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2019年11月17日 10:24:27来源:普及热点

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced Monday it has lifted a 30-year-old lifetime ban on blood donations by gay men, allowing those who haven#39;t had sexual contact with other men in a year to do so.美国食品药品监督(食药监局)21日正式解除一项实施了30年的终身禁令,将禁止同性恋、双性恋男子献血的规定改为允许他们禁欲12个月后献血。With the decision, the ed States joined countries such as the ed Kingdom and Australia, which also have 12-month deferrals for men who have sex with men to donate blood.这项决定的做出使得美国的政策与英国、澳大利亚等国家的政策看齐。这些国家也允许同性恋禁欲12个月后献血。;In reviewing our policies to help reduce the risk of HIV transmission through blood products, we rigorously examined several alternative options, including individual risk assessment,; said Peter Marks, deputy director of the FDA#39;s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. ;Ultimately, the 12-month deferral window is supported by the best available scientific evidence.;FDA生物制品评估和研究中心主任皮特·马克斯表示:“为了使我们的政策有助于通过血液制品降低艾滋病传染的风险,我们严格检查了多个选项,包括个人风险评估。最终,科学据表明12个月是最好的空窗期。”People with hemophilia or related clotting disorders are also still deferred from donating blood. The rationale, however, has changed ;from preventing HIV transmission to ensuring that such donors are not harmed by the use of large bore needles during the donation process,; said the U.S. regulator.美国的负责人表示,血友病患者或有相关凝血障碍的潜在献血者仍禁止献血,这样做的原因是“出于对他们自身的保护,因为献血过程中使用的针头会对他们造成潜在的伤害”。 /201512/417738。

  • The Jin, founded by Wanyan Aguda (known as Emperor Taizu), was a regime dominated by the Nuzhen people. Its capital was first in the Huining Prefecture (now Baicheng, south of Acheng, Heilongjiang Province), then in Yanjing (now Beijing), and lastly, in Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province). Ruled by nine emperors, and lasted for 120 years. At its height, it had a population of 44. 7 million people and its territory extended as far as the Outer Xing’an Ling Mountain in the north,the Huai River in the south,the coastline in the east, and Shaanxi in the west.金国是中国历史上以女真为主体建立的王朝,先建都会宁府(今黑龙江阿城南白城镇),后迁都燕京(今北京),再迁都至汴京(今河南开封),其创建者是金太祖完颜阿骨打。金共历九帝,前后120年,疆域盛时北达今外兴安岭,南抵淮河,东临于海,西至陕西,人口4470余万。The ancestors of the Nuzhen had first lived in the Changbai Mountains and the Heilongjiang River valley.女真族的祖先很早就生活在长白山和黑龙江流域。The name “Nijzhen” did not appear in historical records until the Five Dynasties period when it was under the control of the Khitan.五代时,女真之名始见于史籍,并受辽契丹所统治。The Nuzhen was in preliminary clan stage at the beginning of the Liao and then it grew quickly with the using of the iron tools and expansion of the population. Towards the end of the Liao, Nuzhen developed strong enough.在辽统治初期,它还处于原始氏族形态,但随着人口的增加与铁器的大量使用,使其快速发展起来,到辽末年,女真族已成为北方一不可小覷的力量。After its Wanyan tribe established a tribal union, all its tribes quickly got unified. In the 4th year of Tianqing(1114), Wanyan Aguda, the leader of the Nuzhens, performed a ritual with his armies on the bank of the Lailiu River (present-day Jianlalin River between Heilongjiang and Jilin) and declared war on the Liao.女真完颜部首领完颜阿骨打,在统一了女真各部后,于辽天庆四年 (1114)九月,率部誓师于涞流河(今黑龙江与吉林省间拉林河)畔,向辽朝的契丹统治者宣战。After his victories in Ningjiang and Chuhedian, Aguda assumed the imperial title in the 5th year of Tianqing(1115). He named his regime the Great Jin and used Shouguo as his reign title.他在取得宁江大捷和出河店之战胜利后,于辽天庆五年(1115)称帝建国,国号大金,年号收国。After winning a decisive victory in the battle of Hubudagang, the Jin carried out its plan to conquer the Liao.金朝建国后,在护步答冈会战中大败辽军,随后展开以辽五京为战略目标的灭辽之战。It attacked and captured five important Liao cities: the “eastern capital”(present-day Liaoyang in Liaoning), the “upper capital”(south of present-day Barin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), the Mmiddle capitar, (present-day Damingcheng, west of Ningcheng in Inner Mongolia), the uwestern cap-ital” (present-day Datong, Shanxi) and the “southern capital” (present-day Beijing).攻取五京的前后步骤是东京(今辽宁辽阳)、上京(今内蒙古巴林左旗南)、中京(今内蒙古宁城西大名城)、西京(今山西大同)、南京(今北京)。The conquest of these “five capitals” by the Jin regime brought about the immediate fall of the Liao.这五部分的攻取对辽是致命的打击。In 1120, Jin made an agreement with the Northern Song to form a joint attack on the Liao. And in 1125, the Emperor Tianzuo of the Liao was captured and the north part of China was under the control of the Jin.公元1120年,金与宋签定“海上之盟”共同对辽,公元1125年,辽天祚帝被俘,金国完全控制了北方。Immediately after conquered the Liao, the Jin then turned against the Northern Song.在消灭辽国以后,金国把矛头直指向宋朝。Ascending the throne, Emperor Taizong (Wanyan Sheng), greatly encouraged by the Liao defeat, swept to attack the Northern Song successfully in the following wars out of the incompetence of rulers of the Song, though the army of Song resisted with all their mighty. And Jin seized Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song, captured the Emperors of Hui and Qin and put an end to the Northern Song in 1127.称帝之后,金太宗吴乞买(完颜晟)挟灭辽之威,大举进攻宋朝,虽然宋军民全力反抗,但由于宋统治者的无能,使得金国连连得胜,于金天会五年(1127)攻占了北宋都城开封,虏去徽、钦二帝,使北宋灭亡。Later the Jin waged many wars against the Southern Song, but was fought back by the troops of the Southern Song under the brilliant leaders of Yue Fei and Han Shizhong. The balance of power remained the same on two sides, the Jin and the Southern Song.南宋王朝的建立使得金国继续向南进兵,而南宋的抗金名将岳飞、韩世忠等人对金国的抵抗使得金军实力大降,无力再和南宋交战,形成了南北对峙的局面。While the rival dynasties existed side by side, the Jin succeeded in forcing the Xi Xia to become its subject state and the Southern Song to sue for peace.金在与南宋、西夏并立期间,迫使西夏臣附、南宋屈辱求和,始终维持其霸主地位。However ,the rise of the Mongols posed a threat since they were decided enemies of the Jin.但是,随着蒙古的兴起,金的强国地位受到了威胁。The hatred towards the Jin was deep into the marrow.金蒙世仇,结怨甚深,蒙古人对金“怨人骨髓”。Surrounded as it by the Mongolia to the north, the Western Xia to the west, and the Southern Song to the south, the Jin was in an unfavorable situation.金西北邻蒙古,西邻西夏,南邻南宋,处于西、西北、南三战之地,战略地位有明显的弱势。The best course of action would have been that of uniting with the Xi Xia and the Southern Song against the Mongols—as its alliance with the Xi Xia could prevent the Mongols from marching southward and a good relationship with the Southern Song would exempt it from southern threats.对待三国的战略,金的正确选择是结夏联宋,对抗蒙古。团结西夏,可以从西面牵制蒙古南下。成吉思汗于建国后对金“乃定议致讨,然未敢轻动”,其重要原因是担心攻金时西夏可能构成的侧面威胁。In this way, the Jin could avoid fighting on two fronts and have its strength focused on fighting againt the Mongols.联合南宋,可以免除后顾之忧,避免两面作战,全力对付蒙古。But instead, the Jin abandoned the Xi Xia, attacked the Southern Song and the Mongols, meaning that it had created three enemies for itself. The Jin became isolated and helpless.然而,金朝统治者却错误地选择了绝夏、攻宋、抗蒙的战略,结果三面树敌,自我孤立,致使形势急转直下。When the Mongols attacked the Xi Xia, the Xia asked the Jin for help, but the latter refused to. The Western Xia then surrendered to the Mongols. They joined together to attack the Jin who was now squeezed into a corner.蒙古攻西夏,西夏求援于金,金坐视不救,西夏投附于蒙古,与蒙古联手攻金,金处于西、北两面受敌窘境。To remove threats from the west and the north, the Jin removed its capital from Zhongdu to Bianjing and tried to win o-ver the south for compensating the loss of the north. Accordingly, it left the northern territories open to Mongolian conquest and began to attack the Southern Song but achieved almost nothing.金为减轻压力,从中都迁都汴京,采取弃北图南的战略,进攻南宋,企图挹彼注兹,失之于蒙而获利于宋,于是“南开宋战,西启夏侮,兵力既分,功不补患”。With pincers attacks by the Mongols and the Southern Song, the Jin gradually lost power and its downfall was unavoidable.结果,金北方尽失于蒙,南方受挫于宋,国土日蹙,国力日衰。In 1233, Wokuotai, the Taizong of the Yuan Dynasty took Bianjing, Emperor of Jin, Aizong fled to Caizhou and in the following years, Jin was destroyed by the joint force of the Mongolia and the Southern Song, which brought the Jin to an end.金国于天兴元年(1233),元太宗窝阔台帅军攻下汴京,金哀宗逃至蔡州,次年,蔡州在蒙古军与宋 军联合进攻下被攻破,金国至此宣告灭亡。The Jin’s political, military and economic system changed in its early and late periods.金国的政治、军事及经济制度前后有所变化。During the “tribal union” period, the premier and the union chieftains (clan elder in Nuzhen) shared the power of administering different Nuzhen tribes.After the founding of the Jin Dynasty, the premier and the union chieftains were replaced by four and later five chief executives, to form the highest authority under the emperor.女真部落联盟时采用国相制,国相与部落联盟长都勃极烈分治诸部。After conquering a number of the Liao and the Song territories during Emperor Taizong^ reign, the Jin adopted some of their practices and systems.金太宗时,占领辽、宋之地后,开始采用许多辽、宋制度。Both Emperor Xizong and the Prince of Hailing introduced reforms.金熙宗时,对各项制度作了改革。The Prince Hailing also move the capital to Zhongdu (present Beijing), and standarlized its regemens and carried out further reforms.金海陵王迁都中都(今北京),统一制度,又作了进一步的改革。During the reign of Emperor Shizong, a complete political system was set up.金世宗时,各项制度大体确立。The primary body, the State Council, helped the central government deal with state affairs. Under the State Council, there were “Six Boards”:the Board of Civil Service, the Board of Revenue, the Board of Rites, the Board of War, the Board of Punishments, and the Board of Works.中央设尚书省综理政务,下设吏、户、礼、兵、刑、工六部分掌政务。Local governmerits were divided into four levels.地方设路、府、州、县四级。The military service system was based on that of the Nuzhen, with those of the Qidan, the Bohai, the Xi and the Han integrated.金朝的军事制度是一种多成分的结合体,在原女真军制的基础上,广泛吸收了契丹,渤海、奚、汉等民族的军事制度,而有其自身的特点。Military organization was relatively simple, with emphasis placed on the cavalry and other arms developed at the same time. Its troops were made up of soldiers of many nationalities, either mercenaries or conscripts. Officers enjoyed high status.金朝军事机构较为简化,重视骑兵的作用,也逐步建立和发展其他兵种,军队中民族成分复杂,实行签军和募兵兵役制度,军事职官的地位较高。This system exerted great influence upon that of later dynasties.金朝的军制对后世的军制有一定的影响。The early stage of the Jin was economically backwards with the remaining features of the preliminary tribe.金国在刚刚建立起来的时候,国力非常落后,经济制度还存在着一些原始社会的残余。Since Taizong, Xizong and the King of Hailing, there were drastic changes happened : the Jin transformed from a nomadic tribe to a feudal society with agriculture as the fundamental support, which laid foundation for its further development.自太宗、熙宗、海陵王以来,金国进行了全面的转变,使其从原来的游牧部落变成了一个以农业为主的封建集权制国家,为其今后的发展奠定了基础。The farming, handicrafts and commerce flourished, but different areas achieved varying degrees of social and economic development in Jin. Although some features of traditional Nuzhen culture were inherited by the Jin, it was the Han culture and Liao culture that dominated the Jin society.金时,农业、手工业和商业都得到了发展,但各地区的经济发展存在很大差异,虽然保留和吸收了女真族的某些文化传统,但基本上是继承辽、宋的汉族文化。 /201602/426201。
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