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2019年08月22日 06:42:38来源:中医生活

Most people assume that roosters are programmed to crow at the first sign of sunlight to announce the dawning of a new day, or some such romantic notion.大多数人都会认为每当第一缕阳光照耀大地,公鸡就会按规律打鸣表示崭新一天的开始。除此之外还有很多关于此浪漫的传说。Like all birds, roosters call in a daily cycle determined by circadian rhythms.和其他鸟类一样,公鸡每天打鸣的习惯是由生理节律所决定。That is, a roosters internal clock allows it to anticipate the sunrise and prepare for another exciting day of looking for food.公鸡的生物钟让它期待日出,以此为契机开始新一天的觅食。But why must roosters crow as they prepare to start their day, and why do some roosters sound off before dawn?但是,为什么公鸡会打鸣,而且这一时间点是在黎明前呢?Roosters are territorial creatures and dont much like other roosters trespassing on their land.公鸡是具有领地意识的动物,决不许其它公鸡侵犯自己的领地。They crow in order to establish their domain and warn other roosters to stay away or prepare to brawl.为了守护自己的地盘,警告其它公鸡远离进而避免争斗。And because their internal clocks are sometimes set a bit early, some roosters begin crowing well before sunrise.而且公鸡的生物钟有时候设置得早一些,所以有些公鸡是在日出前打鸣。201312/268617。

  • Books and arts文艺John Kennedys final days肯尼迪最后的日子When America wept整个美国为之哭泣JFKs Last Hundred Days: The Transformation of a Man and the Emergence of a Great President.肯尼迪的最后百天:一个男人的转变,一位伟大总统的诞生FOR Americans of a certain age, memories of November 22nd 1963 remain painful.对于那个年代的美国人来说,1963年11月22日的记忆是沉痛的。Their dashing young president, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, was assassinated in Dallas.他们年轻而又风度翩翩的总统,约翰杰茨弗拉德?肯尼迪在达拉斯市遭到暗杀。Shock and mourning ensued.这个消息让人为之一震,人们纷纷悲恸哀悼。The loss may have been all the harder because Kennedy had been growing steadily on the job.肯尼迪在工作上的表现蒸蒸日上,因此他的逝去让人们感到惋惜。His first year in office was marked by the ignominious Bay of Pigs, his failed effort to eject Fidel Castro from Cuba.他执政的第一年因“猪湾事件”将菲德尔?卡斯特罗驱逐出古巴的失败尝试而蒙羞。A year and a half later, the Cuban missile crisis brought America and the Soviet Union to the terrifying brink of nuclear war.一年半之后,古巴导弹危机将美国和苏联推向核战争的边缘。But by the autumn of 1963, Thurston Clarke argues in this study of the presidents final days, Kennedy had begun to “realise his potential as a man and a president;.瑟斯顿克拉克在他《肯尼迪最后的时光》这本书里谈论道,1963年的秋天,肯尼迪已经开始“意识到他作为一个男人和一位总统的责任”。His confidence was rising.他的自信心倍增。Having narrowly avoided nuclear war, he was determined to have peace.微妙地避开了核战争的爆发,他希望和平。Finding like-mindedness in Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, he secured a treaty that banned nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in space and underwater.在这一点上他和苏联领导人尼基塔?赫鲁晓夫的观点并无二致。他确立了一项“部分禁止核试验条约”,条约中禁止在太空和水下进行核试验。It was, Kennedy told the nation, “a step away from war”.肯尼迪向美国民众宣称,这个条约的签署“离战争又远了一步”。Vietnam also dominated his final months.在最后的几个月里,越南也是他的心头之忧。Even while half-heartedly encouraging a coup that toppled and killed Ngo Dinh Diem, the South Vietnamese leader, Kennedy seemed determined to draw down the American presence and avoid a future quagmire there.尽管他并无决心持发动一场政变,颠覆南越政权并杀死领导人吴廷琰,但是肯尼迪似乎意在减少美国在越南投入的兵力,避免泥足深陷。He spent time, too, on civil rights and the space race.另外,他在公民权利和太空竞赛方面也投入了精力。He began planning his re-election and even laid the groundwork for secret talks with Mr Castro.他开始筹划连任,甚至为与卡斯特罗的密谈做了准备工作。His relationship with his glamorous wife, Jacqueline, also improved.他同他漂亮迷人的妻子,杰奎琳的关系也有所改善。In August 1963 their second son, Patrick, was born prematurely and died within days.1963年8月他们的第二个儿子,帕特里克早产并在几天后夭折。After that, Mr Clarke shows, Kennedy was more solicitous towards his wife.克拉克觉得从那以后,肯尼迪对妻子多了些关怀。Evidently he cut back on his reckless womanising, though whether this would have lasted will never be known.很明显的是他没有再流连于女色,虽然这个做法有没有持久下去我们不得而知。“I think were going to make it.“我觉得我们都在努力。I think were going to be a couple,” the first lady told a friend not long before the fateful trip to Dallas.使我们逐渐回到原来那种亲密的关系,”这是那次命运攸关的达拉斯之行前,第一夫人这样对她朋友说道。Kennedys lifelong health problems also diminished.困扰肯尼迪终生的健康问题也有所好转。Mr Clarke is a good storyteller, and his account—one of many JFK books timed for the 50th anniversary of the assassination—offers an enjoyable snapshot of the day-to-day workings of the presidency.克拉克是一位优秀的作者,他的著作—众多纪念肯尼迪遇刺50周年书籍中的一本——生动地介绍了总统的日常工作。One moment sees Kennedy holding a meeting on poverty in Kentucky; the next finds him romping with his children, Caroline and John.在某个时刻,肯尼迪在肯塔基州召开关于贫困问题的会议,下一幕你会发现他同女儿凯若琳,儿子小约翰在一起玩耍。The format also affords passing glimpses into Kennedys views on issues such as the space race and getting out of South-East Asia.书中还有肯尼迪对诸如太空竞赛此类问题的看法。并且逐渐撤出东南亚。The books core argument—that Kennedy came into his own during his final 100 days—is not entirely persuasive.这本书的核心内容是—在他最后的100天里,肯尼迪活出了自我—这一点并不完全具有说力。His biggest triumph had come when he averted a nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis.他最大的功绩是在处理古巴导弹危机时,避免了核战争的爆发。The nuclear test-ban treaty was significant, and it gave hope to cold war-weary Americans.“禁止核试验条约”意义重大,它给冷战时期厌战的美国人带来了希望。But whether Kennedy could have sustained improvements to his marriage and his health, and got a strong civil-rights bill past Southern segregationists in Congress, is less clear-cut.但肯尼迪的婚姻和健康状况是否有了持久的改善,是否在国会通过了反对南方种族隔离的民权法案,就不得而知了。Ultimately, finishing the job fell to a man Kennedy despised.最后,重任落在了为肯尼迪所不齿的一个身上。Vice-President Lyndon Johnson, a former majority leader of the Senate, was disparaged by the Kennedy White House as “Old Lyin Down” and “Uncle Cornpone”.副总统林登?约翰逊,曾经的参议院多数党领袖,肯尼迪政府戏称他为“Old Lyin Down”,和“玉米饼大叔”。But after Kennedy was shot, the ambitious and often ruthless Texan took the reins and pushed through a host of Kennedy initiatives, including an important bill that banned discrimination in schools and other public places.但在肯尼迪遇刺后,这个胸怀大志,并且冷酷无情的德州人执掌大权,推动了肯尼迪定下的议程,包括一项在学校及其他公共场合反对种族歧视的法案,约翰逊还将美国势力更加深入越南。Johnson also led the nation further into Vietnam. Had Kennedy lived—had his last 100 days in office come in 1968-69, not 1963—things would have been different.如果肯尼迪还活着,他在任的最后100天是在1968和1969年间,不是在1963年,事情将会变得大相径庭。 /201404/284368。
  • Love on the lam爱在潜逃路A rare thing: a deeply moving thriller奇葩:惊悚小说也催泪Schroder. By Amity Gaige.《父亲的罪》作者艾米蒂·盖奇ERIC is the unlikeliest of characters to charm a er. His life is a tabloid drama: man abducts daughter, gets arrested and confesses in a letter to his estranged wife. It is to the credit of Amity Gaige, an American writer, that her third novel, “Schroder”, transforms this thriller plot into a deeply moving tale.埃里克的人生就像通俗小报刊登的故事:他拐跑亲生女儿,为此锒铛入狱,随后写信向分居的妻子表示忏悔。这种人物最不可能赢得读者的青睐。多亏美国作家艾米蒂·盖奇,她用妙笔将惊悚情节演绎成一个感人至深的故事,这就是盖奇的第三部小说《父亲的罪》。Erics story is one of multiple deceptions. At the age of eight, and named Erik Schroder, he landed in America with his father from East Germany. Six years later he assumed the name Eric Kennedy and never minded if people presumed he was related to the slain president. These primordial lies set the stage for his later unravelling. His marriage to Laura, which brought a happiness he hardly dared believe, breaks up when their daughter, Meadow, is four years old. Knowing that divorce will expose his pretence and endanger contact with his child, Eric flees with her into the wooded mountains of northern New York.层层叠叠的谎言构成了埃里克的生活。八岁时以埃里克·施罗德的化名,跟随父亲从东德搬迁至美国。六年后,他更名埃里克·肯尼迪,有时被误认为那位惨遭暗杀的美国总统的亲戚,他也丝毫不介意。这些谎言为他日后的遭遇埋下祸根。和劳拉的婚姻生活竟然是如此的幸福,不过一切就在女儿麦朵四岁时烟消云散。一旦离婚,他不得不暴露真实身份,还有可能承受失去女儿的痛苦。想到这里,埃里克带着小麦朵逃匿到纽约州北部的森林里。The description of the next six days, written by this serial liar, self-inventor and troubled, possibly dangerous man, is riveting. Ms Gaiges main achievement is to inhabit her protagonist so thoroughly that the er cannot help but empathise. Eric is by turns insightful, funny, bizarre and irresponsible, at once self-deceiving and self-aware. Explaining his decision to cut and run, he writes: “I couldnt take it any more, the way the wind went out of the world whenever my daughter left.” In his apologetic, heartfelt voice, the novel becomes an intense, often beautiful meditation on the desperate love of a parent for a child.这名落魄的父亲虽然满嘴谎言,善于编造身份,也许是个危险人物,他将跑路六日娓娓道来,语言却也赏心悦目。女作家不惜笔墨,主角形象丰满,读后令人同情,此乃小说最大亮点。她笔下的埃里克时而富有远见卓识,时而滑稽古怪不负责任,时而自欺欺人,时而头脑清醒。提到下定切断过去远逃异乡的决心时,埃里克如此解释:“每次我的女儿离开时,世界了无生机,我再也受不了了。”他的叙述充满歉意和真诚,成就一部深刻思考绝望亲情的惊悚小说,其中不乏美丽的语言。Eric regards the kidnapping as a fairy-tale adventure; his daughter, wryly intelligent, is swept along. But Lauras lawyer accuses him of “bizarre, neglectful parenting”. On the lam he lets Meadow wade into a freezing lake, feeds her junk food and leaves her unattended. The question is not if he will be caught, but how and when.明白一切的女儿嘲讽地看着事情发展的态势,跟着父亲匆匆赶路,而在埃里克眼里,这次绑架就是一次童话般的冒险。然而劳拉的律师指责他“行为古怪,缺乏为人父的责任心”。途中,他用垃圾食品喂养小麦朵,带她涉过冰冷的湖水,甚至留她孤身一人。他总会被逮捕,关键是何时以何种方式。What distinguishes “Schroder” is its insight and language. Rain is “not rain but the liquid redistribution of collective conflict.” Laura has “such a careful way with the truth”. Ms Gaige excels at landscapes; her writing has the still, clear beauty of a mountain lake. Equally, she understands the terror of potential loss. Eric realises that there is only “one thing that really deranges us and that is the disappearance of love.” Linking too obviously to the symbolism of the cold-war Germany that Eric left behind, with its metaphors of flight and division, is the only misstep. Readers do not need such neat explanations to follow this flawed yet caring father.《父亲的罪》脱俗之处不仅在于思想深刻,更在于语言奇妙。天上下的“不再是雨水,而是蒸发后重新分配的集体冲突。”劳拉“谨慎地认知真相”。女作家盖奇女士不仅擅长于描写景致,赋予笔下的山中湖一种静谧透彻的美,而且深谙可能失去某些人或事时的恐惧。埃里克认识到,“世上真正使我们疯狂的仅此一物,那就是爱的消逝。”唯一不足之处是,小说充斥着飞行和分裂的意象,影射主人公逃离的东德,这一比喻太露骨,反而减少品读并不完美却舐犊情深的父亲形象的乐趣。 /201405/300214。
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