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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月16日 07:26:57
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Theres been plenty of frozen underground evidence detected from orbit,从轨道发现有充分的冰冻地下据,but scientists need to touch and test to be sure.但是科学家需要去触摸和用试验确定。In 2008, they finally got their opportunity when NASAs Flanders made it daring approach to the high Martian Arctic.在2008年,当美国航天局的弗兰德斯使用大胆的方法接近了较高的火星北极,他们终于获得机会。There was not ever more excited be in my life of landing in safely on Mars.安全降落在火星上在我生命中并不是有多么刺激的事情。I will be through the opposite,我觉得正好相反,I will be through a landing was not successful,我想一次不成功的登陆肯定会让我心惊肉跳,and I didnt want them to happen again.而我不想这再次发生。The landing was not only perfect,降落不仅是完美的,but the engine expose suspicious wet patches directly underneath the spacecraft.而且引擎直接暴露的可疑湿斑在宇宙飞船底下产生。Water eyes was just a few scrays away.水眼只有几米远。We did find water ice and we found the soiling connection to it has caulsing carbonate, a compound at forms in the presents of liquid water.我们发现冰,我们发现它的固态和碳酸盐岩连接,这是呈现的液态水的一种化合物。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/181428

Business商业Airport security机场安全Checkpoint challenge安检点的挑战A former TSA boss wants to bring down the curtain on ;security theatre;前交通安全部长希望终止无用的安检措施;FLYING isnt fun any more,; is a popular refrain among travellers. They recall wistfully a golden age when flying was glamorous, not an ordeal of long lines and intrusive pat-downs.旅客常常抱怨飞行不再有趣。他们怅然回忆起飞行的黄金时期,那时坐飞机光照人,而不是长长的队伍和烦扰的搜身带来的痛苦。In America these are inflicted by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which was set up after the terrorist attacks on September 11th 2001. It is now one of the countrys most hated institutions. Many passengers scorn its pettifogging rules. Many complain of ineffectual ;security theatre ;. In an Economist online debate last month, a crushing 87% of respondents agreed that the changes to airport security since 2001 had ;done more harm than good;.在美国,这些痛苦都是由美国运输安全造成的,交通安全局是2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击后设立的,该机构现在是美国最讨人厌的机构之一。许多旅客嘲笑那些挑剔的规章制度,许多旅客抱怨安全措施毫无效果。上月在经济学人的网上辩论中,压倒性的87%的应答者同意2001年以来机场安检措施的改变;适得其反;。The man given the impossible task of opposing the motion was Kip Hawley, a former TSA boss. Even he ily admitted that airport security needed reforming. And on April 14th, writing in the Wall Street Journal, Mr Hawley offered some sensible proposals on how to do it.提出反对动议这一不可能任务的人是前美国运输安全局长基普?霍利。他也乐意承认机场安检需要改革。4月14日,霍利先生在华尔街日报的一篇文章中就此问题提出了一些有益的提议。One idea the airlines will not like is to stop them charging for checked bags. Mr Hawley says this would speed things up by discouraging flyers from dragging all their stuff through security. But carriers have come to rely on such fees, which rake in billions. IATA , their lobby group, argues that, in any case, checkpoint delays were aly lengthy in the mid-2000s, before most airlines charged bag fees.这些提议中,航空公司可能不会喜欢的是停止对受检行李收费。霍利先生表示这会阻止旅客拖着所有行李通过安检,从而提高效率。但是航空公司依靠这笔数以十亿计的费用。游说集团国际航空运输协会争辩说,2000年中期在大多数航空公司对行李收费之前,安检点已经拖延很厉害了。Mr Hawley would also allow all liquids on flights, though those choosing to carry them might have to join a queue to have them scanned (something the European Union intends to start doing next year). He would also lift the bans on such things as knives and lighters. Stronger cockpit doors have made it much harder to use weapons to bring down a flight. And tests run by the TSA found that officers were so busy hunting for lighters and other fairly trivial banned items that they overlooked dummy bomb parts placed nearby.霍利先生同样会允许飞行时携带所有液体,但是这些旅客可能需要排队检测。(欧盟打算明年开始这一举措。)他同样会取消对刀具和打火机等物品的禁令。更厚实的机舱门使得利用武器挟持飞机更为艰难。运输安全的测试发现安检人员忙于寻找打火机以及其他琐碎的违禁品而忽略放置在附近的仿真炸弹部件。In general, says Mr Hawley, predictable and rigid checks help terrorists: they design plots around them. So instead of subjecting everyone to the same checks, security should be randomised. However, he does not back one reform that the airlines are keen on: a ;trusted traveller; scheme in which flyers who have been vetted are spared most checks. Mr Hawley, who once liked the idea, now worries that terror groups are recruiting ;clean; agents who would pass such vetting.霍利先生表,总的来说,例行的严格安检有利于恐怖分子,他们围绕这些措施做文章。所以安检措施应该随机化,而不是让每个人接受同样的安检措施。但是他并不持航空公司很热心的一项改革措施:;旅客白名单;计划,受过审查的旅客会免除大多数安检。霍利曾经喜欢这一想法,现在却担心恐怖组织会招募那些通过审查的;清白;恐怖分子。IATA thinks that if vetting were thorough, and a few trusted travellers were checked at random, this problem could be overcome. The airlines also propose merging check-in, security, passport control and customs inspection into a seamless ;checkpoint of the future;. But getting government agencies to agree to such a move will be like asking hyenas to share a steak .国际航空运输协会则认为如果审查够彻底,而且一些受信任的旅客随机安检,这个问题可以克。航空公司同样提议整合登记签到,安检,护照管理和海关检查成为无缝衔接的未来安检点。但是说政府部门统同意这一举措将会像要求鬣分享牛排一样不可能。Even if all these reforms were introduced, far more would have to be done to make flying fun once more. Airlines would need to bring back wide seats and generous meals and drinks. Tedious safety drills and strict seat-belt rules would have to go, as would rowdy stag parties and wailing children. One can but dream.即使实行所有的这些改革措施,使飞行重新变得有趣还需要做很多工作。航空公司需要恢复宽大的座位,提供免费的食物饮料。令人生厌的安全演习和严格的安全带规则统统废除,闹哄哄的男性聚会和嚎啕大哭的孩子都不复存在。我们只能在梦中见到了。 /201210/203627

Fatherless Honeybees没有父亲的蜜蜂How male honeybees can be without fathers? The reason lies in what’s called a haploidiploid system of sex determination. Approximately one-fifth of the animal kingdom, including ants and wasps, use this system. What it boils down to is that males are the result of unfertilized eggs whereas females are born from fertilized eggs.雄蜂是如何在没有父亲的情况下生存的呢?其原因在于一种叫做haploidiploid的性别鉴定系统。包括蚂蚁王国及黄蜂帝国在内的约五分之一的动物王国都是采用这一性别鉴定系统。归根究底就是:雄性是由未受精卵繁育而来,而雌性则是由受精卵繁育而来的。But in bees there is an added complication since there is a gene that determines whether a bee will be male or female. It’s all in the numbers. Here’s how it works. 但是,这一系统在蜜蜂王国内使用会比较复杂。因为蜜蜂体内还有一个基因决定着蜜蜂的雌雄。这一切的关键在与数量。下面我们就来谈谈它是如何起作用的。A scientist isolated a gene called CSD, or Complimentary Sex Determiner. There are 19 different versions of this particular gene. It doesn’t matter which one of these 19 versions a male inherits from his mother; he’s going to be male because of the fact that he has only one of these CSD genes.科学家们从蜜蜂体内分离出一种基因,叫做性别决定基因(简称CSD)。一般说来,这种基因在蜜蜂体内会有19个版本。哪一个性别决定基因是遗传自女蜂王的并无所谓。关键的是,如果说蜜蜂体内只有一个性别决定基因的话,毫无疑问,它必定是只雄蜂。Accordingly, a female becomes a female because she has two CSD genes, except for one catch. And that catch is a bee in the bonnet of bee breeders.那么,有两个性别决定基因的就是雌性蜜蜂,但有一种蜜蜂是例外。那就是担任着繁殖下一代重任的女蜂王了。Honeybee breeders often inbreed their bees in order to ensure desired traits. However, when bees are inbred it’s possible for fertilized eggs to end up with two copies of the same version of the CSD gene. The result is that the fertilized eggs would normally develop into workers or a new queen, develop into sterilized males.蜜蜂一般都是近亲繁殖,以此确保下一代能具有一定的特性。然而,在进行近亲繁殖时,受精卵可能会拥有两个相同的性别决定基因的版本。自然而然的,这些受精卵会发育成为工蜂或是新一代的女蜂王,或是不育的雄蜂。Worker bees sense these sterile males when they’re still larvae, and they kill them. Before you know it, your honeybee colony has died out. The good news is that now that scientists understand more about how sex is determined among honeybees, they may discover solutions to this problem.当这些不育的雄蜂还处在幼虫期时,若是被工蜂所发现,那小命也就没了。在人们知道之前,这一蜂群已然消亡。在这里,科学家们还是带来了一个好消息:科学家们对蜜蜂的性别决定机制已有了一定的了解,他们很快就会找出解决这个问题的方法。期待ing…… /201301/219846

  Submission? A proposal for an orderly EuroZone exit; The prize £390,000 dollars. And today turns out we have a winner.The Wolfson Economics Prize has been awarded to Roger Bootle and his team fromCapital Economics, thats a UK research consultancy, for their submission. 提交书?一份井然有序退出欧盟的提议;奖金为390,000美元。今天公布了赢家。沃尔芬森经济奖号授予了罗杰;布托尔及其团队凯投宏观所提交的研究报告,这是一家英国经济咨询机构。Now after the Nobel Prize for Economics,what all we might hear is the second biggest cash prize awarded for this field.Roger Bootles proposal is called ;Leaving the Euro: A Practical Guide.;He told us how it might work and why he thinks that a real Euro Zone exit ismore likely now than its ever been.目前,在大家所听说的经济学家奖项中,沃尔芬森经济学奖号称是奖金额仅次于诺贝尔奖的经济学家奖项。罗杰;布托尔的提议名为《离开欧盟:一份实用手册》。他告诉我们,退出欧盟的方法,并且他认为此时,以往任何时候都更可能发生退出欧盟的情况。Well, I think the crisis has been buildingup gradually but continually, every so often you get an attempt to fix it orsomething, thats for traders, of fixing of it. And then it proves to beinadequate, which is just another one of those faces. I think the backgroundcrisis is actually intensifying, probably a breakup I would have mentioned: Isit anything more likely now than it was a few months ago? 我认为这一危机是逐渐累积的,但是也是连续的。经常地,你尝试地做一些修改或者为贸易者来说的一些修改。不过,这样的修修补补最后被明是不够的,只不是同一修改的不同表现而已。我认为这一危机的背景确实业已强化,或者是我提到过的另一个词,已被破坏:难道此时不比几个月前更可能发生些什么吗?Our plan envisages a country preparing insecret, a small group of officials. And then, enacting that plan very quickly,essentially overnight, announcing to the populous that domestic monetaryamounts have beenredenominated into a new currency,lets call it the drachma, at one for one. So a given amount in Euros becomesthe same amount in drachmas. Meanwhile, on the exchanges, on the foreignexchanges, the drachma depreciates sharply. Perhaps it would be one up to 1.7,2 to 1, we dont know. Thats not a problem. That is the essence of thesolution.我们预想:一个国家的一小组官员悄然着手准备,然后,极其快速地实施这一退出计划,比较理想的是在一夜之间,向公众宣布,国内货币额已经开始采取一种新的货币形式,让我们先举例称之为德国克马。因此给定的欧元货币额,此时为相同数量的德国克马货币额。同时,兑换时,及进行外汇兑换时,德国克马急剧贬值。可能会是1至1.7,2比1,我们无法得知。不过,那不是问题,反而是问题解决的根本之所在。The country then redenominates all itsdebts, its domestic debt, into this currency. It establishes a newpolicyregime, bans wageindexation, establishes tightcontrols on fiscal policy. And then lies back and hopes, I think correctly,that before very long, that much lower exchange rate will bring renewedeconomic growth.这个国家然后以这一货币形式重新表现了所有负债,国内负债。此时,它建立一种新的政策体制,禁止工资指数化,并对财政政策建立严格控制。到那时,该国可以休息一下,展开期待,我认为很可能地,经历很长的一段时间,极低的外汇汇率将重新带来经济增长。201209/201819

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  Business Ethnic advertising One message, or many?商业 种族广告 要一个还是多个声音?The uses and limitations of ethnic ads种族广告的使用和限制IN THE television series ;Mad Men;, a 1960s adman makes a pitch to a television-maker whose sales are flat.电视剧《广告狂人》,描述了二十世纪六十年代的一个广告制作人向电视制作人推销其对付销售平淡的招数。;Among Negroes sales are actually growing,; he chirps.他很兴奋地提出;黑人的购买额确实在上升。;He proposes making ;integrated; ads that appeal to both black and white consumers.他建议制作;一体化;广告以吸引黑人和白人消费者。His idea bombs. This being the era of segregation, one of his listeners wonders if mixed-race ads are even legal.他的想法遭到狂轰烂炸。那时还处于种族隔离时期,其中一个在场人员甚至怀疑种族混合的广告是否合法。Such days are long gone. Americas minorities will eventually be a majority of the population: by 2045, according to the most recent census.今非昔比。根据最新的人口普查资料显示,至2045年,美国的少数族裔将最终在人数上成为主流大众。Advertisers have noticed.广告商知晓这趋势。Many now favour cross-cultural ads that emphasise what black, Hispanic and Asian-American consumers have in common.如今许多广告商热衷于拍跨文化的广告,强调黑人、西班牙人和亚裔美国人的消费共性。This approach is thought to work well with the young, who often listen to the same music, eat the same food and wear similar clothes regardless of their ethnic background.这一方法非常对年轻一代人的胃口,这些年轻人不管是何种族背景,他们通常听同一首歌,吃同一种食物和穿相似的衣。Ogilvy amp; Mather, a big ad agency, formed OgilvyCulture in 2010 as a unit specialising in cross-cultural marketing.广告业巨头奥美于2010年组建了奥美文化作为一个业务单元专门从事跨文化营销。;The ethnic ad model has not changed since the 1960s,; says Jeffrey Bowman, head of OgilvyCulture.奥美文化的部门主管杰弗瑞?鲍曼说;种族广告模式自从二十世纪六十年代以来一成不变。It was the census data that made Ogilvy change its model.正是人口调查资料让奥美改变了其营销模式。In 2010 Burger King stopped employing ethnic agencies such as LatinWorks, which specialised in the Hispanic market, to address its consumers as a whole rather than taking a segmented approach.2010年快餐连锁品牌汉堡王炒掉了如LatinWorks那些专攻西班牙市场,具有种族色的广告代理商。汉堡王将顾客视为一体而不再采取细分的方式。Yet some admen feel ethnicity remains relevant.但是有些广告人仍感到种族与广告还是有千丝万缕的关系。;Every ten years we go through a rethink of targeted versus one voice,; says McGhee Williams Osse, co-chief executive of Burrell, a Chicago-based agency specialising in the African-American market.专攻非洲裔市场,总部位于芝加哥的Burrell公司的联合行政长官 McGhee Williams Oss说 ;每隔十年,我们会重新考虑反对传播一个声音的广告;She argues that ethnic origin is the key to peoples identity, much more than education, income, religion, sex and sexual orientation.她认为种族血缘是人的身份认同的主要因素,比教育、收入、宗教、性和性取向等更重要。She would say that, of course.她是这样说的,千真万确。Maurice Lévy, the boss of Publicis Groupe, the French ad giant that owns 49% of Burrell, says that ethnic advertising makes sense for advertisers that are very big (and so can afford multiple ad campaigns), or very specialised.法国广告业巨头阳狮集团拥有Burrell49%的股票份额。阳狮的老板马千里说,种族广告对大公司(因能付得起多个广告活动)或专业型公司还是有商业意义的。A maker of cream for black skin, for example, will probably not bother marketing it to Asians.例如,为黑人制造的面霜就没有必要进军亚洲市场了。Nestlé, a huge food firm, aims some ads at Hispanics, Americas largest minority.食品巨擘雀巢公司针对美国最大的少数族裔西班牙裔制作了一些广告。It recruited four Hispanic mothers to blog on a new bilingual website, El Mejor Nido (The Best Nest), offering tips about parenting and healthy eating.它招聘了4名西班牙裔母亲在其新设双语版的 El Mejor Nido (雀巢最佳)网上写客,提供为人父母之道和健康饮食的小贴士。Hispanics are younger than other Americans, have more children and spend more on food, says Juan Motta,负责雀巢西班牙裔广告促销的美国加利福尼亚分部主管胡安?莫塔说,who heads the California-based unit running Nestlés Hispanic campaign in the ed States,西班牙裔人比其他美国人更年轻,育有更多小孩且更舍得在食品上花钱。which promotes both the firms Latin American brands, such as La Lechera and Abuelita, and the rest of its larder.该分部主要负责促销公司的两个拉丁美洲品牌如La Lechera 和Abuelita和其他的食品柜。McDonalds has been a pioneer of ethnic advertising since the 1960s.自从二十世纪六十年代,麦当劳一直是种族广告的先驱者。Minorities represent about 40% of its customers in America.在美国少数民族裔占其消费者总数的40%。Neil Golden, the firms American chief marketing officer, argues that other Americans often follow trends set by ethnic minorities.麦当劳主要负责美国市场首席营销官尼尔?戈登认为其他美国人常跟在少数族裔掀起的潮流后面。So he watches minorities for insights he can use in ads aimed at the general market.故他深入地了解少数族裔就可将其特色用于针对整个市场的广告中。In 2010 McDonalds learned that African-Americans liked sweeter, weaker caramel mocha, so it started offering such blends everywhere, with great success.2010年麦当劳得知非洲裔美国人喜欢更甜一点,咖啡味更淡一点的焦糖卡。A similar thing happened with its mango and pineapple smoothies, a big hit with Hispanics.故麦当劳开始到处提供这种混合物,结果一跑打响。它的芒果和凤梨冰沙也如法炮制,在西班牙裔人中大受欢迎。McDonalds featured the drinks in restaurants nationwide and they quickly overtook strawberry banana, the traditional favourite.麦当劳将此类饮品推广至遍布全国的门店,结果一夜之间便取代了传统畅销品草莓香蕉饮料。David Burgos, co-author of a book on marketing to the ;new majority;, says that in spite of the increasing importance of minority consumers, advertisers still put ethnic ads into a separate budget—which tends to be cut first when the economy goes sour.David Burgos和别人合写了一本针对;新生大众;营销的书。该书上说尽管少数族裔消费者的重要性日益俱增,广告商仍将种族广告单独预算——一旦经济不景气,首先便拿这块预算开刀。Only 7% of marketing dollars are spent on targeted ethnic campaigns, although nearly half of Americans belong to ethnic minorities.尽管少数族裔占了将近一半的美国人口,但只有7%的营销费用花在针对种族的广告活动上。He thinks ad-agency staff need to be more diverse.他认为广告机构应招聘各种族的工作人员以使营销更多样化。Getting the right ethnic perspective is tricky.在广告中从不同种族角度看问题这是非常高难度的工作。Hispanics are a varied lot.同为西班牙人却迥然不同。An ad that delights Cuban-Americans may irritate migrants from Venezuela.能让古巴裔美国人捧腹大笑的广告可能会让委内瑞拉移民暴跳如雷。Asians are hardly monolithic, either.亚洲人也很是众口难调。Even the wittiest Korean catchphrases will provoke only bafflement in Chinatown.即便是韩国的警言妙句也可能令唐人街的中国人迷惑不解。Saul Gitlin of Kang amp; Lee, an agency specialising in selling to Asian-Americans, argues that recent Chinese and Korean immigrants are best reached with communications in their mother tongue.专门针对亚洲裔美国人的广告公司Kang amp; Lee的Saul Gitlin认为和新一代的中国和韩国的移民用其母语沟通能收到最好的效果。They are generally ignored by advertisers, however, with the exception of financial firms.但是除了金融公司做到这一点外,广告商一般都置若罔闻。This is a mistake, he reckons: the median household income of Asian-Americans is some ,000 higher than that of non-Hispanic whites.广告商的做法大错特错,他推测:亚洲裔美国人的家庭收入中值比非西班牙裔白人还高10,000美元。Many modern Mad Men think digital media will allow them to know their audiences better, and feed them more precisely-tailored messages.许多现代的广告狂人认为数字媒体能让他们更加了解受众,从而更易提供量身定制的信息来满足他们的需求。This can be costly (see Schumpeter).这要付出很高的代价(请看熊彼得文)。But many consumers seem to like it.但是许多消费者看来很喜欢这样。When Latinas disagree with something the four mommy bloggers at El Mejor Nido have written, they can go to the El Mejor Nido Facebook page, and let loose.如果拉丁裔美国人不喜欢在 El Mejor Nido网站上4位母亲所写的客观点,他们可以移步至El Mejor Nido脸谱网,可在此畅所欲言。 /201211/210954

  Vincent had been deliberately named after his uncle-another Vincent van Gogh, a hugely successful art dealer whom everyone called Uncle Cent.文森特这个名字是他的叔叔—另一个文森特·梵高特意取的。他的叔叔是一位非常成功的艺术品商人,大家都叫他“森特叔叔”。When Vincent was 16, he was packed off to The Hague where Uncle Cent had a gallery.梵高16岁那年,由于森特叔叔在海格有一家画廊,梵高的父母便把他打发到海格,He was going to be an art dealer too.想让他也成为一名艺术品商人。Vincent had a special post created for him as an apprentice clerk at the Haig Branch of Goupilamp;Co., the worlds most prestigious Art Franchise who demergered with Uncle Cent.文森特叔叔因此为梵高安排了一个特殊职位,让他在古皮尔公司的海格公司做学徒。古皮尔是全世界最有明望的艺术加盟公司,而海格公司便是由森特叔叔管理。It was a behind the scenes job at first dealing with Goupils extensive international paper work.最初,梵高做幕后的文书工作,处理古皮尔公司大量的国际业务。Amazingly, van Gogh turned out to be good at this and was soon promoted to front of shop.结果令人惊讶,梵高的文书工作做得非常好,不久便晋升到台前。Rich Haig clients would turn up here in their carriages and be met by the teenage Vincent command them on their test when sir and madam decided on their purchase.海格的有钱人们乘着马车来到这里,年轻的梵高便出门迎接他们。为了让他们付钱买艺术品,梵高仍然会称赞他们的品位。This is the three volume correspondence of Vincent to his brother Theo.这是由梵高写给弟弟蒂奥的信组成的三卷书。Its the biggest, heaviest and most celebrated epistolic package in art.它们是艺术界内最大,最重,最著名的书信集。I have tackled it a couple of times now, and it took me several months each go.这些信我已读过几次,每一次都会花费几个月的时间。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/188025

  

  Obituary;Sai Baba;讣告;赛巴巴;Sathya Sai Baba (Satyanarayana Raju), one of Indias most controversial gurus, died on April 24th, aged 85;萨提亚·赛巴巴(赛提亚纳拉亚纳·喇举),印度最具争议的上师之一,死于4月24日,享年85岁;With a mere circling wave of His Hand, Sai Baba could make objects materialise out of the air. Gold rings, amulets and necklaces; blocks of sugar candy; images of Shiva made of topaz and sapphire; bottles of tonic and packets of blue pills; rosaries, silver vessels and even medallions inscribed with the name of the recipient, the day and date. He could produce vibhuti too, holy Ash that poured from under His fingernails. On average a pound a day flowed from Him as He gave darshan, allowing His followers a sight of God as He moved among them, a tiny ochre-robed figure with an immense black afro, or halo, of hair. The Ash might be salty or sweet, blackish or white. Smeared on the body, it forgave sins; taken in water, it helped digestive complaints.赛巴巴仅仅挥手划一个圈,就能够使空中突然出现很多东西:金戒指、护身符、项链、冰糖块、黄水晶与蓝宝石制成的湿婆神像、药瓶、汞丸袋、念珠、银器、甚至是刻有接受者名字和年月日的纪念章。他还能够变出圣灰,它们从他的指甲下流出。赛巴巴身材较小,穿着赭黄色长袍,一头巨大的圆蓬式黑发象光晕一般。当他赐福时,通常一天变出一磅的圣灰。他在信徒中走动,使他们能够瞥见一眼神性。圣灰的味道或咸或甜,颜色略黑或白。把它涂在身上,可以消除罪障;它吸水后有助于消除心中的抱怨。Sceptics were always trying to show how it was done, saying that the Ash was a pellet crushed between His fingers, or that the gold and silver ellipsoidal lingams (the Form of the Formless) that He coughed up at certain festivals were in fact hidden in His handkerchief. The B made a documentary, and slow-motion s were all over YouTube. Sai Baba laughed at their efforts. His miracles were as trivial, in comparison with His Reality, as a mosquito to an elephant. But at least 6m people, probably closer to 100m, in 126 countries of the world, accepted them as tokens of the Divinity He personified. And He was defended by figures no less than Manmohan Singh, prime minister of India, and Sonia Gandhi, leader of the Congress party, who journeyed to pay their respects before his state funeral.怀疑者们总是企图揭露这一过程,他们说,圣灰是在赛巴巴的手指间碾碎的小球,在某些节日上赛巴巴咳出的金质和银质的椭圆体形男根雕像(无形湿婆神的象征物)实际上藏在他的手帕里。B拍摄过一部纪录片,慢镜头视频在油条吧上随处可见。赛巴巴对他们的企图不屑一顾。因为与实相相比,他的神通是微不足道的,就如同蚊虫比之于大象。但是在世界上的126个国家里,至少有六百万,或许接近于一亿人,相信它们是赛巴巴所代表的神的象征物。拥护他的人数不亚于曼莫汉·辛格和索尼亚·甘地,前者是印度首相,后者是国大党领袖。信徒们在赛巴巴被国葬之前远程而来表达敬意。Besides, he said, all the enquiries and science in the world could not begin to explain the other things that He, as an avatar of God, could will to happen. He could raise people from the dead, even when ants were aly crawling over them. He could hold back the rains. He could leave His own body, letting it slump stiff and lifeless in His chair for five minutes while He travelled to the Kashmir Front or the seashore at Mumbai. Sufferers from duodenal ulcers would find Him operating on them, materialising the instruments from thin air. He could change water into petrol or diesel on which cars ran for many miles.此外,他曾说,这个世界上的所有探索和科学都绝不可能解释作为神之化身的他所做的其他一些事情。他可以使死人复活,即使蚂蚁已经爬满他们的身体。他可以使下雨停止。他可以离开自己的身体,让它在椅子里陷入僵直和毫无生气的状态达五分钟,此时他飞往克什米尔前线或者孟买的海滨。十二指肠溃疡患者找他做手术,他可以使手术器械从虚空中突然出现。他可以将水变成汽油或柴油,很多汽车加上这些油可以跑好几英里。A number of more straightforward good works could also be attributed to Him. At remote Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh, His birthplace and the site since 1948 of His ashram, He established an airport, two sports stadiums, a free super-speciality hospital and an institute of higher learning rated A++ by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. He set up free primary and secondary schools all over India, had another free hospital built at Bangalore, and paid for drinking water to be piped from the Krishna river to Chennai and from the Godavari river to upland Andhra Pradesh. Perhaps 2m people benefited. This helped to muffle, though never to quiet entirely, controversies about His billion trust fund and claims of sexual abuse of His boy disciples.他也直接做了很多善行。遥远的安德拉邦的普塔帕蒂是他的出生地和1948年后他的静修地,他在这里修建了一座飞机场、两个运动场、一所免费的综合专业医院,和一所被全国评估与鉴定委员会评为A++级的高等教育机构。他在全印度建立了很多免费的小学和中学,在班加罗尔建了另一所免费医院,为从奎师那河输送到金奈市、从戈达瓦里河输送到安德拉邦高地的饮用水付费。大约有二百万人受益。这些有助于抑制关于他的五十亿美元的信托基金的争论,和关于他的一些男孩门徒被性虐待而要求索赔的争论,尽管争论从没有完全平息下来。But then there had always been people who had refused to believe in his Godhead—from His father, who in the beginning beat Him with a stick and made a village healer lacerate His scalp and rub it with garlic and lime juice to cure His madness, to the rationalist who sued Him in 1986 under the Gold Control Act for bringing so many gold articles out of the air. (The case was dismissed.) They ignored the obvious signs of His divinity, such as the cobra that had cradled Him at birth, or His ability as a schoolboy to bring forth peppermints out of an empty bag. He mostly hid His Godhead in those years, but found it frustrating, and was glad at 14 to be able to reveal (after a scorpion sting had put Him into a trance) that His previous body had been that of a 19th-century saint called Shirdi Sai Baba, whose statue, in marble, He placed beside His own in His Temples, and whose fresh photograph, in several copies, He would often produce out of the sands of the Chitravathi river.然而总是有一些人,从他的父亲到唯理论者,拒绝相信他的神性。为了治好他的疯病,起初他的父亲用棍子打他,让一个乡村医生割破他的头皮并用蒜汁和石灰水擦。1986年唯理论者根据《黄金管理法》控告他从空中搞出来如此多的黄金制品。这一诉讼被驳回了。这些人忽视了明显显露他的神性的迹象,例如,在他出生时有一条眼镜蛇将他放进摇篮,在他是个学童时就能从一个空瓶子里弄出薄荷糖来。那些年他通常都在隐藏他的神性,但是他发现隐藏不了。在14岁时,他曾被一只蝎子蛰了,使他陷入神志恍惚,之后他很高兴他能够发现他前世曾是一位十九世纪的圣人,叫做舍帝·赛巴巴。在他的寺庙中,他将舍帝的大理石雕像置于他自己的雕像旁;他根据舍帝的一些摹本,经常用齐彻瓦底河的沙子制作舍帝的新图像。As a boy He demanded to be worshipped on Thursdays; as a man He enforced no particular rites or rituals, save the chanting of Om and the names of God. (He Himself had 108 names, and this was the number of crystals formed by His steps on the shore, and the number of pearls on the garland that was once presented to Him by the sea.) He endorsed no particular religion, though He used the terms of Hinduism, embracing all faiths as valid ways to truth, love and peace. He ignored distinctions of race or caste, and was happy to eat rice from an aluminium plate in the house of an untouchable. If His teachings had any flavour, it came from His background among poor farming folk. The hearts of His devotees were dry, He said, like a village tank before the monsoon; they had to be ploughed by the mind, watered by prayer, sown with seeds of Love.年少时,他要求每周四被礼拜;成人时,除了念诵咒语“唵”和神的名字外,他没有举行特殊的仪式。他自己有108个名字,这是他踩在海滩上形成的水晶体的数量和有一次大海送给他的花环上的珍珠的数量。尽管他使用印度教的术语,但他不认可任何特定的宗教,他利用所有的信仰作为通向真理、爱与和平的有效途径。他不理睬种族与种姓的差异,他曾经在一个贱民的家里很高兴地从铝盘子里取米饭来吃。如果说他的教导有什么特色,那么这些特色是来自穷苦农民这一背景。他曾说,他的信徒们的心田是干涸的,就像雨季到来前的乡间池塘,它们必需要用理智耕耘,用祈祷浇灌,用爱的种子播种。The devotees who crowded the Puttaparthi ashram, hoping for Blessing or stuffing their letters of petition into His hands, never questioned who He was. He was all the multiple forms of God in human shape. Though His forecast that he would die in 2020 was a little out, that did not dent the belief that He would return in a new body to carry on His work. And Sai Baba, patting them on the back, had always told them they were God also. All they needed was, like Him, to know it.挤满普塔帕蒂静修处的信徒们,从未怀疑过他是谁。他们期待着赐福,或将他们的祈祷文塞入赛巴巴的手里。他是化身为人的所有的神。虽然他预言自己将死于2020年有点不大准确,但这并不妨碍他将以一个新的身体回来继续他的工作这一信念。赛巴巴总是轻轻拍着信徒们的后背,说他们也有神性。他们所需做的一切,就是像他一样,去了知神性。 /201212/215500。

  IT MAY have taken the Supreme Court just an hour to wrap up its discussion of illegal immigration this week, but America’s politicians, it seems, cannot get enough of the subject. It will be several months before the court rules on the case in question, which concerns a state law in Arizona, but Democratic leaders in the Senate are aly planning a vote to overturn its decision if the law is upheld. That vote would presumably fail, thanks to Republican opposition, but it would allow the Democrats to keep the subject in the news. Democrats are also attacking Mitt Romney, the presumptive Republican nominee for president, for supporting the law. Mr Romney, meanwhile, has dismissed the whole fuss as an effort to distract Hispanic voters from Mr Obama’s failings as steward of the economy. The outcome of the presidential race, both sides acknowledge, could conceivably hinge on whether it is the state of the economy or laws like Arizona’s that stir more indignation among Hispanics.最高法院本周对于非法移民的讨论也许只持续了一个小时,但是美国的政客们看上去从未停止在非法移民这个问题上大做文章. 最高法院裁决这个涉及到亚利桑那州州法律的案子还将花上几个月,但是参议院中民主党的领袖已经在计划,一旦最高法院判亚利桑那州州法律有效,就发动一场投票来推翻这一决议.由于参议院中共和党的反对,这一投票多半会失败,但民主党却能把这一话题保留在公众视野中.民主党也批评米特·罗姆尼,因为这位预定的共和党总统竞选人持这一法律.同时,罗姆尼认为这整场闹剧只不过是民主党人想借此来分散西班牙裔选民的注意力,让他们忽视奥巴马总统作为经济守门人的失职. 民主共和两党都承认,经济状态和激起西班牙裔美国人愤慨的亚利桑那州法律,都可能影响总统大选的结果.Arizona’s bill, passed in 2010, seeks to discourage illegal immigration by making it a crime under state as well as federal law and by instructing state authorities to be on the lookout for illegal immigrants. Civil-liberties groups worry that this will lead to harassment of anyone with brown skin, even though the law expressly prohibits such “profiling”. There is no easy way for the authorities to judge an individual’s immigration status, argue opponents, so many citizens will be subjected to unwarranted checks.亚利桑那州这一法案于2010年通过,旨在让州法律和联邦法律把非法移民认定为犯罪行为,并引导州政府密切搜寻非法移民者,以此来打击非法移民活动.公民自由组织担忧这将给那些古铜色肤色的人带来困扰,尽管法案中明令禁止;按肤色下定论;. 反对者称,官方鉴定个人的移民身份从来就不是一件容易的事,所以许多美国公民被迫接受未经批准的检查.That prospect seemed to concern several justices during the oral arguments on the law before the Supreme Court. Stephen Breyer, for example, fretted about the possible fate under the law of a jogger carrying only a driver’s licence from New Mexico, a state that borders Arizona and used to issue licences to illegal immigrants. But the solicitor-general said he was not challenging the law on the grounds that it would discriminate against Latinos. Instead he argued that the law pre-empts the federal government’s power to set immigration policy. Its defenders retort that it aims only to help the federal government fulfil its obligations on immigration, and that only an administration that was deliberately neglecting them could find fault with it.这件事的可能性,令几位法官对庭上的案子有所忧虑,他们有过几番辩论.比如,根据这项法律,史蒂芬·拜耳就担心某位从新墨西哥州过来,身上只带驾照的慢跑者的命运,因为新墨西哥州毗邻亚利桑那州,而且曾经给非法移民发放过驾照.但是副检察长则说道,他反对这项法律并不是基于该法律会歧视拉美裔美国人这一点。相对的他说这项法律夺取了联邦政府制定移民政策的权力.它的辩护者们则反驳,这项法律只是为了帮助联邦政府履行制定移民政策的义务,并且只有故意忽视他们的政府才会发现这项法律有问题.The Supreme Court’s verdict will determine the fate not just of Arizona’s law, but of similar measures in five other states. As successive presidents have promised but failed to tackle the question of America’s 10m-odd illegal immigrants, frustration at the federal government’s inertia has grown, especially among conservative voters. Republican-controlled legislatures in several states have attempted to take matters into their own hands. The need for a crackdown on illegal immigration seems to have become an article of faith among Republican primary voters. The presidential bid of Rick Perry, the governor of Texas, came to grief partly because he had signed a law allowing certain undocumented students to pay the same rates as other state residents at public universities.最高法院的判决不仅将决定亚利桑那州这一法律的命运,还将影响其他五个州采取的类似措施的命运.接连几任总统都承诺解决这一困扰美国超过1000万非法移民的问题,但都失败了,因此人们对政府惰性的失望情绪日渐增长,特别是在保守派的选民中.共和党掌握的几个州的立法机关已经试着处理这件事情.取缔非法移民很有必要,这似乎在共和党初选选民中成了一种信条.里克·佩里这位德克萨斯州州长的总统竞选之路最终失败,或许有一部分原因是因为他曾经签署了一项法律,这项法律允许某些没有正式身份的学生和本州学生用一样的比例付公立大学的学费.Even as the debate about illegal immigration has become shriller, the phenomenon itself has declined. The recession has helped to stem the flow of job-seekers across America’s southern border. Despite more vigorous policing, the number of people caught trying to cross has declined markedly. This week the Pew Hispanic Centre, a research institute, released a report arguing that Mexicans, who once accounted for most of the illegal influx, are now leaving the country in greater numbers than they are entering it.尽管对非法移民本身的争论日渐激化,这种现象本身却在减少.美国经济衰退,阻止了一大批想跨过美国南方边境来找工作的人.尽管监管越来越严密,被当场抓住试图穿越国境的人的数量却显著下降.本周一家研究机构,皮尤西裔研究中心发布了一份报告,称过去墨西哥人占据了非法移民者中的大多数,而现在他们离开美国的人数比进入美国的还要多.201205/180309

  

  

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