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来源:华网    发布时间:2019年08月22日 14:51:02    编辑:admin         

Hi everybody.海,大家好。On Wednesday, I spoke about what we need to do as a country to build a better bargain for the middle class,我在周三谈到了我们作为一个国家为中产阶级讨回一点利益所需要做的。to make sure everyone who works hard has a chance to get ahead in the 21st century economy.确保任何努力工作的人在21世纪的经济里有机会过得好。You see, over the past four and a half years, America has fought its way back from the worst recession of our lifetimes.众所周知,在过去的4年半里,美国一直在艰苦奋斗,走出我们一生中最严重的衰退。We saved the auto industry, took on a broken health care system,我们挽救了汽车工业,修补了破损的医疗体系,invested in new American technologies to reverse our addiction to foreign oil,投资于美国的新技术彻底摆脱我们对进口石油的依赖,and changed a tax code too skewed in favor of the wealthiest at the expense of working families.改革以牺牲工薪阶层为代价倾向于富人群的税法。As a result, our businesses have created 7.2 million new jobs over the past 40 months.结果是,我们的企业在过去的40个月里创造了720万个新就业机会。We produce more renewable energy than ever, and more natural gas than anyone.我们生产了比以往更多的可再生能源,生产的天然气超过任何国家。Health care costs are growing at the slowest rate in 50 years.医疗成本增长率创50年来最低。Our deficits are falling at the fastest rate in 60 years.我们的赤字以60年来最快的速度下降。Thanks to the grit and resilience of the American people,由于美国人民的坚忍不拔,weve cleared away the rubble of crisis and begun to lay a new foundation for stronger, more durable economic growth.我们扫清了危机的废墟奠定了更加强劲更加持久的经济增长的基础。But as any middle-class family will tell you, were not yet where we need to be.但是正如任何中产阶级所告诉你的,我们做的还不到位。Trends that have been eroding middle-class security for decades-technology that makes some jobs obsolete, global competition that makes others moveable, growing inequality and the policies that perpetuate it,几十年来侵蚀中产阶级安全感的各种趋势—使一些工作过时的技术,使其他国家进步的全球竞争,日益增长的不平等和令其屡禁不止的政策all these things still exist, and in some ways, the recession made them worse.这一切都存在,经济衰退还以某些方式加重这些。Reversing these trends must be Washingtons highest priority.逆转这些趋势必须是华盛顿的第一要务。It sure is mine.肯定是我的第一要务。But over the past couple of years in particular, Washington has taken its eye off the ball.但是在过去的几年里,华盛顿反而转移了视线。An endless parade of distractions, political posturing and phony scandals shift focus from what needs to be done.无尽的游行、政治作秀、造假丑闻使我们偏离了我们需要做的。And as Washington prepares to enter another budget debate, the stakes could not be higher.而随着华盛顿准备进入另一场预算辩论,没有什么更加紧迫了。The choices we make now will determine whether or not every American has a fighting chance in the 21st century.我们现在做出的决策将决定是否每一个美国人都在21世纪有机会奋斗。If we dont make the investments necessary to make America a magnet for good jobs,如果我们不做必要的投资使美国成为好工作的磁石,in education, and manufacturing, and research, and our transportation and information networks-we might as well hit the “pause” button while the rest of the world forges ahead in a global economy.在教育、制造业、研究及我们的交通通讯网络的投资—我们可能就会按下“暂停”按钮,而世界上其他国家则在全球经济中大踏步前进。And that s certainly not going to fix what ails the middle class.这当然不能解决中产阶级的困扰。Heres what will:以下是能解决这些困扰的:a strategy that builds on the cornerstones of what it means to be middle class in America, and what it takes to work your way into the middle class.建立决定什么是美国的中产阶级的基石上的战略,它能为你开辟进入中产阶级的道路。Good jobs that pay good wages.收入可观的好工作。An education that prepares our children and our workers for the global competition theyll face.为我们的孩子们和工人们所准备的应对他们面临的全球竞争的教育。Homeownership thats based on a solid foundation, where buyers and lenders play by the same set of rules.基础牢固的所有者有住所,买房者和放贷者在同一规则下竞争。Affordable health care thats there for you when you get sick.当你生病时可以承受得起的医疗。A secure retirement even if youre not rich.你不富裕也有可靠的退休金。More chances for folks to earn their way into the middle class as long as theyre willing to work for it.更多只要努力工作就能进入中产阶级的机会。Over the next several weeks, in cities and towns across the country, Ill continue to lay out my ideas in each of these areas.在未来的几周里,在全国各个城市和乡镇,我将继续在这些地区阐述我的观点。Because reversing the forces that have conspired against the middle class for decades will require more than short-term thinking;因为打退几十年来暗中损害中产阶级势力需要的不是短期思维;it will require a long-term American strategy, based on steady, persistent effort.它需要的是长期的美国战略,基于稳定的坚实努力的战略。I know there are members of both parties who understand whats at stake,我知道两党中都有人理解什么是当务之急,and Im open to ideas from across the political spectrum, as long as they meet the test of strengthening the prospects of hard-working families.我将海纳百川听取任何政治派别的意见,只要它们能经得起加强勤奋工作家庭愿景的考验。But repealing Obamacare, gutting critical investments in our future, threatening to default on the bills this country has aly racked up, or shutting down the government just because Im for keeping it open-none of those thing add up to an economic plan.但是废除“奥巴马医保”,对未来投资釜底抽薪,威胁要对国家已经积累的赤字赖账,或仅仅因为我倾向继续运行就关闭政府—这些都不能列入经济计划。None of that will take this country where it needs to go.这些都不能使国家实现其发展目标。We can do this if we work together.如果我们齐心协力就能实现目标。It wont be easy,这并不容易,but if we take a few bold steps-and if Washington is willing to shake off its complacency and set aside some of the slash-and-burn partisanship we ve seen in recent years-our economy will keep getting stronger.但是如果我们采取一些大胆的举措—如果华盛顿愿意放弃他们的妄自尊大并且搁置我们近年来看到的争斗性政党关系—我们的经济就能更加强劲。And as long as I have the privilege of holding this office,只要我还是总统,I will spend every minute of every day doing everything in my power to make this economy work for working Americans again;我就会每时每刻在我的职权范围内尽一切努力使这个经济体再次为辛勤工作的美国人工作;to build that better bargain for the middle class;为中产阶级争取更多利益;to make sure that the American Dream is something thats achievable for everybody-not just today, but for decades to come.确保美国梦是每个人都能圆的梦—不仅今天,今后几十年也如此。Thanks, and have a great weekend.谢谢大家,祝你们周末愉快。201308/250803。

And so, I actually made a kind of curious decision. After the success of Titanic, I said, ;Okay, you know, Im going to park my day job as a Hollywood movie maker, and Im going to go be a full time explorer for a while.; And so, you know, we started planning these expeditions. And we wound up going to the Bismark, and exploring it with robotic vehicles. We went back to the Titanic wreck. We took little bots that we had created that spooled a fiber optic. And the idea was to go in and do an interior survey of that ship, which had never been done. Nobody had ever looked inside the wreck. They didnt have the means to do it, so we created technology to do it.所以,我做了一个奇怪的决定。在《泰坦尼克号》成功后,我说:“好吧,我要暂停我的主业——好莱坞电影制作人,做一段时间全职探险家。”于是,你知道,我们开始计划那些冒险。我们紧张而又兴奋地去俾斯麦,用机器开发探险。我们又回到了泰坦尼克号的残骸处。我们带了一些自制的装着光纤眼的机器人。我们想的是到船里做一个以前从没有做过的内部调查。没有人看过残骸里面。人们没有方法这么做,而我们发明了这么做的技术。So, you know, here I am now, on the deck of Titanic, sitting in a submersible, and looking out at planks that look much like this, where I knew the band had played. And Im flying a little robotic vehicle through the corridor of the ship. You know when I say, you know, Im operating it, but my mind is in the vehicle. I felt like I was physically present inside the shipwreck of Titanic. And it was the most surreal kind of deja vu experience Ive ever had, because I would know before I turned a corner what was going to be there before the lights of the vehicle actually revealed it, because I had walked the set for months when we were making the movie. And the set was based as an exact replica on the blueprints of the ship.所以我当时就站在泰坦尼克号的甲板上,坐在潜艇里,看着那些跟这个很像的木板,也就是乐团最后在甲板上演奏的地方。然后我操纵着一台遥控载具通过走道。在船上虽然我只是操纵,但意志却在这载具中。我觉得我仿佛整个人走入泰坦尼克号的残骸中,这是我这辈子最超现实的似曾相识感。因为我知道,在转过转角之前,甚至是在灯光照射到之前,我就知道后面的景象。因为我在拍电影时,就在布景上走过好几个月,而我们的布景则是完全复制船的蓝图。So, it was this absolutely remarkable experience. And it really made me realize that, you know, the telepresense experience you actually can have these robotic avatars, then your consciousness is injected into the vehicle, into this other form of existence. It was really really quite profound. And may be a little bit of a glimpse to what might be happening, you know, some decades out as we start to have cyborg bodies for exploration or for other means in many sort of post-human futures that I can imagine, as a science fiction fan.这真是不同寻常的经历。让我真正意识到,你知道,遥距体验的可能。你可以用这些机械代理人,把意识灌注到这载体上或是其他形式的存在物中。这真的让人非常着迷。让我们看看可能发生的事情,你知道,几十年后可能发生的情景,我们可以使用电子人进行探险或是别的工作。这是我作为一个科幻迷可以想象到的后人类时代的未来。 /201311/263345。

AMBASSADORISCHINGER:Thanks very much. I think now we can continue. It’s my great pleasure now toopen our second panel this morning. We have two longtime friends of the MunichSecurity Conference. Both of our panelists have been with the Munich SecurityConference when they served in the U.S. Senate for many years. So let mewelcome both Secretary John Kerry and Secretary Chuck Hagel, both now no longerin the Senate but both now for a year, for practically a year, Secretary ofState and Secretary of Defense. Welcome, Mr. Secretaries. (Applause.)I think the way we want to usethese 45 minutes or so is that both Secretaries will offer introductorycomments; and if you have a question to ask, please put it on one of the slipsof paper and hand it to the staff, and then we’ll use whatever time we have tohave a discussion, a Qamp;A session, in just a few minutes.John, would you like to start?Thank you.SECRETARYKERRY:Well, thank you very much, Ambassador Ischinger. I’m very grateful for theopportunity to be here. (In German.) Nice to be with everybody. And I am – Iwant to remark that Ambassador Ischinger had the pleasure of going to therenowned Fletcher School at Tufts University, but it sounds to me like he losthis Boston accent. I don’t know what happened to him along the way. (Laughter.)This is a very real and specialpleasure for Chuck and me to be here at this conference. We do know thisconference well. And as Walter said, we are not just friends from the Senatebut we’re friends from a common experience of a long period of time. So it’s apleasure for us now to be working together as partners with respect to thenational security issues that challenge all of us.So the fact is also that bothChuck and I feel this Atlantic relationship very much in our bones. Both of ourfamilies emigrated to the ed States from Europe, and both of our fatherssigned up to fight tyranny and totalitarianism in World War II. And we bothwatched the Berlin Wall go up as we grew up, and we grew up as Cold War kids.So we come to these discussions –both of us – with part of our formative years planted in the post-ColdWar/post-World War period, and certainly deeply in the Cold War period. As akid who grew up in school doing drills to get under my desk in the event ofnuclear war, this is something that still conditions my thinking.It was during that period of timethat I first encountered what I came to understand as one of the unmistakablesymbols of the enduring American-European partnership. I was a young kid whoserved – who was with my father in Berlin when he served as the legal advisorto the then High Commissioner to Germany, James Conant. And I spent a piece ofmy childhood getting on trains in Frankfurt and going through the dead of nightto arrive in Berlin and be greeted by the American military man, and movebetween a British sector, a French sector, an American sector, and a Russiansector. So I can remember cold signs warning you about where you were leaving,and I can remember guns rapping on the windows of my train when I dared to liftthe blinds and try to look out and see what was on the other side.I’ll also never forget walkinginto a building – I used to ride my bicycle down to Kurfurstendamm when it wasstill rubble. We’re talking about the early 1950s, just to date myself. And youcould see a plaque on a building that said: “This was rebuilt with help fromthe Marshall Plan.” But the truth is today, as we gather in Munich in 2014,George Marshall’s courageous vision – resisting the calls of isolationism andinvesting in this partnership – requires all of us to think about more than justbuildings. That period of time saw the Marshall Plan lead America’s support forthe rebuilding of a continent. But it was more than just the rebuilding of acontinent; it was the rebuilding of an idea, it was the rebuilding of a visionthat was built on a set of principles, and it built alliances that were justunthinkable only a few years before that.And I say all of this to try toput this meeting and the challenges that we face in a context. So long as I canremember, I have understood that the ed States and Europe are strongestwhen we stand united together for peace and prosperity, when we stand in strongdefense of our common security, and when we stand up for freedom and for commonvalues. And everything I see in the world today tells me that this is a momentwhere it’s going to take more than words to fulfill this commitment. All of usneed to think harder and act more in order to meet this challenge.With no disrespect whatsoever –in fact, only with the purest of admiration to the strategic and extraordinaryvision of Brent Scowcroft sitting over here, Henry Kissinger, Zbig Brzezinski,who I don’t see but I know is here somewhere. There he is. These are men whohelped to shape and guide us through the Cold War and the tense moments and thereal dangers that it presented. But the fact is that this generation ofconfluence of challenges that we’re confronting together are in many ways morecomplex and more vexing than those of the last century. The largely bipolarworld of the Cold War, East-West, was relatively straightforward compared tothe forces that have been released with the fall of the Berlin Wall, the riseof sectarianism, the rise of religious extremism, and the failure of governancein many places. In fact, we should none of us be surprised that it is thewisdom and vision of Henry Kissinger in his brilliant book Diplomacy – which,if you’ve it, re it; if you haven’t, it for the first time – laysall of this out in his first chapter as he talks about the balance – the oldgame of balance of power and interests. And as he predicts that this is moreconvoluted because of the absence of a structure to really manage and cope withthis new order that we face. Those were his words.So today we are witnessing youthpopulations, huge youth populations: 65 percent of a country under the age of30, under the age of 25 in some places; 50 percent under the age of 21; 40percent under the age of 18 – unemployed, disenfranchised, except for whatglobalization has brought them in their capacity to be able to reach out andsee what the rest of the world is doing even as they are denied the opportunityto do it too – an enormous, desperate yearning for education, for jobs, foropportunity. That’s what drove Tahrir Square, not the Muslim Brotherhood, notany religious extremism, but young kids with dreams. That’s what led that fruitvendor in Tunisia to self-immolate after he grew too tired of being slappedaround by a police officer, denied his opportunity just to sell his fruit wareswhere he wanted to.We are facing threats ofterrorism and untamed growth in radical sectarianism and religious extremism,which increases the challenge of failed and failing governments and the vacuumsthat they leave behind. And all of this is agitated by a voracious globalizedappetite and competition for resources and markets that do not alwayssufficiently share the benefits of wealth and improved quality of life with allcitizens.And this is all before you get tothe challenge of global food security, water availability, and global climatechange. These are the great tests of our time. Now, even as our economies inthe ed States and Europe begin to emerge from the economic trials of thelast years, we are not immune to extremism or to the natural difficulties ofnurturing democracy, and particularly as we measure what is happening with thenumber of jihadists who are attracted by the magnet of the Assad regime toSyria, where from Europe and from America and from Australia and from GreatBritain and from many other places they now flock to learn the trade of terror,and then perhaps to return to their home shores.The task of building a Europethat is whole and free and at peace is not complete. And in order to meettoday’s challenges both near and far, America needs a strong Europe, and Europeneeds a committed and engaged America. And that means turning inward is not anoption for any of us. When we lead together, others will join us. But when wedon’t, the simple fact is that few are prepared or willing to step up. That’sjust a fact. And leading, I say respectfully, does not mean meeting in Munichfor good discussions. It means committing resources even in a difficult time tomake certain that we are helping countries to fight back against the complex,vexing challenges of our day.I’ll tell you, I was recently inKorea and reminded that 10 of the 15 countries that used to receive aid fromthe ed States of America as recently as in the last 10 years are todaydonor countries. Think about that: 10 of the 15 and the others are on their wayto being donor countries. Now let me be fair. We need to have this debate inAmerica too right now. The small fraction of our budget that we invest in ourdiplomacy and in foreign assistance is a miniscule investment compared to thecost of the crises that we fail to avoid.So as a transatlantic community,we cannot retreat and we must do more than just recover – all of us. What weneed in 2014 is a transatlantic renaissance, a new burst of energy and commitmentand investment in the three roots of our strength: our economic prosperity, ourshared security, and the common values that sustain us.Now first, our shared prosperity:Who would have imagined at the first Munich conference in 1963 that .6billion in goods and services would flow between us every day? That didn’thappen by accident, nor did the 4 trillion that we invest in each other’seconomies every single year, or the more than 13 million jobs that we supportmutually because of it. The depth and bth of our economic position andpartnership was a conscious choice of the men I described and other men andwomen during that period of time who had a vision, and they need to be aconscious reflection of our vision today.Today, as our economies recover,we also have to do more to put this indispensable partnership to work, a sharedprosperity that benefits us all. And we can start, frankly, by harnessing theenergy and the talents of our people, which is what the Transatlantic Trade andInvestment Partnership is all about. T-TIP is about more than growing oureconomies. It will promote trade, investment, innovation. It will bring oureconomies closer together while maintaining high standards in order to ensurethat we create good jobs for these young people who are screaming about thefuture. And it will cement our way of doing business as the world’s goldstandard. Imagine what happens when you take the world’s largest market and theworld’s largest single economy and you marry them together with the principlesand the values that come with it. It will – if we’re ambitious enough, T-TIPwill do for our shared prosperity what NATO has done for our shared security,recognizing that our security has always been built on the notion of our sharedprosperity.We are the most innovativeeconomies in the world, the ed States and Europe, and as such we have amajor responsibility to deal with this growing potential catastrophe of climatechange. I urge you, the latest IPCC report. It’s really chilling. Andwhat’s chilling is not rhetoric; it’s the scientific facts, scientific facts.And our history is filled with struggles through the Age of Reason and theRenaissance and the Enlightenment for all of us to earn some respect forscience. The fact is that there is no doubt about the real day-to-day impact ofthe human contribution to the change in climate.201501/357064。

LXD(杰出舞蹈家组成的舞蹈团)照亮了TED2010年的舞台,向我们展现了正在全球通过网络而迅速发展起来的街舞艺术。在Jon Chu带来的一组网络上传播的舞蹈系列中,这个令人惊叹的舞蹈组合展示了他们超常的表现力。201505/374428。

Thank you, Cynthia.谢谢,辛西娅Let me get this straight.让我直说Although youre looking for a drug尽管你在找寻一种药that can solve aging它能解决in old men like me,像我一样老人的衰老问题what you could do now pretty well in the lab,几乎在实验室你能做什么if you were allowed ethically,如果你在道德上被准许is start a human life from scratch从人类生命开始with altered genes that would make it live for a lot longer?改变基因就能使得人们生命更长久吗Ah, so the kinds of drugs I was talking about我刚在讲这些药would not change the genes,不是改变基因they would just bind to the protein itself它们只会联系到蛋白质本身and change its activity.改变它的活性So if you stop taking the drug, the protein would go back to normal.所以如果你停止药,蛋白质会返回到平常You could change the genes in principle.原则上你可以改变基因There isnt the technology to do that.还没有科技这样做But I dont think thats a good idea.但我也认为这不是个好主意And the reason is理由是that these hormones,这些激素like the insulin and the IGF hormones and the TOR pathway,就像胰岛素和IGF-1激素和TOR传递theyre essential.它们是最基本的If you knock them out completely, then youre very sick.假若你完全没有它们,随后你就病得很重So it might be that you would just have to fine tune it very carefully所以可能只会非常小心地调试它们to get the benefits without getting any problems.在没有什么意外情况下使它们起作用And I think thats much better,我想这会更好that kind of control would be much better as a drug.这种调试就像用药一样会更好And also, there are other ways of activating FOXO当然,也有其他方法激活FOXOthat dont even involve insulin or IGF-1甚至不需要胰岛素和IGF-1激素that might even be safer.这甚至会更加安全I wasnt suggesting that I was going to go and do it, but ...我不是建议我要去试试,但是Theres a phenomenon which you have written about and spoken about,你曾写过和讲过一种现象which is a negligible senescence.它是一种可忽略的衰老There are some creatures on this planet aly在这星球上已经有些生物that dont really do aging.它们不会衰老Just move to one side for us, if you would.那让我们从另一面来说,假若可行的话There are. There are some animals that dont seem to age.是的,有些动物好像不会衰老For example, there are some tortoises called Blandings turtles.例如,有种叫布兰丁的龟And they grow to be about this size.它们生长到约这种尺寸And theyve been tagged, and theyve been found to be 70 years old.它们被标记,我们发现它们是70岁And when you look at these 70 year-old turtles,当看着这些70岁龟you cant tell the difference, just by looking,你不能只从相貌看出区别between those turtles and 20 year-old turtles.在这些70岁龟和20岁龟之间And the 70 year-old ones,70岁龟actually theyre better at scouting out the good nesting places,事实上能更好地探出安巢的好地方and they also have more progeny every year.它们每年也有更多的后代And there are other examples of these kinds of animals,还有其它这种动物like turns, certain kinds of birds are like this.像是某种鸟类就好比这个And nobody knows if they really can live forever,没人知道它们真的能永世活着or what keeps them from aging.或者是什么使得它们不衰老Its not clear.这都不清楚If you look at birds, which live a long time,如果你看看鸟类,那些活很长的cells from the birds tend to be more resistant这些鸟的细胞趋于更能抵制to a lot of different environmental stresses许多不同种的环境压力like high temperature比如高温or hydrogen peroxide, things like that.或过氧化氢,像这类似的And our long-lived mutants are too.我们长寿变异体也是如此Theyre more resistant to these kinds of stresses.它们更能抵制这些压力So it could be that the pathways that Ive been talking about,所以这可能是我所说的传递which are set to run really quickly in the worm,它在线虫身上设定和运转得非常快have a different normal set point有一个不同标准设定点in something like a bird, so that a bird can live a lot longer.如同鸟身上的那种,以至于鸟类能活很久And maybe theyre even set really differently或许它们甚至在动物中设定得非常不同in animals with no senescence at all -- but we dont know.一点都没有衰老--但我们不得而知But what youre talking about here但你这儿所谈到的is not extending human lifespan不是通过预防死亡by preventing death,来延长人类寿命so much as extending human youthspan.如同延长人类青春期一样Yes, thats right.是的,是这样Its more like, say, if you were a dog.这更像是,如果比作You notice that youre getting old, and you look at your human你发觉你在变老,你看看人类and you think, ;Why isnt this human getting old?;你想,“为什么这人不变老?”Theyre not getting old in the dogs lifespan.在的一生,人们没有变老Its more like that.这更像这种情况But now were the human looking out and imagining a different human.但现在我们是人类看着和想象着一个不同的人Thank you very much indeed, Cynthia Kenyon.的确十分感谢,辛西娅·肯尼娅201508/391400。

My Dad was valedictorian of Flint Mandeville High School class of 1956 for about 90 kids.我的父亲1956年从弗林特曼德维尔高中毕业,这届大约有90 个学生,他发表了毕业演讲。I happened across his graduating speech recently, and it blew me away.最近我有幸读到了这段演讲,并被其折。53 years ago my Dad said: “···we are entering a changing world,父亲在他53年前的毕业典礼上这样说:“……我们进入了一个日新月异的新时代,one of automation and employment change where education is an economic necessity.机器自动化和就业方式的改变使得教育成为经济发展的动力。We will have increased periods of time to do as we wish,我们有足够的时间去实现我们的梦想,as our work week and retirement age continue to decline and we wish that were true.正如缩短一周工作时间及提前退休年龄已经实现一样。We shall take part in, or witness, developments in science, medicine, and industry that we can not dream of today ...我们将参与或者见我们做梦也想不到的当今的科技、医药和工业的快速发展……It is said that the future of any nation can be determined by the care and preparation given to its youth.有人说,民族的未来都决定于对其年轻人的关心和培育。If all the youths of America were as fortunate in securing an education as we have been,如果所有的美国青年都能像我们这代一样有幸受到教育,then the future of the ed States would be even more bright than it is today.”那么美国的明天将更加辉煌。”If my Dad was alive today,如果我爸爸能活到今天,the thing I think he would be most happy about is that Lucy and I have a baby in the hopper.我想他最开心的莫过于看到露西和我即将拥有自己的孩子。I think he would have been annoyed that I hadn’t gotten my Ph.D. yet (Thanks, Michigan!).我想他会因为我还未拿到士学位而恼怒(谢谢你,密大!)。Dad was so full of insights, of excitement about new things,我的父亲是一个对新事物充满洞悉力和的人,that to this day, I often wonder what he would think about some new development.直到今天,我还经常想他会如何思考一些新发展。If he were here today—well, it would be one of the best days of his life.如果他今天也能来到这里,噢,那将会是他人生中最美好的日子之一。Hed be like a kid in a candy store.他会像一个在糖果店的儿童般高兴。For a day, hed be young again.在这一天,他又年轻了一把。Many of us are fortunate enough to be here with family.我们中很多人都很幸运,能够在这里和家人们一起。Some of us have dear friends and family to go home to.我们中的一些还可以和亲友家人一起回家。And who knows, perhaps some of you,like Lucy and I, are dreaming of future families of your own .还有一些人也许像我和露西一样,正梦想着自己未来的小家。Just like me,your families brought you here, and you brought them here.总之,和我一样,家人将你带到了密大。Please keep them close and remember: they are what really matters in life.请和他们保持亲密,并且记住:他们才是生命中真正至关重要的。Thanks, Mom; Thanks, Lucy.感谢妈妈,感谢露西。And thank you, all, very much.感谢大家。201308/252975。

My friend, Daniel Batson, spent a whole life putting people in the lab in very complex situations.我的朋友丹尼尔巴特森花了一生的时间研究人们在实验室中复杂环境下的表现。And of course we are sometimes selfish, and some people more than others.当然,我们有时是自私的, 而且有些人会比他人更自私。But he found that systematically, no matter what,theres a significant number of people who do behave altruistically, no matter what. 但他发现,整体来看,无论如何,有大量的人会表现出利他的行为,无论如何。If you see someone deeply wounded, great suffering,you might just help out of empathic distress you cant stand it, so its better to help than to keep on looking at that person. 如果你看到有人受伤很严重,非常痛苦,你就会出于同理心而伸出救援之手,你无法承受其伤痛, 与其冷眼相看,不如上前救援。So we tested all that, and in the end, he said, clearly people can be altruistic.种种情况都进行过试验研究, 最后,他说,人是有利他精神的So thats good news.这是好消息。And even further, we should look at the banality of goodness.而且,我们要看到善良的平凡一面。Now look at here.看这儿,When we come out, we arent going to say,Thats so nice.当我们走出家门,我们不会说,太好了,There was no fistfight while this mob was thinking about altruism.当强盗也在考虑帮助他人, 就不会有暴力发生了。No, thats expected, isnt it?不,这很显然,不是吗?If there was a fistfight, we would speak of that for months.如果真有暴力事件, 那够我们谈论几个月的了。So the banality of goodness is something that doesnt attract your attention,but it exists. 因此,你或许没留意到善良的平凡一面,但它确实存在。Now, look at this.看这段录像,So some psychologists said,when I tell them I run 140 humanitarian projects in the Himalayas that give me so much joy,they said, Oh, I see, you work for the warm glow. 许多心理学家说,当我告诉他们我在喜马拉雅地区 开展的140个人道主义行动带给我极大的幸福感时,他们说,我明白了,这是温情效应,That is not altruistic. You just feel good.而不是利他精神, 你只是为了让自己感觉良好。You think this guy, when he jumped in front of the train,he thought, Im going to feel so good when this is over?看看他,迎着火车跳入铁轨时,你们认为他会在想 救了他之后我的感觉会棒极了吗?But thats not the end of it.故事并没有结束。They say, well, but when you interviewed him, he said,I had no choice. I had to jump, of course.他们说,好吧,他接受采访时,说,我没有选择,我不得不跳下去, 当然了。He has no choice. Automatic behavior. Its neither selfish nor altruistic.他没有选择,自发的行为。 这不是自私也不是利他。No choice?没有选择?Well of course, this guys not going to think for half an hour,Should I give my hand? Not give my hand? 当然,他不会在那想个半小时,我要不要救他?不救他会怎样?He does it. There is a choice, but its obvious, its immediate.他跳了下去,这是一个选择, 但很显然,这是瞬间的反应。And then, also, there he had a choice.然后,没错,他确实是做了选择。There are people who had choice, like Pastor Andr Trocm and his wife,and the whole village of Le Chambon-sur-Lignon in France.有很多人做了选择, 像 Pastor Andre Trocme 和他的妻子,还有法国的名为利尼翁河畔勒尚邦的小镇。For the whole Second World War, they saved 3,500 Jews,在二次世界大战期间, 他们救了三千五百个犹太人,gave them shelter, brought them to Switzerland,为他们提供住所,带他们去瑞士,against all odds, at the risk of their lives and those of their family.克一切困难,冒着丧生和失去整个家庭的危险。So altruism does exist.因此,利他精神确实存在。So what is altruism?利他精神是什么呢?It is the wish: May others be happy and find the cause of happiness.是一种希望: 愿他人幸福喜乐,并找到幸福的根源。Now, empathy is the affective resonance or cognitive resonance that tells you,this person is joyful, this person suffers. 移情作用是一种共鸣, 或称之为认知共鸣,它会让你感受到他人的欢快, 他人的伤痛。But empathy alone is not sufficient.但只有移情是不够的。If you keep on being confronted with suffering,you might have empathic distress, burnout,so you need the greater sphere of loving-kindness. 如果周遭的不幸始终笼罩着你,你就会感到压力,承受不住,所以,你需要更大范围的充满关爱的善良。With Tania Singer at the Max Planck Institute of Leipzig,we showed that the brain networks for empathy and loving-kindness are different.来自莱比锡马普研究所的塔尼亚辛格 与我一起发现,从大脑构造的角度来看, 移情和充满关爱的善良是不一样的。Now, thats all well done,so we got that from evolution, from maternal care, parental love,but we need to extend that. 这是成熟的科学研究。这些是进化而来的, 是从我们接受母爱、父爱而得到的,但我们不能止步于此,It can be extended even to other species.它还可以拓展到其他物种。Now, if we want a more altruistic society, we need two things:如果希望社会中有更多的利他行为, 我们需要做到两方面:individual change and societal change.个人的改变和社会的改变。So is individual change possible?个人的改变可能吗?Two thousand years of contemplative study said yes, it is.两千年的冥想研究表明,是可以改变的。Now, 15 years of collaboration with neuroscience and epigenetics said yes, our brains change when you train in altruism.神经科学和表观遗传学 长达15年的合作也表明,改变可以发生,当你接受利他精神的训练时, 你的大脑会发生改变。So I spent 120 hours in an MRI machine.我接受了MRI长达120小时的扫描,This is the first time I went after two and a half hours.这是上次两个半小时治疗后第一次接受扫描。And then the result has been published in many scientific papers.扫描的结果被多篇学术论文选用。It shows without ambiguity that there is structural change and functional change in the brain when you train the altruistic love.其结果清晰地表明,当你接受利他关爱的训练时,大脑的结构和机能会发生改变。Just to give you an idea:给你们一个直观的感受:this is the meditator at rest on the left,meditator in compassion meditation, you see all the activity,and then the control group at rest, nothing happened,in meditation, nothing happened. 从左到右依次是放松状态下的冥思者,正在冥思怜悯的冥思者, 你们能看到发生了什么,然后是对照组,放松时,什么都没发生,冥想时,什么都没发生。201503/365492。