning super-rich. There is no index of crown jewels, but the sterling gold price has more than doubled in real terms. Diamonds have turned out to be less flashy, lagging inflation.不过,该投资组合存在抵挡通胀的有用偏好,且其中包含着吸引新兴超级富豪阶层的资产。没有关于宝石的指数,但是,实际金价(以英镑计)已经增长超过一倍。钻石的表现反倒没那么亮眼,跑输通胀。The real jewel in the crown may be the Koh-i-Noor, but the shining light of the Queen’s portfolio is the royal art collection.虽然真正的“上的宝石”是那枚光之山钻石(Koh-I-Noor),但是女王的投资组合中最耀眼的宝贝是皇家收藏的艺术品。Art has been one of the better performing assets of the past century, making 3 per cent a year above inflation, well ahead of bonds. According to Christophe Spaenjers, a finance professor at HEC Paris, the price of art at London sales has risen more than 500-fold in nominal terms since 1952, or 20-fold after inflation. Gilts rose five times after inflation, assuming coupons were reinvested.在过去的一个世纪中,艺术品是表现较好的资产之一,剔除通胀每年收益3%,远高于债券。据巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)的金融学教授克里斯托夫斯帕杰尔斯(Christophe Spaenjers)表示,自1952年以来,伦敦售出的艺术品的名义价格已经是当初的逾500倍,剔除通胀后的实际价格是当初的逾20倍。同期英国国债剔除通胀后上涨4倍(假设票息被重新投资于英国国债)。Land has done well too. In this case an Englishwoman’s home really is her castle, but the Queen’s bias towards central London luxury housing (Buckingham Palace) has been a clear source of outperformance recently.土地投资收益也不错。常言道,一个英国女人的家就是她的城堡,而女王的家真的是就是城堡。不过女王对伦敦市中心奢侈住宅——白金汉宫(Buckingham Palace)——的偏爱,近来对她的不凡投资收益有突出贡献。British housing has been a very good investment. The price of older houses matched the capital value of shares (not including dividends), rising 127-fold. Property is expensive to manage and much harder to trade than shares, though, and net rental yields, while not reliably measured, have probably been lower than dividends.英国住宅一直是一项非常好的投资。较老住宅的价格上涨不输于股票市值(不包括股息),上涨了126倍。不过,房地产的管理成本昂贵,而且远比股票难以变现,净房租收益率(尽管衡量方法并不可靠)很可能一直低于股息。Overall, the portfolio is far too concentrated in the UK. Britannia no longer rules the waves, and even the most patriotic investors have long since recognised that diversifying risk means holding foreign assets, too — even if these days royals cannot just send in troops to seize them.总的来说,女王的投资组合太过集中于英国。大不列颠已经不再统治海洋,即便是最爱国的投资者,也早已意识到,只有持有一些境外资产才能分散风险——虽然如今英国王室可以派遣军队没收民众资产的日子已一去不返。 /201509/398208

By working faithfully eight hours a day you may eventually get to be boss and work twelve hours a day.每天勤勤恳恳的工作八小时,你最终会成为一个老板,然后...每天工作12个小时。 /201512/417079

文章编辑: 医爱问