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安吉县抽脂瘦腿多少钱湖州市康复医院激光祛痣多少钱Don: Say youre looking at an object on a table in front of you. How long do you think your eyeballs stay in one position? 看你一直在看你面前那张桌上的东西。你眼球能持续盯在一个地方多长时间?Yael: You mean, how long before they move? Im going to guess... a minute. 你的意思是,眼球能保持多长时间不动?我想……一分钟吧。D: More like less than a second. 更像是不到一秒钟。Y: Yow! 哎唷!D: Though we feel as if our eyes stay completely still when we focus on something, researchers have found they only stay still at most for a couple seconds--often just a few milliseconds. Whats fascinating about this is that every time our eyes move, we are momentarily visually impaired. We arent seeing anything but a blur. So if were always moving our eyeballs, and are always impaired, why dont we experience the world as a confusing rush? 虽然我们感觉我们在一直盯着某物看,但研究者发现,我们甚至至多只保持了几秒钟——往往是几毫秒。有意思的是,实际上当每次我们的眼睛转动的时候,我们会有短时的视觉失效。我们看到的就是一片模糊。所以如果我们总是移动眼珠,视力总被削弱,那为什么我们没感觉世界是一片混乱的呢?Y: I bet you have an answer. 我赌你有。D: Researchers at the University of Delaware have a good guess. They have done studies that show the brain is always extending the boundaries of what it sees-- adding in made-up information along the edges. This process is called ;boundary extension,; and it seems to be going on all the time. Say youre looking at a brick wall. You really only see a small section of it, but your visual processing system essentially says, ;I can assume that beyond my visual field on either side are more red bricks, so for now Ill just add them in until I get better information.; That process ofconstantly extrapolating on what you see may be what allows you to experience a calm and consistent visual world, even though the actual data coming in is much more fragmented. 特拉华大学的研究人员有个很好的猜想。他们所做的研究表明,大脑总是人为扩充我们的视野范围——添加一些凭空捏造的东西。此过程称为“边界扩展”,而且一直进行着。就拿你看着砌墙来说。你只是看到了一小部分,但你的视觉处理系统会告诉你,“我视线之外的一边会有更多的红砖头,那么我就会一直给自己输入这种信息直到我真的看到那一边到底有什么为止。”在对你可能看到的事物进行持续的推断过程中,你感觉到世界是平静、持续不变的,即使实际接收到的信息是片断式的。 201308/254470湖州微创丰胸的价格 德清县做双眼皮埋线多少钱

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湖州光子嫩肤Who supports independence?谁是苏独拥护者?Yes men赞成党The typical pro-independence Scot is young, male and working-class持苏独的群体往往年轻,男性居多,中产阶级为主WITH two months to go until Scotland votes on independence, opinion polls are in one sense rather disappointing. With only minor blips, they continue to suggest that three out of five Scots favour sticking with Britain. Nothing that nationalists or unionists say seems to budge opinion. But, as the polls pile up, something else is becoming clear: exactly how the country divides.距离苏格兰公投仅有两个月之远,但从某种角度而言,民众投票结果却十分不尽如人意。仍显示五分之三的苏格兰民众不愿从大不列颠国独立出来。无论民族主义者亦或是联合主义者,都无法说改变那些民众的想法。但随着调查结果的累积,人们找到了一些新的发现,一些迹象且越发的清晰:即全国意见具体如何分布。Middle-class voters turn out to be more conservative than working-class ones. In the seven polls taken so far this year by ICM, the “no” camp has led by 19 points among the former but by four among the latter. The well-to-do are also firmer in their views, vacillating much less than working-class voters over the past few months.调查数据显示中产阶级比工人阶级更为保守。截至当前,今年由ICM发起的7场调查活动中,中产阶级反独率高达19%,而工人阶级仅4%。同时,调查还发现富裕群体立场比较坚定。近数月来,其立场变化远没有工人阶级明显。Unsurprisingly, given the class profile of “yes” support, the pro-independence camp is strong in Scotlands industrial heartland and weak in the areas farthest from it: the border with England to the south and the mountains and islands to the north. ICMs polls suggest that “no” leads by 13 points on average in the northern Highlands and Islands. In the most pro-independence region, Glasgow, it lags “yes” by a point.毫不意外地是,即便工人阶级展现出赞成党形象,持独立的阵营仍集中在苏格兰的工业核心区,而在它的边远地区,持苏独的呼声远要小得多:英格兰南部边境一带和北部山区及岛屿附近。英国调查机构ICM发起的民意投票结果显示,在北部高地和岛屿地区,反对苏独的人口比例一般为13%。哥拉斯加最为拥护苏独一举,其反对苏独的人口比例也就低了一个百分点,为12%。A Scots appearance is another clue to his views. Grey hair and wrinkles suggest a “no” supporter. The young are keener on independence, which is one reason nationalists pushed to allow 16- and 17-year-olds to vote in the referendum. Some polls suggest people simply become more unionist as they age; others hint that people in their teens and 20s are slightly more conservative than people in their mid-20s to mid-30s.苏格兰人民的长相也表明其意见想法。棕色头发和皱纹表现出他们是不持苏格兰独立的。年轻一代更喜欢独立,正是如此,民族主义者允许16到17岁的公民参与公投。一些民意调查结果已经表征出,人们只是随着年龄的增长,渐渐会增强民族统一意识;也有些调查显示,青少年及20出头的人会比25-35岁之间的人稍微保守些。But perhaps the starkest demographic divide between “yes” and ;no; supporters is sex.Polls consistently show that women are cooler on independence than men. Peter Kellner of YouGov, another pollster, says this is part of a broader pattern. Past opinion polling suggests that women are less supportive of wide-eyed or gung-ho policies in general, whether the issue is Scottish independence or foreign military adventures.然而,或许性别差别才是持和反对党间最明显的分水岭。调查结果始终表明,女性对独立的热情度往往不及男性。来自网上市场研究公司YouGov 的彼得?科尔Peter Kellner,表示性别差只是更广义范围下的一部分。过去的民意调查活动也显示,女性群体一般不大持,无论是苏独还是外国军事冒险。The fact that Scots are divided in so many ways means that “yes” and “no” supporters do not exist in separate bubbles. Rather, they rub up against each other-in the same towns, sometimes even in the same households. Perhaps that explains why one in four say they have rowed over independence with family members and friends.苏格兰划分方式如此多元化,这明苏独持党和反对党并非独立存在。相反,他们是关系密切,相互影响着—在同一小镇,有时甚至在同一屋檐下。也许,那就是为何有1/4的人宣称,自己在苏独一事上和家人朋友分道扬镳。 /201408/319474 Science and technology科学技术Sleep and the phases of the Moon睡眠与月相Lunacy? 精神失常?People do not sleep easy on nights when there is a full Moon月圆之夜,不能安眠IT SOUNDS like an idea dreamed up over a few beers in the pub one evening.这听起来就像某晚在酒吧喝了几杯啤酒后的胡说八道。And that, those involved freely admit, is exactly what it was.提出这个观点的人也坦诚的这电子的确就是这么来的。As Christian Cajochen and his colleagues put it in their paper on the matter in Current Biology, We just thought of it after a drink in a local bar one evening at full Moon.他的同事和Christian Cajochen将有关睡眠与月相研究的论文放到了《当代生物学》上,我们就是月圆的那晚在附近一个酒吧喝了几杯才想到的。It was a way of testing the persistent but unproven idea that the full Moon affects human behaviour, generally for the worse.这是个未经实的测试持久性的方法,满月会影响人的行为,总的来说,它将恶化你的行为。In prescientific days this was expressed in terms like moonstruck and lunatic.现代科学出现以前,这种情况被称作月色撩人或者痴狂。And it found even more sinister manifestation in the form of the lycanthrope, who did not sleep when the Moon was full,研究发现,甚至还有更多像狼人一样的凶神恶煞,他们在月圆之夜化成狼的样子,but turned into a wolf instead.而不是像往常一般睡去。Though few now believe in werewolves some modern thinkers still suspect the Moons phase affects sleep patterns,尽管如今已经很少人相信狼人的存在,但一些当代思想家仍怀疑月相会影响睡眠模式,and on that particular moonlit night Dr Cajochen and his buddies realised they aly had the data needed to find out.而且就在这个不同寻常的月夜Cajochen士和同僚们才意识到,他们早已掌握了本想挖掘的数据。Those data came from a study on body clocks and sleep patterns they had conducted a decade earlier at the Centre for Chronobiology at the University of Basel,where they work.这些数据来自10年前他们所在的瑞士巴塞尔大学时间生物学中心,一个关于生物钟与睡眠研究。Between 2000 and 2003 they had looked at the effect of the daily body clock on the sleep patterns of 33 volunteers.那次试验在2000至2003年间曾观察过33名志愿者在日常生物钟下的睡眠模式。The protocol they had used was perfect.研究所使用的方法无懈可击。Volunteers were shut away from daylight for days at a time, so their sleep patterns could not be affected by the illumination a full Moon brings.研究期间,志愿者都与日光隔绝,所以观察对象就不会对满月的月光产生反映。And it was also the ultimate in double-blind experiments.这也是一个终极双盲试验。Neither the participants nor the organisers could possibly have been biased by knowing the experiment was intended to look at the effect of the full Moon, since at the time it was conducted it wasnt.志愿者和组织者都不可能因知道此次研究是针对满月带来的效应而出现偏差,当时实验结果没有说明两者之间有关联。A few days number-crunching gave Dr Cajochen and his team what they were looking for.经过几天的计算后,Cajochen士小组得到了他们想要的数据。And the answer was yes, the phase of the Moon does affect human sleep patterns, even when the human involved cannot possibly see the Moon.并得到了肯定的,月相的确影响着人们的睡眠,即使参加研究的志愿者不能看到月亮。Electroencephalography showed that the volunteers slept, on average, 20 minutes less around the time of the full Moon.脑电波图显示了他们的睡眠脑电图,平均来说,将近月圆或者刚过满月那几天,人们睡得比平常少20分钟。It also took them five minutes longer to get to sleep, their delta activity was 30% lower than at other times, their level of melatonin, a sleep-related hormone, was reduced, and they reported, subjectively, that they had not slept as well as usual.而且入睡时间也比平时多需要5分钟,他们的是平日幅度的30%。他们体内的一种与睡眠相关的黑色素荷尔蒙减少,而且研究对象也主观地反映他们不像平常那样睡得香脑波幅度。Nor was any of this connected, in female volunteers, with their menstrual cycles.而女性志愿者的试验数据显示,她们的生理周期与这些睡眠时间和激素水平中的任何一个都没有关系。Lest any astrologer ing this result get cocky, Dr Cajochen does not believe that what he has found is directly influenced by the Moon through, say, some tidal effect.以免有些占星师洋洋得意,Cajochen士认为,他所得出的规律并不是由月亮通过某种潮汐导致的。What he thinks he has discovered is an additional hand on the bodys clock-face.他认为这些研究结果只是往生物钟表盘上多加了一个指针。Besides the well-known endogenous daily cycle which the experiment originally studied, there is also an endogenous monthly cycle entrained to the Moon by unconscious observation over a long period of the light from the heavenly bodies concerned.除众所周知的自身的日循环外,这也是研究最初的目的,身体还有一个受到月亮调控的内在月循环,这是长期以来在对天体不经意的观察中得到的启示。Lunar cycles exist in other species so this is not, as it were, a lunatic idea.月亮运转周期对其他物种也影响,这并不是异想天开。But those species that have been studied are animals like marine iguanas, for whom knowing the tides is important.被研究的动物对象包括海蜥蜴,潮汐对它来说非常重要。What use an ingrained lunar calendar is to a human being remains to be determined.什么使阴历扎根于人类社会当中仍是一个迷。Perhaps sleeping lightly on moonlit nights was a defence mechanism against predators. Wolves, for example.也许在月光明亮的夜晚浅睡是对狼人等肉食动物的防御机制。 /201308/251892湖州吴兴区假体植入丰胸多少钱湖州曙光整形韩式三点双眼皮多少钱



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