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2019年10月17日 10:43:11来源:大河口碑

When I was in my 20s,我二十多岁时I did some of the basic mathematics of black holes,对黑洞进行过一些基础演算but few people shared my fascination.但少有人与我志同道合These days, they are a popular subject.现今,黑洞成为流行的课题Physicists all over the world are studying black hole behavior.全世界的物理学家都在研究黑洞行为We now know that black holes现在我们知道黑洞are not only fascinating in their own right,不仅因它们自身的特点受到欢迎but that they play a还因为它们在星系形成过程中fundamental role in the formation of galaxies.起到至关重要的作用They also give us a glimpse of how the universe may end.同时让我们得以一窥宇宙可能的灭亡方式A black hole forms when a large star,当一颗比太阳大20倍的大恒星one say, 20 times the mass of our sun, comes to the end of its life.走向生命尽头时,黑洞就产生了Such a star looks nothing like our sun这样的恒星与太阳完全不同 because its become unstable,因为开始灭亡时convulsing violently as its death throws begin.它变得不稳定并剧烈震动Finally it runs out of fuel and begins to shrink,最终,它燃料耗尽,开始收缩getting denser and denser, hotter and hotter.密度越来越大,温度越来越高But with a star this massive,但对于如此巨大的恒星there is no force in the universe宇宙中没有任何力量capable of stopping the collapse.能够阻止恒星崩塌The core is so heavy that it just keeps on falling in on itself.内核太过沉重以至于不断坍缩Gravity is running wild.万有引力如脱缰之马In just 15 seconds or so,仅仅十五秒钟左右the unstoppable force crushes the star from这股无坚不摧的力量将此恒星直径millions of miles in diameter to as little as 12 miles in diameter.从数百万英里压至十二英里All the mass that was in the star is still there,恒星的质量没有发生改变but its own weight keeps但它自身的重量forcing it down smaller and smaller still.一直在迫使它变得越来越小The temperature of the core sores to 100 billion degrees.内核温度飙升至一千亿摄氏度The outer layers are blasted away in a massive supernova.恒星外层在剧烈的超新星爆炸中解体But deep in the center, the core falls down但在恒星中心深处,内核逐渐陷入what we call a gravitational well.所谓的重力势阱It crushes itself into a single point.它坍缩成一个点A black hole is born.黑洞便诞生了Nothing nearby can escape its pull,附近的一切都无法逃脱它的引力 not even light.甚至光也难以幸免Its hard to imagine just how dense a black hole can be.黑洞的密度大到人类难以想象But Ill try to put it into perspective using something familiar.但我要借用大家熟悉的事物进行深入剖析The Earth.地球201509/398703。

  • And one of the striking characteristics of organised games throughout history is their capacity to transcend cultural differences, social divisions and even political unrest. Straddling the boundary between the sacred and the profane, they can be great social unifiers and dividers.历史上,这种有组织的比赛有极为显著的特点:能够跨文化差异,社会等级甚至政治动荡。它游荡在神圣与世俗的边界,能成为社会的黏合剂,也能让社会分化。As Nick Hornby says, perhaps there are few other things that we collectively care about so much in our society today.就如同尼克霍恩比所言,这是当今社会所有人共同关心的极少数问题之一。Our Mexican ceremonial belt acts as a powerful symbol of exactly how far all societies can take the obsession for mass, organised sport.墨西哥腰带强有力地明,所以社会都热衷于大型有组织的运动。201501/355796。
  • Carbohydrates receive a lot of attention in the press: good carbs, bad carbs and no carbs.碳水化合物很受媒体关注,好碳水化合物,坏碳水化合物,不吃碳水化合物等等Its hard to know what to make of all this discussion.很难说该怎么看待这些讨论In this presentation we will outline basic information about dietary carbohydrates这节课会讲关于食物中的碳水化合物的基本信息,and give you some sounds advice on how to build a healthy diet.并给大家健康饮食的建议,Lets start by thinking about carbohydrate-restricted diets.首先考虑一下限制碳水化合物摄入的食谱These diets usually limit carbohydrate intake to below 50 grams per day.这些食谱往往将每天碳水化合物摄入量限制在50克以下,These diets have been around in some form since before the 1960s.从20世纪60年代之前就有各种各样这样的食谱,The Atkins Diet was first presented in the 60s and skyrocketed the popularity of low carbohydrates in the US.阿特金斯饮食法于60年代提出,使少吃碳水化合物在美国迅速流行起来The fad reached a peak in popularity during the 1990s20世纪90年代,随着南海滩饮食法,区域饮食法和其他饮食法的发表,with publication of the South Beach diet, the Zone diet and others.少吃碳水化合物达到了流行的顶峰Unfortunately, these diets are not sustainable, balanced diets.但是这些饮食法不是可持续的平衡的饮食The point of this presentation is to emphasize balance within ones own diet.这节课的重点就是强调在个人饮食中把握平衡To understand the role of carbohydrates in health we need to define different forms of carbohydrates.要理解碳水化合物对健康的作用,我们需要区分不同种类的碳水化合物Simple carbohydrates, also called sugars, are the first type we will discuss.先说第一种,简单碳水化合物,简单碳水化合物又叫糖,In this ingredient list for nature valley granola bars这是自然山谷格兰诺拉麦片棒的营养成分表,you can see here how many ingredients in this list are simple carbohydrates.可以看到这些原料中有哪些是简单碳水化合物There are seven.有七种,In the forms of high maltose corn syrup, sugar, high fructose corn syrup, malt, fructose, maltodextrin and honey.分别是高麦芽糖玉米糖浆,食糖,高果糖玉米糖浆,麦芽,果糖,麦芽糖糊精和蜂蜜,Simle carbohydrates are called simple because they do not require much effort to be digested and absorbed.之所以称之为简单碳水化合物是因为这些碳水化合物很容易被消化吸收,They are therefore a very quick source of energy.因此可以很快提供能量Simple carbohydrates are available in a wide variety of forms.简单碳水化合物以多种多样的常见形式存在,Some types that you have probably seen and used everyday有一些你可能每天都见到并使用,include white and brown sugar, honey, molasses and corn syrup.像是白糖和红糖,蜂蜜,糖蜜和玉米糖浆Some other forms that you will see more in processed foods还有一些常见于加工过的食品中include fructose, sucrose, glucose and maltose.像是果糖,蔗糖,葡萄糖和麦芽糖Sucrose is another name for table sugar.蔗糖是食糖的别称,A very ommon food ingredient is high fructose corn syrup.一种很常见的食品原料是高果糖玉米糖浆This is made from corn starch and is different from the corn syrup that you can purchase at the grocery store.它是由玉米淀粉制成的,不同于可以从杂货店买到的玉米糖浆High-fructose corn syrup is very sweet and costs less than sugar for food processors高果糖玉米糖浆非常甜,对食品加工商来说比用食糖成本低,so it has become widely used.所以被广泛使用Some concerns have been raised about high-fructose corn syrup consumption mainly很多人为食用高果糖玉米糖浆感到担忧,because of the high rate of obesity in the US.主要是因为美国人的肥胖率过高,Sodas are a main source of high-fructose corn syrup intake, especially for children and teens.汽水是高果糖玉米糖浆摄入的主要来源之一,尤其是在儿童和青少年中,Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup is safe,摄入高果糖玉米糖浆是安全的,however, as with all sugars moderation is necessary to avoid excess calorie intake.但是和所有种类的糖一样,要有节制的摄入,以避免过多摄入能量201603/434359。
  • 栏目简介:《英语学习入门视频》是英语视频听力下面的子栏目,栏目内容适合刚刚接触英语学习不久的童鞋学习。视频内容比较简单易懂,是入门英语知识的基础,有助于帮助英语学习爱好者逐步掌握基本的英语知识。201512/418996。
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