长春省一院预定电话飞度云中文

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 长春省一院预定电话新华问答
MOSCOW — With the latest round of sanctions against Russia, the ed States Treasury Department said it had “increased the cost of economic isolation for key Russian firms,” like the state oil company Rosneft and the banking arm of the natural gas giant Gazprom.莫斯科——随着针对俄罗斯的最新一轮制裁出炉,美国财政部表示,此举已“提高了俄罗斯关键企业经济孤立的代价”。这些企业包括:国有油企俄罗斯石油公司(Rosneft,简称俄油),以及天然气巨头俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom,简称俄气)旗下的。The isolation, though, does not extend to the companies’ growing reliance on Chinese lending, a trend in the Russian natural resources industry that will blunt the effect of sanctions aimed at the finances of Russian oil companies.不过,这种孤立并未触及这些企业对中国贷款越来越深的依赖。在俄罗斯自然资源行业中出现的这一趋势,将削弱针对该国油气企业融资能力的制裁的效力。Energy companies form the backbone of the Russian economy. If oil and gas are taken together, they export more energy than Saudi Arabia, and that money props up the military of President Vladimir V. Putin. Rosneft is the world’s largest publicly traded oil company, pumping about 4.1 million barrels daily.能源企业构成了俄罗斯经济的中流砥柱。该国油气合计的能源出口量超越了沙特阿拉伯,而由此带来的收入撑了总统弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)的军力。俄油是世界上最大的上市油企,日产量约为410万桶。Given the gigantic outlays for drilling wells and building pipelines in the Siberian wilderness, such companies rely deeply on cheap sources of capital. The Chinese have been willing to oblige.考虑到在西伯利亚荒野之中钻井及铺设管线的巨额成本,这些企业严重依赖廉价的资金来源。在这方面,中国人一直乐于配合。“We absolutely don’t expect any impact on the operations or finances of Rosneft or Novatek,” another Russian energy company hit with sanctions on Wednesday, said Pavel Kushnir, an oil and gas analyst at Deutsche Bank in Russia.德意志(Deutsche Bank)驻俄罗斯油气分析师帕维尔·库什尼尔(Pavel Kushnir)表示,“我们认为,俄油或诺瓦泰克(Novatek)的运营和融资绝不会受到任何影响。”诺瓦泰克是周三列入制裁名单的又一家俄罗斯能源企业。“There is a possibility the Chinese banks will try to increase the cost of financing to take advantage of the situation, but this is just speculation,” he said. “I think it will have no impact.”“有一种可能性是,中国的会利用当前局势来试图抬升融资成本,不过这只是猜测而已,”他说。“我想,不会有任何影响。”The sanctions were so narrowly focused that some financial analysts in Moscow saw them as largely symbolic. The broader significance, they say, was mostly an implied threat of broader measures to come, should the crisis drag on.制裁措施针对的范畴十分有限,因此莫斯科的一些分析人士认为,它们在很大程度上是象征性的。他们表示,更大的意义基本在于,发出隐含的威胁信号:倘若危机拖延下去,更多制裁将接踵而至。“What is most important is the sentiment,” said Vladimir Tikhomirov, chief economist with S Financial Group, a Moscow brokerage firm. “If the situation doesn’t improve around Ukraine, which doesn’t seem very likely, there could be another sanction. That will affect risk premium around all new debt issues.”“最重要的是市场情绪,”莫斯科经纪公司S金融集团(S Financial Group)的首席经济师弗拉基米尔·蒂霍米罗夫(Vladimir Tikhomirov)说。“如果乌克兰局势没有改善——似乎不太可能——就还会有新的制裁。那样就会影响到与所有新债务问题有关的风险溢价。”The third round of sanctions did cross a new line by focusing on large publicly traded enterprises in major sectors of the Russian economy. The latest measures prohibit American banks and investors from proffering loans with a maturation of more than 90 days to four Russian companies — Rosneft, Novatek, Gazprombank and VEB, the state foreign trade bank.第三轮制裁的确有所突破,针对的是俄罗斯主要经济部门的大型上市企业。这些最新的制裁措施规定,禁止美国及投资者向四家俄罗斯公司提供期限超过90天的贷款。这四家企业分别是:俄油、诺瓦泰克、俄罗斯天然气工业(Gazprombank),以及该国的对外经贸——开发与外经(VEB)。The move weighed broadly on Russian stocks. Shares in Rosneft were down 4.3 percent. The Russian Micex, which had climbed back from its losses after the first round of sanctions in March, was off 2.6 percent.此举重创了俄罗斯股市。俄油的股价下跌了4.3%。俄罗斯Micex指数本已从首轮制裁后的低谷恢复元气,但此次下挫了2.6%。And the fallout could prove substantial for some on the new list. Among the eight military industrial companies banned from doing business with Americans was the Kalashnikov Concern, the maker of AK assault rifles and their civilian variants, called Saigas, which are popular in the ed States. In recent years, about 30 percent of the factory’s output has been sold in the ed States, the world’s largest civilian gun market.对新制裁名单上的一些公司而言,后果可能会相当严重。在禁止与美国进行业务来往的八家军工企业中,就有卡拉什尼科夫集团(Kalashnikov Concern)。该公司是AK突击步及其民用版本赛加(Saiga)的生产商。后者在美国市场上颇受欢迎。近些年来,公司产量的30%左右销往美国这一世界第一大的民用市场。The Kalashnikov factory’s parent company, Rostec, issued a statement lamenting the sanctions’ “negative effect on cooperation between a number of Russian and American companies, and threat to tear apart the common trust.”卡拉什尼科夫集团的母公司俄罗斯技术集团公司(Rostec)发表声明,抱怨制裁“对多家俄罗斯与美国企业之间的合作造成负面影响,并可能撕裂双方的互信”。While the latest sanctions are not likely to inflict deep pain, Rosneft and other Russian energy companies may have to get more creative about their financing needs. China, for one, has proved a good source of funds in the past.尽管最新一轮的制裁不太可能造成巨大的痛苦,但俄油等俄罗斯能源企业或许不得不在满足自身的融资需求上更富创意。比如,中国过去已明是个不错的资金来源地。Rosneft has repeatedly turned to Chinese lending during periods of tension with the West including taking a billion loan from the Chinese in 2005 to buy Yukos assets. At the end of the first quarter this year, Rosneft reported billion in commercial debt owed to mostly Western banks and billion in funds received as prepayment for future oil deliveries, of which analysts estimate about billion is Chinese financing.在与西方关系紧张的时期,俄油曾反复转向中国借贷。比如2005年,俄油从中国贷款60亿美元(当时约合490亿元人民币),来收购尤科斯石油公司(Yukos)的资产。今年第一季度末,俄油通报欠有410亿美元(约合2540亿元人民币)的商业债务,债主多数为西方,另有250亿美元为石油预付款。分析人士估计,其中约有200亿美元是来自中国的融资。Rosneft has not disclosed details of the Chinese prepayment agreement, or its upper limit. But Mr. Kushnir, the Deutsche Bank analyst, noted that last fall Rosneft retired some Western bank debt with prepayment funds most likely from Chinese sources, suggesting the terms are at least competitive with commercial loans.俄油没有披露与中国之间的预付款协议的细节,或是其金额上限。不过,德意志的分析师库什尼指出,去年秋季,俄油用预付款偿还了欠西方的部分债务,而这些预付款很可能来自中国。这表明,预付款的条件至少与商贷差不多优惠。During a state visit of Mr. Putin to China in May, Novatek, the other energy company placed under sanctions on Wednesday, secured Chinese financing to build a liquefied natural gas plant at Sabetta on the Yamal Peninsula in the Arctic Ocean, intended to supply Asian markets by crossing thawing Arctic shipping lanes. During that visit, Gazprom also negotiated a prepayment for future sales to China.普京今年5月对中国进行了国事访问,期间诺瓦泰克与中方达成协议,将利用其资金在北冰洋亚马尔半岛的萨贝尔港建造一座液化天然气工厂。这座工厂意在利用北冰洋逐渐融化的货运航线来向亚洲市场供气。本周三,诺瓦泰克成为被列入制裁名单的又一家能源企业。在普京的那次访问期间,俄气也与中国谈成了一项未来供气的预付款协议。If sanctions widen, though, Rosneft and others may find their position more challenging.然而,假如制裁进一步扩大,俄油等企业或许会发现自身的处境愈发艰难。Rosneft, Mr. Tikhomirov said, will inevitably pay higher rates if European banks follow the cue from the ed States and the company is eventually cut off from the dollar bond market, the most liquid globally.蒂霍米罗夫认为,倘若欧洲的按美国的指示行事,俄油又最终被全球流动性最强的美元债券市场排除在外,它就不可避免地要付出更高的利息。That could complicate a number of Rosneft’s major projects in the works, like plans to drill in the Arctic, and to buy Morgan Stanley’s oil unit. “It will have to manage its balance by either cutting costs, or deciding not to pursue projects,” Mr. Tikhomirov said.那样的话,可能会让俄油正在进行的多个大型项目复杂化,包括在北冰洋钻探和收购根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)石油部门的计划。“俄油将不得不保障自身的收平衡,要么削减成本,要么做出停止项目的决定,”蒂霍米罗夫说。 /201407/313183LAST month a local official in Aichiprefecture set out a daring proposal. Tomonaga Osada suggested that theauthorities could distribute secretly punctured condoms to young marriedcouples, who would then get to work boosting the birth rate. His unorthodoxploy won few supporters, yet it reflects a gathering concern about Japan’sdemographic plight. Last year just over 1m babies were born, far fewer than thenumber needed to maintain the population, which is expected to drop from 127m toaround 87m by 2060. Why are young Japanese so loth to procreate?上个月,日本爱知县当地官员提出了一项大胆的提议。Tomonaga Osada提议有关当局秘密向已婚的年轻夫妇发放被刺破的避套,以此让他们提高生育率。这个异端的计策并未获得持,但这却反映了日益让人感到担忧的日本人口困境,去年,日本只迎来了100万新生儿,这些数量远低于维持人口所需的数量。据预期,截至2060年,日本人口将从1.27亿落到8700万左右。那么,为何日本的年轻人不愿意生育子女呢?The spiral of demographic decline isspinning faster as the number of women of child-bearing age falls. In May areport predicted that 500 or more towns across the country will disappear byaround 2040 as young women migrate to bigger cities. The workforce is alyshrinking, imperiling future growth. In recent years governments have embarkedon a plethora of schemes to encourage childbearing, including a “women’shandbook” to educate young females on the high and lowpoints of their fertility, and state-sponsored matchmaking events.随着育龄妇女人数的减少,人口呈螺旋式下降的速度越来越快。5月份发布的一份报道预示,随着年轻女性移居大城市,截止2040年左右,日本国内将有500个甚至更多的城镇消失。日本的奥洞里已经在萎缩,这将危及将来的发展。近年来,政府已经实施了大量鼓励生育的方案,其中包括发放“妇女指南”对妇女的生育能力高低峰进行指导,还有国家赞助的相亲活动。The chief reason for the dearth ofbirths is the decline of marriage. Fewer people are opting to wed, andthey are doing so later in life. At least a third of young women aim to becomefull-time housewives, yet they struggle to find men who can support atraditional family. In better economic times potential suitors had permanentjobs as part of the “lifetime employment” system. Now many hold down temporaryor part-time work. Other women shun marriage and children because Japan’sold-fashioned corporate culture, together with a dire shortage of childcare,would force them to give up their careers. Finally, young people are bound bystrict social codes. Only around 2% of babies are born outside marriage(compared with 30-50% in most of the rich world), which means that as weddingsplummet, so do births. Even for those who do start families, the rising cost ofchild-rearing often imposes a de facto one-child policy.低生育率的主要原因是结婚率的降低。越来越少的人选择步入婚姻殿堂,他们选择在晚年结婚。至少有三分之一年轻女性的目标是成为全职家庭主妇,然而他们很难找到可以撑起这种传统家庭模式的男人。在经济情况比较好的时候,她们潜在的求婚者拥有着“终身就业”体制内的稳定工作,但现在,很多人只有临时或兼职工作。日本老式的企业文化以及严重缺乏儿童保育迫使妇女不得不放弃职业也是另一些妇女避开婚姻和生育的原因。最后就是,年轻人受到严格社会规范的制约,只有2%的婴儿出生率发生在婚外(相比之下,大多发达国家达到了30-50%)。这意味着,结婚率下跌,出生率也跟着下跌。即使对于那些有孩子的人来说,养育孩子成本的增加使得他们往往只能落实一胎政策。So far the government of Shinzo Abe hastalked about such steps, but shied away from taking them. Instead Mr Abe isacting to help women combine careers with children. Many demographers reckon itis aly too late to lift Japan’s birth rate, now at 1.43children per woman. The eventual answer, they say, will be more shocking eventhan spiked prophylactics: mass immigration.目前,安倍政府已经提到了这些措施,但却在回避落实。相反,安倍先生正采取行动帮助女性兼顾职业和孩子。很多人口学家认为,提高日本的生育率为时已晚,现在日本女性人均生育率为1.43。他们说,最终的解决方法将比发放被刺的避套更令人感到震惊:大批移民入境。 /201409/326531

If you see British Prime Minister David Cameron on a high-speed train in China, don#39;t be too surprised.如果你在中国的高铁车厢里见到英国首相戴维·卡梅伦,不要太吃惊。In a recent interview, Cameron said he is looking forward to traveling by rapid rail during his visit.最近接收采访时,卡梅伦称自己很期待访华期间乘坐高铁旅行。In October, London Mayor Boris Johnson took a high-speed train from Beijing to Shanghai and described it as ;amazing;.今年十月份,伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊曾在中国乘坐高铁从北京去往上海,他称中国高铁“令人赞叹”。;I am very interested in what#39;s happening with high-speed rail in China,; Cameron said. ;It seems to be an absolute high-speed revolution taking place.;“我对中国高速铁路技术的发展现状很感兴趣,”卡梅伦说,“中国似乎正在展开一场高速铁路的技术革命。”Cameron last visited China in 2010, but he hasn#39;t yet been to Shanghai, which he will cover this time around.卡梅伦上次访华是在2010年,当时他没有去上海,这次卡梅伦计划去上海走一趟。When it comes to Chinese food, Cameron said hotpot in Chengdu, Sichuan province, is what he most wants to eat during this visit.谈到中国美食,卡梅伦说,四川成都的火锅是他此次访华最期待的中国美食。;I met with some British students who are studying Mandarin in a British primary school this week,; he said. ;I asked the teacher which of all the places I was visiting was the most important place to eat, and she recommended the Chengdu hotpot.;“本周我曾经与一些在英国小学学普通话的学生见过面,”他说,“我问他们的老师,在我去过的所有中国省市中,美食最多的是什么地方。她向我推荐了成都火锅。”;I will make sure when I am in Chengdu that I will have hotpot,; Cameron said, smiling.“当我去成都的时候,我一定要品尝一下火锅。”卡梅伦笑着说。Cameron also suggested that Chinese people visit Britain, as well as Europe#39;s 25-country Schengen region. The region offers unrestricted travel across borders.卡梅伦也鼓励中国人去拜访英国,拜访欧洲的25个申根公约国,旅游者如果持有其中一国的旅游签即可合法地到所有其他申根国家。 /201312/267173Fewer U.S. households are stashing away cash today than during the early stages of the economic recovery.和经济复苏初期相比,现在有储蓄的美国家庭变少了。A new survey released Monday found that only 68% of all Americans are spending less than they earn and saving the difference. That#39;s down from 73% in 2010, the first full calendar year after the recession ended.周一公布的一项新调查显示,在所有美国人中,只有68%的人挣的比花的多,并将没花完的钱存起来。而在2010年(美国摆脱衰退后的第一个完整日历年),这一比例为73%。Some 64% of households have emergency funds, down from 71% in 2010. The survey found 76% are reducing their consumer debt, down from 79% in 2010.约有64%的家庭有应急基金,该比例低于2010年的71%。调查还显示,76%的家庭在减少消费债务,2010年这一比例为79%。A divide remains along incomes. More than 80% of households earning over ,000 spend less than they earn. Only about 69% of households making less than ,000 are able to save.不同的收入阶层,有储蓄家庭的占比也存在区别。在年收入超过5万美元的家庭中,有超过80%的家庭挣的比花的多。而在年收入低于5万美元的家庭中,只有69%左右的家庭能存下钱。The pattern holds for reducing consumer debt and maintaining an emergency fund. Nearly 90% of households in the top half are reducing their debt or are debt free, and more than 80% have a #39;sufficient#39; emergency fund.不同的收入阶层,减少消费债务和保持应急基金的家庭所占的比例也存在差别。年收入在5万美元以上的家庭中,近90%的家庭正在削减债务或是没有债务,超过80%的家庭拥有充裕的应急基金。Only 78% of those making less than ,000 are reducing their debt or debt free, while 63% are content with their emergency fund.而年收入在5万美元以下的家庭中,只有78%的家庭在削减债务或没有债务,63%的家庭拥有他们觉得满意的应急基金。Median household income in the ed States in 2012 was ,017, according to Census Department data.美国人口普查局(Census Department)的数据显示,2012年美国家庭收入中值为51,017美元。#39;The group hit the hardest by the Great Recession and its aftereffects have been moderate income households,#39; said Stephen Brobeck, executive director of the Consumer Federation of America. The federation and the American Savings Education Council released the results Monday as part of their campaign to encourage savings.美国消费者联盟(Consumer Federation of America)的执行理事布罗贝克(Stephen Brobeck)表示,受经济大衰退及其余波打击最大的是中等收入家庭。美国消费者联盟和美国储蓄教育委员会(American Savings Education Council)周一公布了上述调查结果,以此作为鼓励美国人储蓄的举措之一。Separate data from the Commerce Department back up the survey data. The personal saving rate--savings as a share of disposable income--was only 3.9% in December 2013, down from 5.8% at the end of 2010.美国商务部(Commerce Department)公布的另一项报告也持了上述调查结果。2013年12月份美国个人储蓄率仅为3.9%,低于2010年底时的5.8%。储蓄率是储蓄占可配收入的比重。Americans have been spending more but incomes have been stagnant, leading to the lower saving rate.美国人的出在增加,但收入并没有增长,这导致储蓄率下降。 /201402/277800China, which runs Greece’s biggest container terminal, is fretting about its involvement in a country hailed only last year by Premier Li Keqiang as its “gateway to Europe”.去年,希腊还被中国总理李克强誉为中国“通向欧洲的门户”。如今,作为希腊最大集装箱码头的运营方,中国已开始对其在希腊的投入感到担心。Beijing’s nervousness stems from the rise of a leftist Greek political party that has demonstrated just how quickly its foreign investment strategies can be upended by electoral politics overseas.中国的不安源于一个希腊左翼政党的崛起。该党的崛起展示出,中国对外投资战略转瞬之间就能被海外选举政治颠覆。“Greece is like a beggar with a golden bowl,” says Yan Jiehe, a Chinese construction tycoon who recently toured Greece looking for road contracts. As long as Athens refused to share its golden bowl by offering foreign investors attractive terms, he said, it would fail to attract capital from companies such as his own privately held China Pacific Construction Group.“希腊就像一个捧着金饭碗讨饭的乞丐,”不久前赴希腊物色筑路合同的中国建筑业大亨严介和表示。他说,只要雅典方面拒绝向外国投资者开出有吸引力的条款、分享它的金饭碗,希腊就无法从企业——比如他私人控股的中国太平洋建设集团(China Pacific Construction Group)——那里吸引来资本。In January, Greek officials informed China’s government-owned grid operator that it was poised to win the tender for a 66 per cent stake in the national electricity distributor, Admie, and would shortly receive the contract.今年1月,希腊官员通知中国国有电网运营商国家电网(State Grid Corp),该公司有望赢得收购希腊国家电力传输运营商Admie 66%股份的竞标,并将在不久之后得到合同。A week later Syriza swept to power in Athens, promising Greek voters that it would oppose EU-mandated reforms and privatisations.一周后,激进左翼联盟(Syriza)在希腊选举中大获全胜、上台掌权,许诺希腊选民将抵制欧盟(EU)要求希腊实施的改革和私有化。According to people familiar with the Admie tender, Greece’s new government first told State Grid Corp it might be willing to proceed with a joint venture structure. But hopes for a compromise deal were dead by the end of February, when Panagiotis Lafazanis, the Greek energy minister, said the privatisation would be halted.了解Admie股权竞标的人士表示,希腊新政府先是告诉国家电网,它可能愿意推进建立合资企业的架构,但到2月底,当希腊能源部长帕纳约蒂斯#8226;拉法赞尼斯(Panagiotis Lafazanis)表示将暂停私有化时,达成一项妥协协议的希望破灭了。This hardline stance was confirmed on Wednesday night in a long list of terms presented by Syriza to its EU and IMF creditors, as negotiations to avoid a Greek default and possible exit from the eurozone hung in the balance. State Grid did not respond to a request for comment.本周三晚,这一强硬立场在激进左翼联盟向欧盟和国际货币基金组织(IMF)的债权人开出的一长串条件中得到了确认。各方仍在举行谈判,以避免希腊违约和退出欧元区。国家电网没有回应置评请求。Athens is under pressure from creditors to resume the Admie privatisation process as part of a broader liberalisation of the energy sector. But Mr Lafazanis, described by colleagues as “the one genuine communist in the Syriza government”, refuses to budge.希腊受到债权人的压力,要求它重启Admie私有化进程,最终实现希腊能源业的自由化。但被同事称为“激进左翼联盟政府内唯一真正共产主义者”的拉法赞尼斯拒绝改变立场。Publicly, China’s foreign ministry says it wants to see a speedy resolution to the crisis “so as to enable the stable development of the EU integration process”. The EU is Beijing’s largest trading partner.在公开场合,中国外交部表示,希望希腊方面能早日走出危机,“能够使欧盟一体化进程继续稳步向前发展”。欧盟是中国最大的贸易伙伴。Behind closed doors, Chinese officials are nervous. “They call us every day to ask what’s going to happen in Greece,” says one European official.在私下里,中国官员很紧张。“他们每天都给我们打电话,询问希腊将会发生什么,”一名欧洲官员表示。Luckily for Beijing, its existing Greek exposure is relatively limited and principally of the concrete and steel variety. While China’s disbursement of its .7tn in foreign exchange holdings is a closely held state secret, analysts believe that little if any of this largesse has been invested in Greek bonds.对中国而言幸运的是,目前其对希腊的投资相对有限,而且主要在基础设施领域。尽管中国3.7万亿美元外汇储备的出情况属于严格保守的国家机密,但分析人士相信,这笔钱即便有投到希腊债券上,肯定也少之又少。When China’s premier toured Greece last year, Chinese banks agreed to fund energy projects and shipbuilding contracts worth a relatively modest .1bn. Greek shipping companies transport about 60 per cent of China’s commodity imports and are the most important clients for Chinese shipyards.中国总理去年访问希腊时,中国几家同意为一些能源项目和造船合同提供融资,项目和合同的价值总额并不高,也就41亿美元。中国大宗商品进口的约60%是由希腊海运企业承运的,这些企业是中国造船厂最重要的客户。“Besides infrastructure, what does Greece have that China actually wants?” asks one lawyer who advises Chinese investors in Europe. “They’re not like the Italians, who have great technology and brands.”“除了基础设施,希腊还有什么中国真正想要的东西吗?”一名为欧洲的中国投资者提供咨询的律师问道,“他们不像意大利人,意大利人还有伟大的技术和品牌。”To date, China’s highest profile Greek investment has been Cosco’s 35-year concession to run two terminals at Piraeus, southeast Europe’s largest port. It was intended as prelude to a bid for Athens’ sale of a 67 per cent stake in OLP, which oversees all of the port’s operations. Last year, throughput at Cosco’s Piraeus terminals increased more than 18 per cent to 3m containers.迄今为止中国在希腊最出名的投资,是中远集团(Cosco)在东南欧最大港口比雷埃夫斯港两个码头的特许经营权,时限为35年。这项投资是个前奏,大戏是竞购雅典方面出售的比雷埃夫斯港务局(OLP) 67%的股份。OLP负责监管比雷埃夫斯港所有业务。去年,中远比雷埃夫斯港码头的吞吐量增长了逾18%,至300万个集装箱。There were threats to halt the larger Piraeus privatisation but Athens ultimately decided to proceed with the sale of a 51 per cent stake. The winner will also have the option of purchasing an additional 16 per cent interest in the port after four years. “We’re committed to getting the Piraeus port sale done within 2015,” said a senior executive at Greece’s privatisation agency.有人曾扬言要暂停比雷埃夫斯港较大规模的私有化,但雅典方面最终决定推进该港51%股份的出售。竞购成功者还可选择在4年后收购该港另外16%的股份。希腊私有化机构的一名高管说:“我们致力在今年内完成比雷埃夫斯港的出售。”“Piraeus is an important connection for China into Europe, and Greece’s EU membership gives us important advantages,” says Li Gang, a European specialist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.中国社会科学院欧洲问题专家李罡说:“比雷埃夫斯港是中国进入欧洲的重要桥梁,希腊的欧盟成员国身份将为我们提供重要的优势。”Such optimism is predicated on the assumption that the worst-case scenario for Greece is an exit from the eurozone rather than the EU itself.这种乐观建立在一个假设上,即希腊将要发生的最糟糕情况也就是退出欧元区,而不是退出欧盟。“China has been working hard to break into Greece’s infrastructure sectors and should follow through with its plans,” says Huang Weiping, an economics professor at Renmin University in Beijing. “Greece could have a brighter future if it left the eurozone and depreciated its currency. China would then be even more interested in Greek assets.”北京中国人民大学经济学教授黄卫平表示:“中国一直在努力打入希腊的基础设施领域,而且应当进一步落实其计划。希腊可以有一个更加光明的未来,如果它离开欧元区、让本币贬值的话。届时,中国会对希腊资产更感兴趣。”“Penury will force Greece to leave the eurozone and embrace privatisation,” adds Mr Yan, the construction tycoon. “Privatisation will then turn its golden begging bowl into a golden hall.”严介和说:“经济困窘将迫使希腊离开欧元区,拥抱私有化。而私有化将把希腊的黄金讨饭碗变成一座金色大厅。”Additional reporting by Wan Li万丽补充报道 /201506/383358

Switzerland, one of the world#39;s wealthiest countries, is engaged in an intense process of soul searching - about money.世界上最富裕的国家之一瑞士正积极地对金钱做着自我反省。This year alone there have been two nationwide referendums on executive pay, one of which approved strict limits on bonuses and banned golden handshakes.Now two more votes are on the way, the first on the introduction of a minimum wage, and the second, and most controversial, on a guaranteed basic income for all legal residents, whether they work or not.瑞士仅今年就已经针对高管薪酬进行了两次全民公投,其中一项通过;这项提案对高管的奖金做了严格的限定并禁止了高额退休金的发放。现在还有两个投票也在紧锣密鼓地进行,其中一个要求引入最低工资,另一个则最具争议性——无论工作与否,瑞士公民享有每月基本收入(高达2500瑞士法郎,约合1.7万人民币)。To hold a nationwide referendum, all citizens have to do is gather 100,000 signatures calling for a vote, and the ballot must be held - the result is binding.要想举行全民公投,瑞士人所要做的仅仅是搜集到10万个签名。接下来投票就必须举行,且其结果也是有法律约束力的。For Enno Schmidt, a key supporter of universal basic income, Switzerland is the perfect place, and 2013 the perfect time, to launch a campaign to introduce it.恩诺-施密特作为全民基本收入提案的关键持者之一,他认为2013年在瑞士发起这样一场投票是很合适的。Swiss business leaders have reacted with dismay, one calling it a ;happy land; proposal, the product of a younger generation that has never experienced a major economic recession or widesp unemployment.瑞士的一些企业家们对此表示担忧,其中一个人称之为“乐土式”提案,认为这是没有经历过大规模经济衰退、大范围失业的年轻一代弄出来的产物。Mr Schmidt denies this, saying the proposed amount for Switzerland, 2,500 Swiss francs (,800; £1,750) a month is scarcely enough to survive on.施密特对此不以为然,他称提案中的每月2500瑞士法郎(约合2800美元,1750英镑)也就够你在瑞士生存下去而已。Meanwhile on the left, economist and former social democrat member of parliament Rudolf Strahm backs a minimum wage but is against a universal income, believing it would undermine the famous Swiss work ethic.此外,经济学家及前社会民主党议员鲁道夫-史特森持最低工资提案却反对全面基本收入提案。他认为这会削弱瑞士享誉全球的职业道德。To cover the cost of such a scheme, value added tax - on what people buy rather than what they earn - could rise to 20% or even 30%.为了负担提案所需出,增值税(从人们的消费而不是收入中扣除)可能会增长20%到30%。Actually, the main motivation behind the campaign is not economic but cultural, a bid to make people think more carefully about the nature of life and work.事实上,这个提案的主要动机不是经济而是文化方面的,它其实是想让人们更认真地思考生活和工作的本质。 /201312/270082A government-led austerity drive is taking all the fun out of being a Chinese official.一场政府发起的节俭行动正把在中国当官的乐趣抽得一干二净。The latest anti-corruption measures, issued Sunday, ban cigarettes and upscale liquor as well as classic Chinese delicacies like sharks#39; fin and birds#39; nests from official banquets.周日最新发布的反腐措施规定,公务接待宴请不得提供香烟、高档酒水以及例如鱼翅、燕窝等佳肴。It#39;s part of a drive to portray the country#39;s civil service as a model in austerity. So far, the public response has been a heap of skepticism.这些规定意在把政府部门打造成为节俭模范。目前为止公众对此多持质疑态度。The central government#39;s most recent austerity orders take aim at some of the most visible symbols of official excess. Birds#39; nest soup, made from the saliva of swiftlets, and shark fins are a fixture at expensive Chinese soirees. Premium birds#39; nest can command 5 a gram, making it more expensive than silver, while shark fin can fetch up to 0 a kilogram, according to the Australian Marine Conservation Society.中央政府最近出台的节俭规定瞄准了官员铺张浪费的一些典型事例。金丝燕唾液制成的燕窝和鱼翅是中国高档晚宴上的必点菜肴。优质燕窝可卖到每克155美元,比银子还贵,而据澳大利亚海洋保护学会(Australian Marine Conservation Society)称,鱼翅售价可高达每千克700美元。There#39;s one caveat: China has tried to get its officials to dial it back before. It issued a similar edict seven years ago (in Chinese), though the wording used at the time was vaguer, calling on civil servants #39;not to use public funds for #39;excessive dining.#39; #39;中国此前曾试图让官员有所收敛。七年前曾有类似规定出台,不过当时的文件措辞较含糊,仅要求公务员“不得用公款大吃大喝”。This time around, the government was more explicit. It named #39;shark fin, birds#39; nest and other high-end cuisine and meals made from protected wild animals#39; as dishes that mustn#39;t reach official dining tables. But the move should have come as no surprise to civil servants - Beijing last year warned it would introduce the prohibition soon.这一回政府态度更加明确。此次规定点明“鱼翅、燕窝等高档菜肴和用野生保护动物制作的菜肴”不得出现在公务宴席上。但这一动作应属公务员意料之内――去年北京方面警告过将很快颁布禁令。All this is reshaping what it means to be a Chinese bureaucrat. In the past, the Chinese civil servant#39;s position was popularly associated with perquisites such as black AudiNSU.XE -0.31% cars, premium Moutai liquor and endless rounds of boozy karaoke evenings. That#39;s no longer as true, with the government#39;s anti-graft campaign extending to interdictions on alcohol, mooncakes, fireworks and those conspicuously inscrutable black cars.这一切都在重塑担任中国官职的意义。在过去,很多人把中国公务员职位和特权联系起来(例如黑色奥迪车、高品质茅台酒和无数个灯红酒绿的KTV之夜)。而随着政府将反腐措施拓展至酒水、月饼、烟花爆竹、公务车方面的限令,情况发生了变化。On China#39;s Sina Weibo microblogging platform, the country#39;s nearest equivalent to a national forum, one blogger - who appeared to be a civil servant - complained that these new requirements were just plain un-Chinese. #39;How can you treat officials of a higher position than yourself to a mediocre restaurant?#39; one blogger wrote. #39;If high officials agree to dinner, it is too embarrassing to treat them to somewhere poor. Chinese people just love #39;face.#39;#39;新浪微上,一位似乎是公务员的主抱怨说新规定太不符合中国国情了。一位主写道,你怎么可能请一个位置比你高的领导去吃普通餐馆呢?如果领导答应跟你吃饭,你却带他们去个破破烂烂的餐馆,那也太没面子了。中国人就爱讲面子。Sunday#39;s edict doesn#39;t just entail food. The document also detailed regulations on the use of public funds for entertainment and limits the number of people allowed to accompany officials to dinners. It bars some from a travel entitlement to hotel suites, and stops bureaucrats from receiving a range of gifts. The rule#39;s clearest expansions from 2006 were on the food items, a requirement for officials to submit details of travel plans, and requirements to disclose public expenditures on receptions to the Ministry of Finance.周日发布的规定不只涉及餐饮方面。这份文件还在接待活动的公款使用范围和陪餐人数上给出了详细的规定,要求一些人不得公费入住酒店套间,并禁止官员收取一系列礼品。相较于2006年颁布的文件,这份文件在供应菜品,要求官员提交详细的公务外出计划,以及向财政部披露公务接待经费开上做出了最为清晰的规定。The new regulation will also apply to state-owned companies and state-sponsored organizations, it said.据该文件,新规定还将适用于国有企业和公有事业单位。The fresh proposals haven#39;t scored high in public approval, at least judging by a stream of skepticism on China#39;s microblogs. For some, there was recognition that the latest edict wasn#39;t exactly new. #39;What we need is not regulation, but the courage to enforce regulation,#39; said one user.单从目前中国微上的一片质疑之声来看,新要求尚未得公众的高度认可。在一些人看来,最新规定并不是什么新的做法。一位网友写道,我们现在需要的不是制定规则,而是要勇于执行规则。#39;The regulations are (like) a kind father educating his good-for-nothing sons,#39; said one user. #39;But will his sons listen? This is a warning to officials and is more progressive than practical.#39;一位网友说,这份规定就(像)是一位慈父在教育自己那群一无是处的儿子。但是儿子们会听他的话吗?这份文件是对官员们的一种警告,与其说它具有实际意义,不如说它更具进步性。Wildlife officials say the new regulations could mark the start of stricter state control over Chinese trade in endangered species#39; parts, such as African ivory and rhinoceros horns. #39;I think this sets up the new administration#39;s willingness to reduce consumption of endangered wildlife,#39; said Jeff He, a Beijing-based communications manager for the International Fund for Animal Welfare. #39;The current notice sends out a very strong signal that the administration is responding.#39;野生动物保护官员说,新规定或标志国家对濒危野生动物交易展开新一轮更加严格的控制。国际爱护动物基金会(International Fund for Animal Welfare,简称:IFAW)驻北京的公关经理Jeff He说:我认为这使政府形成了减少濒危野生动物消费的意愿。当前的规定释放出了一个非常强烈的信号,即政府正在对这一问题做出回应。It#39;s less clear whether previous government action has actually cut trade in wild animals and their parts. Wildlife groups including the IFAW, the World Wildlife Fund and Greenpeace didn#39;t have data immediately available, and smuggling masks actual trade trends. But China#39;s commerce ministry has claimed victory in one aspect, according to the official Xinhua news agency. Ministry spokesman Shen Danyang said consumption of shark fin fell 70% and birds#39; nest by 40% around this year#39;s Lunar New Year because of the anti-waste campaign, though the ministry didn#39;t provide a specific time frame for comparison.政府的先前举措是否真的减少了野生动物贸易则不甚清楚。包括IFAW、世界野生动物基金会(World Wildlife Fund)和绿色和平组织(Greenpeace)在内的野生动物保护组织无法立即提供相关数据,且走私掩盖了实际的贸易数额。但据新华社称,就某一方面而言,中国商务部已宣告取得胜利。商务部发言人沈丹阳称,在政府节俭行动的影响下,今年农历新年期间鱼翅消费下降了70%,燕窝消费下降了40%。不过商务部并未指出这一对比所参照的确切时间范围。 /201312/268179

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