当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2019年08月19日 20:48:26    日报  参与评论()人

福州输精管接通去那最好福州检查输卵管造影什么医院好Most of us have had the same experience.大多数人都有过这样的经历,We see a big, red tomato in the grocery store, take it home for our salad, and find out that it tastes like cardboard.从商店里挑选出又大又红的番茄回去做沙拉,然后一尝,味同嚼蜡。You might think that the tomato is sub-par because its been picked before it ripened, or shipped across the country.你可能认为买回的番茄味道不好是因为它没有成熟就被摘下,或者是运输过久的原因。Those things can be true, but scientists have found another reason why modern tomatoes have little or no taste.这的确是一部分原因,然而科学家们发现现今的番茄不好吃还有其它原因,Its in their genes.那就是它们的基因问题。The problem began with old fashioned or heirloom tomatoes.这个问题要追溯到从前的天然番茄,They didnt ripen consistently.它们并不总能完全长熟,Someareas would be red, while other areas, usually near the stem, would be white or green.番茄的有些部分是红的,而其它地方,尤其是靠近茎蒂的地方,往往是白色或绿色的。About seventy years ago, tomato breeders accidentally discovered a variety that turned red uniformly.大约70年以前,番茄种植者们偶然间发现一种全红的番茄品种,Consumers liked the way the tomatoes looked, and companies that made ketchup and tomato sauce could make better looking products.不仅消费者们喜欢这种模样的番茄,番茄酱制造公司也能生产出卖相更好的产品,The trouble was, red did not equal tasty.然而问题也出现了,看起来好看并不代表它的口感好。While experimenting with weed genes that turned tomatoes dark green, geneticists accidentally discovered one of the reasons why todays tomatoes lack taste.基因学家在对使番茄呈墨绿色的基因进行实验的过程中,意外发现了现今西红柿乏味的另外一大原因。Modern tomatoes are light green before they turn uniformly red.现在的西红柿在全部变红之前是呈浅绿色的,Surprisingly, the mutation that gives tomatoes uniform red color actually disables some of the ripening genes.令人惊奇的是,让番茄变红的变异却恰恰抑制了成熟基因的作用。Those genes allow the fruit to make its own sugar which makes the tomato sweeter.而成熟基因可以使水果产生糖分,从而使番茄变甜,The genes also increase the amount of carotenoid pigments,which give tomatoes the red color.同时产生更多的类胡萝卜素,使番茄变红。When researchers turned the ripening genes back on, their experimental tomatoes had twenty percent more sugar and up to thirty percent more carotenoids.当研究者们尝试着将成熟基因恢复到原有数量后,他们的实验番茄中所含的糖分增加了20%,类胡萝卜素提高了30%。Unfortunately, regulations prohibited researchers from tasting their experimental fruits, but youcan try eating heirloom tomatoes.遗憾的是,由于法规的原因,研究者们无法品尝自己的实验番茄,不过你们可以试着尝尝那些纯天然的番茄。They arent as pretty looking, but are tastier.它们不中看,但是很好吃。 /201403/279415福州市做试管生男孩哪家好 Science and technology科学技术Social status and health社会地位与健康Misery index贫困指数Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s.可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite.因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives.实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。Cardiac arrest—and, indeed, early death from any cause—is the prerogative of underlings.心跳骤停—而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死—那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not.但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings.实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system.社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed.反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard if it were done to human beings.若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难。You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies不健康的身体,不快乐的心情Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques and split them into groups of four or five.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验,并把他们分为四到五组。The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group.根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号。The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot.研究结果有很多。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes.每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因,寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one.在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones.某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too.这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system.很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation.这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因。Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。In keeping with previous work, they found that high-and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress.与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself.同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups.表现遗传学—目前分子生物学最热的话题之一—是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals.士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life.至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed.地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use.但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around.该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201403/278292福州做造影那家医院最好

福州哪里治疗阳痿比较好福州人民医院宫腔镜手术多少钱 When you were in mickey mouse club, Ryan gosling...你在米老鼠俱乐部的时候 Ryan gosalingthat was a talented group of kids there, ryan gosling was in it.你们真是一伙天才小孩 Ryan gosling也是其中一个Ryan Gosling said when yall in Mickey Mouse Club,他说你们在米老鼠俱乐部的时候you played Spin the Bottle together, you and him.曾一起玩转瓶子的游戏 就你们俩Did you do that? Thats what he said.是吗 他这么说I did that but I didnt kiss hime, though.我是有玩 但是我没亲他Well, what happens when it lands on you?那瓶子转到你的时候怎么办Well, I just... the only person I kissed was Justin.我是亲过 就亲了Justin一个So he would play Spin the Bottle and then you were just not kissing him?他玩了转瓶子游戏 但你没亲他吗It never... I never landed on him.我没转到他Well, who else played?那还有谁玩He said it was just you and him.他说就你们俩No,it wasnt just me and hime.不 不光我们两个We play with the girl... he is a liar.还有女孩 他是个骗子呢He is good-looking but he is a liar! That Ryan Gosling.长得蛮好看的却是个骗子 那个ryan gosling.Really? Yeah.真的吗 是的Wow, is that... so is that something all, you all did哇 也就是说你们在一起play spin the bottle, thats cute and innocent, that thing.都玩了转瓶子游戏 真是又萌有清新Remember Spin the Bottle? How that was... that was so much fun.记得转瓶子游戏不 真是 多有意思啊We should do that.我们真应该也玩起来I really should do that again.我真应该再玩一次I miss that game.我想玩那个游戏了All right, tell us about the...好吧 跟我们说下Sorry, I had memories just now.不好意思 刚才神游去了注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组Elle /201312/270536福州哪家医院输卵管通水

福州仓山区输卵管通水专业医院The end of the Soviet Union前苏联的末途Walking dead行尸走肉The cruelty of the last years of the Soviet Union前苏联—充满折磨的晚年The Last Man in Russia: The Struggle to Save a Dying Nation.By Oliver Bullough.《俄罗斯最后一人:拯救行将灭亡之国》STNATION, writes Oliver Bullough in his haunting account of the late Soviet Union, is not sexy. Biographies of Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev abound, but nobody has written seriously about Leonid Brezhnev, on whose watch the Soviet Union sank into drunken decay. The author of a definitive book about the tortured history of the north Caucasus, Mr Bullough has a good sense of how the traumas of Russias past affect its present. His new book is a mixture of travelogue and biography, as he traces the life of Father Dmitry Dudko, an Orthodox priest who exemplified both resistance to Soviet rule and defeat at its hands.奥利弗布洛写过一本描述前苏联晚年的著作,阅读之后令人过目难忘,不过其中“停滞部分”却让人不愿直视。关于斯大林和戈尔巴乔夫的传记汗牛充栋,勃列日涅夫却鲜有人问津,即便他眼睁睁地看着前苏联陷入混沌恍惚的泥潭。关于叙述北高加索伤痕累累历史的著作,布洛的《让我们名声大噪》无疑是最好的一本,也就是说,对于俄罗斯过去的创伤如何影响当今时代—布洛的嗅觉像一样灵敏。布洛的这本新书集游记和传记于一体,主线以东正教传教士德米特里杜德科神父的一生为轴。德米特里杜德科神父代表了一类人,首先反对苏联制度,之后却臣于它。The Orthodox hierarchy in the post-war Soviet Union was tainted by collaboration with the KGB. For those repelled by the sterility and corruption of the official ideology, religion was part of the axis of resistance. So the authorities kept the lid on, and religious practice beyond the liturgy was risky.由于同克格勃合作,二战后的前苏联东正教教义算是蒙上了一层不堪的色。所有厌恶政府思想体系下不作为和腐败的角色中,宗教处在抗争的洪流中心。所以,政府当局一直在雪藏宗教,而宗教习俗也不再局限于礼拜仪式,开始走向危险的边缘。Father Dmitry, whose post-war theological studies had been interrupted by eight years in the gulag, was a striking exception. He preached passionately and lucidly. He fostered discussion and roused his flock against the degradation, despair, abortions, alcoholism and promiscuity of Soviet life. He resolutely opposed anti-Semitism. Jews were “sacred friends”, he said. In the early 1970s his sermons became a sensation, published in the West and in samizdat in the Soviet Union. The Communist authorities objected. He defied them. They exiled him to a distant village. His flock followed him there. The authorities moved him again. And on it went.德米特里杜德科神父战后研究宗教学,期间由于羁押在古拉格而中断八年。他可以说是人尽皆知的异数。德米特里杜德科神父传教富有、条理清晰,并且鼓励集思广益,号召教徒反对国家的倒退,抗击前苏联令人绝望生活中的病症,比如堕胎、酗酒和滥交。毋庸置疑,他是坚决反对反犹太主义的。用他的话说,犹太人是“神圣的朋友”。上世纪70年代,他所著的长篇训诫引起不小的轰动,西方国家和前苏联地下都有出版,当然共产党当局是明令禁止的。德米特里杜德科神父同他们抗争,政府将他流放到了边远农村。教徒们继而一路追随。政府又转移他的流放地,教徒继续跟随。最后就是“政府藏,教徒追”。He began to see the Soviet system as the source of his countrys ills. In 1977 he told the New York Times of the “diabolic storm” that had broken on his country. “Our nation has become corrupted, the family has fallen apart, the nation has got drunk, traitors have betrayed each other.” That was true. But by the late 1970s detente was ending. Fame in the West was no protection. Even a lone independent-minded priest was an existential—and intolerable—threat for the brittle Soviet leadership. The fledgling dissident movement was systematically crushed—by imprisonment, exile, coercive psychiatry or ferocious pressure on family members.德米特里杜德科神父开始认识到前苏联大的系统正是国家症结所在。1977年,他向“纽约时报”讲道,说“罪恶的风暴”搅得这个国家天翻地覆。“我们的国家腐败透顶,家庭离破碎,我们的国家此时就像一个醉汉,卖国贼之间互相叛变。”他没说错。不过,70年代后期国际紧张关系不再处在缓和状态,西方国家不再顾及名声。在脆弱不堪的前苏联领导层面看来,甚至一个单独具有独立思想的神父也成了实实在在并且不能再坐视不管的威胁。异见运动还没孵化就遭到有计划的打击——监禁、流放、强加精神病罪名亦或异见者家人承受着不堪重负的压力。In January 1980 Father Dmitry was arrested. His friends prayed; the West protested. But he emerged six months later, a changed man: a zealous, repentant patriot who, in a sensational television broadcast, admitted to working with foreign powers against the Soviet state. Worse, he denounced his friends and helpers.1980年1月,德米特里杜德科神父遭逮捕。他的朋友开始祈祷,西方国家表示抗议。不过在六个月之后,德米特里杜德科神父不再是之前德米特里杜德科神父:“洗心革面”之后的他成了一位热忱的爱国志士。他在电视广播中的表态令人震惊:承认与外国势力里勾外连,以反对前苏联政府。更不堪的是,他还揭发了自己的朋友和战友。It was a huge propaganda coup for the regime. He showed no signs of torture, drugs or exhaustion. One of his followers wrote an open letter accusing the KGB of the “murder of my spiritual father”.对于政权而言,大篇幅的宣传获得了意想不到的成功。在他身上,人们看不出一丝拷打或者下了迷魂药的迹象,而他也不显一丝疲态。德米特里杜德科神父的一位追随者发表了一封公开信,谴责克格勃“谋杀了自己的灵魂长者”。Mr Bullough explains the mystifying conversion. The KGB played on his fears of renewed imprisonment and separation from his family. A skilful interrogator, Vladimir Sorokin found and enlarged the “chink” in his victims soul: patriotism. Surely no true, law-abiding Russian could side with the enemies of his country?布洛在书中解释了这一令人匪夷所思的转变。克格勃利用了德米特里杜德科神父恐惧二进宫的心理以及害怕同家人再度分开的心情。弗拉基米尔索罗金深谙审讯之道,他在手中这位受害者的灵魂之中察觉到了一个致命的软肋,并且将其放大:爱国主义。但是,真就没有一个真正并且守法的俄国人会站在国家敌人这一边了吗?Later Father Dmitry was filled with remorse. But it was too late. Dogged by loneliness and guilt, and unable to resurrect his crusade for trust, hope and faith, he descended into the fetid swamps of Russian nationalism, wallowing in the paranoid anti-Semitism he had once eschewed. The brave, happy and confident man of the 1960s and 1970s became a miserable racist, a campaigner for hatred and nihilism.之后,虽然德米特里杜德科神父心理满是悔恨,但是为时已晚。孤独和罪恶感陪着他走完余生,其间他一直苦于不能重塑自己当年“为信任、希望和信念而战斗的形象”。他深陷散发着“俄罗斯式爱国主义”恶臭的泥潭之中,沉浸在多疑好猜忌的反犹太主义之中,即使这是他曾经一度反对的。60年代勇敢、自信、快乐的德米特里杜德科神父死了,70年代的德米特里杜德科神父变成一个卑鄙无耻的种族主义分子,一个满脑子仇恨、虚无缥缈的沿街叫骂的人。Mr Bullough largely succeeds in using this sad tale as a metaphor for the fate of the Soviet Union. He weaves the woes of past decades into his journeys to wretched villages, along with the lies and greed in the metropolis. Father Dmitry may be all but forgotten in modern Russia, but his old self would have plenty to say about it.布洛以这则悲情故事来充当前苏联命运的影子,新书也因此获得了巨大的成功。在过去的几十年里,他游历了一些贫穷困苦村庄,他把其中所体验的悲伤编入书中,当然还有大都市的谎言和欲望。德米特里杜德科神父或许已经消逝在现代俄罗斯人民的生活里,但是60年代的神父依然对现代俄罗斯影响深刻。 /201404/291900 Although many of these city foxes do get killed by cars, the population as a whole is thriving. That’s because a regular supply of water means a regular supply of prey, including voles and ground squirrels. 尽管这些生活在城市之中的狐狸很多被汽车撞死,但是它们的整体数量却在上升。这是因为有着充足的水源遍意味着有着充足的猎物,这些猎物包括野鼠和地鼠。Playing on the streets at night is dangerous, but for the pups, it’s vital for improving their coordination. Parents keep a vigilant eye on their antics. Despite the hazards of city life, the Bakersfield kit foxes are now crucial to the overall survival of the species. 夜晚在街道上游荡十分危险,但是这对于狐狸幼崽来说却十分关键,因为它们需要提高它们对于城市的协调性。狐狸父母警惕地照看着它们的孩子。尽管城市生活十分危险,但是目前贝克尔斯菲市沙狐对于整个物种的存活十分关键。The promise of an easy source of food is a good reason why animals live in cities, especially at times of year when food is hardest to find in the wild. During the winter months, Anchorage in Alaska is home to North America’s largest browser, the moose. But a moose during the day is a little obvious, so they prefer to move around by night. While most of the human population sleeps, the moose wander the streets in search of food.食物来源简单、稳定可靠,这很好地解释了为什么动物们在城市定居,尤其是在这样一个食物很难在野外发现的时代。在冬季的几个月中,阿拉斯加州的安克拉治是北美最大的食草动物驼鹿的家园。不过驼鹿在白天活动实在太过显眼,因此它们更倾向于在夜间活动。当人们在夜晚熟睡时,它们开始在街上寻找食物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201312/267975福州空军医院检查输卵管造影费用宁德做复通手术医院排名



宁德做造影哪里好 福州什么医院检查早泄好99分享 [详细]
南平市第一医院做人授手术多少钱 宁德中医看多囊多少钱啊 [详细]
三明市哪间医院看卵巢多囊 泡泡门户龙岩男性生育检查比较好的医院安爱问 [详细]
百家健康福州省立医院中医看不孕好不好费用多少 福州治疗弱精哪家比较好求医乐园三明市输卵管结扎三甲医院 [详细]