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2019年09月15日 22:02:01    日报  参与评论()人

福清人流去哪里好江阴镇中心医院在线QQYamoussoukro in Ivory Coast is a city with roads wide enough for jumbo jets to land on, a vast presidential palace and a basilica modelled on St Peter’s in Rome. However, while it was named the nation’s capital in 1983, most commercial and administrative activities still take place in another city, Abidjan.在科特迪瓦(Ivory Coast)的亚穆苏克罗市(Yamoussoukro),道路宽得可以降落大型喷气式客机,还有一个巨大的总统府和以罗马圣彼得大教堂为蓝本的长方形基督教堂。然而,尽管该市在1983年被定为国家首都,但如今大部分商业与行政活动仍发生在另一座城市阿比让(Abidjan)。Yamoussoukro’s failure to become the country’s primary urban centre is an example of how grand plans for new cities do not always live up to expectations.亚穆苏克罗市未能成为科特迪瓦的主要都市中心,是兴建新城市的宏伟计划并非总能达到预期的一个例子。From the ghostly eco-cities of China to Malaysia, where Cyberjaya, built as the country’s version of Silicon Valley, has so far failed to thrive, there is plenty of evidence of how difficult it is to create a city from scratch.从缺乏人气的中国“生态城”,到马来西亚以硅谷为蓝本建设、但至今未能蓬勃发展的赛城(Cyberjaya),大量据明,从一张白纸开始兴建一座城市有多么困难。“A lot of them are not filling in as expected,” says Sarah Moser, director of urban studies at Canada’s McGill university, who, with her students, is compiling a new cities database.“很多新城的人气发展不及预期,”加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)城市研究主任莎拉#8226;莫泽(Sarah Moser)说。她正跟自己的学生一起编制一个新城市数据库。On paper, the points for such greenfield developments are strong. Pressure is growing to house rapidly expanding urban populations, particularly in emerging economies. Policymakers in these countries have seized on building high-tech cities as a way of joining the club of wealthier nations. “Since the 1990s, and increasingly in the past 10 years, this has become a staple financial strategy for countries in the ‘global south’,” says Ms Moser. “It’s seen as a way to leapfrog the economy from the production of raw materials and manufacturing into this new, high-tech era.”在理论上,持这些绿地开发的理由十分充足。为快速增长的城市人口安排住房的压力在加大,尤其是在新兴经济体。这些国家的政策制定者把兴建高科技城市作为加入富国俱乐部的一个发力点。“自1990年代以来,尤其是在过去10年里,这已日益成为‘全球南方’(global south,泛指发展中国家——译者注)国家的一项首选金融战略,”莫泽说。“它被视为实现经济跳跃式发展的一条途径,从原材料生产与加工,迈入新的高科技时代。”As cities produce more than 70 per cent of the world’s human-generated carbon emissions, according to UN-Habitat, attempts are also being made to design “green” or “carbon-neutral” cities such as Masdar in Abu Dhabi.联合国人居署(UN-Habitat)数据显示,城市在人类产生的碳排放的世界总量中占到70%以上,因此一些国家还试图设计“绿色”或“碳中性”城市,比如阿布扎比的马斯达尔城(Masdar City)。Yet for Dirk Hebel, assistant professor of architecture and construction at Singapore’s Future Cities Laboratory, Masdar and similar projects borrow too much from older European models.不过,对于新加坡未来城市实验室(Future Cities Laboratory)建筑设计和建造助理教授德克#8226;赫布尔(Dirk Hebel)而言,马斯达尔城和类似项目向欧洲旧模式借鉴的地方还是太多。He says we should not build large-scale cities in defined locations — so drawing on the principles of older cities that needed defensive walls — but plan smaller settlements, some of which may grow, some of which may merge and some of which may stay small.他说,我们不应在指定地点建设大型城市——从而借鉴那些需要城墙守卫的老城市的原则——而应规划更小的定居点,其中有些或许会扩大,有些或许会跟其他定居点合并,也有些或许会保持较小规模。Mr Hebel argues that, while urban planners must still provide infrastructure such as transport systems, health and education services, developments should be more organic. “It should be a system not a single location.”赫布尔辩称,尽管城市规划者仍必须提供交通系统、医疗和教育务等基础设施,但开发项目应该在更大程度上是有机的。“它应该是一个系统,而不是一个单一地点。”Another challenge for new cities is persuading people to move into them.新城市的另一个挑战是说人们去那里落户。“You can populate those cities in China but you need to put [people] in buses and make sure they don’t leave,” says Michele Acuto, director of University College London’s city leadership initiative. He thinks building new cities is a flawed concept. “You could spend exactly the same amount on improving current structures and systems and fostering innovation in existing places.”“你可以让中国的城市住上人,但你需要用大巴来搬迁移民,并确保他们不会离开,”伦敦大学学院(University College London)城市领导项目主管米歇尔#8226;阿库托(Michele Acuto)说。他认为,兴建新城市是个有缺陷的概念。“你可以把兴建新城市的资金投入改进现有结构和系统,并在现有的地区培育创新。”But Ms Moser points to some promising examples, such as Yachay, north of Ecuador’s capital Quito, planned as a centre for scientific, academic, economic and technological research and innovation. Much of its focus has been on sustainability and planting local species to minimise water use.但是,麦吉尔大学的莫泽指出了一些前景光明的例子,比如厄瓜多尔首都基多(Quito)以北的Yachay,这里被规划为一个科学、学术、经济以及技术研究和创新中心。其着重点是可持续发展,包括种植当地物种,以尽量减少用水量。But Ms Moser believes another factor may aid Yachay’s success. Unlike many new cities, it is integrating its existing residents rather than moving them on. Agricultural workers, who may lose jobs once the city expands on to farmland, are being given work in composting plants or raising saplings for the city’s street trees. Others can take courses to give them the skills to open businesses.但莫泽认为,另一个因素或许有助于Yachay的成功。跟许多新城市不同的是,Yachay只是在整合现有居民,而不是强迫他们搬迁。因为城市扩张占用农田而可能失业的农业劳动者,正得到在堆肥厂工作或者为城市的行道树培育幼苗的机会。其他人可以参加培训课程,学到创办企业的技能。How many of the almost 150 brand new cities in her database does Ms Moser think will succeed? “It’s really too soon to tell,” she says.莫泽认为,她的数据库中近150个崭新的城市里,有多少个将取得成功?“现在太早了,还无法判断,”她说。“One of the keys for what makes a successful city is that it needs patient capital,” says Suzanne Gill, a partner at law firm Wedlake Bell, who runs debates aimed at stimulating discussion about long-term sustainable investments. “Some of these [new] cities are like young men in hurry,” she says. “And some will crash and burn.”“让一个城市获得成功的关键之一,是它需要‘耐心的资本’,”卫理贝尔律师事务所(Wedlake Bell)合伙人苏珊娜#8226;吉尔(Suzanne Gill)说。她组织了多场旨在激励人们讨论长期可持续投资项目的辩论会。“这些新城市中有一些就像是匆忙的年轻男子,”她说。“其中一些将遭遇彻底失败。” /201606/448279福建省福清市上迳镇妇幼保健院地址 福清比较好的医院是哪

福清医院妇科排名福清中医医院怎么预约 Two recent events have served to highlight the range of difficult questions raised by pharmaceuticals regulation. Last week, a man died in the French city of Rennes after a clinical trial of a painkiller went tragically wrong. In New York last month, Martin Shkreli, a former hedge fund manager, was arrested on securities fraud charges; Shkreli, who denies wrongdoing, won the sobriquet of “most hated man in America” after the company he controlled raised the price of the life-saving drug, Daraprim, from .50 a tablet to 0.最近发生的两件事突显了药品监管方面的多个难题。1月中旬,法国雷恩市(Rennes)一场止痛药临床试验不幸出错,致一名男子死亡。去年12月,纽约前对冲基金经理马丁史克雷利(Martin Shkreli)因涉嫌券欺诈被捕,不过他否认自己有违法行为。此前史克雷利执掌的公司将救命药达拉匹林(Daraprim)的售价从13.5美元一片抬高到750美元一片,令他荣获“全美最可恨的人”封号。Daraprim was developed in the 1950s and the patents expired a long time ago. The market, though, is small and Shkreli’s company had acquired the only US producer. Any other company that decided to sell the product would need to gain approval from the Food and Drug Administration, which would cost time and money. Anyone taking that path would face the risk that, when their product appeared, the incumbent might reduce their price in predatory competition, and this knowledge may deter prospective entrants.达拉匹林问世于上世纪50年代,专利早已过期。但达拉匹林市场很小,史克雷利的公司又收购了唯一的美国生产商。其他公司要想出售该产品,必须先获得美国食品和药物(FDA)的批准,这一过程需要投入大量时间和金钱。而且这样做企业还会面临一个风险,其产品一旦上市,市面上现有品牌或许会降价,展开掠夺性竞争,这一可能性会阻止潜在进入者。The pricing of Daraprim is a textbook example of the problematic economics of contestability — the way in which market outcomes are influenced not just by the number of competitors but by the potential for competition.达拉匹林定价事件是不完善的可竞争经济的经典案例,体现在市场结果不止受到竞争者数量的影响,也受潜在竞争的影响。Regulation that limits entry creates the possibility of price-gouging, but the death in Rennes is a reminder that the logic of requiring approval before drugs are put on sale is compelling. The value of careful regulatory scrutiny was demonstrated in the 1960s, when the FDA blocked US approval for thalidomide , the drug that led to the birth of thousands of babies with physical impairments in Britain and Germany.准入规定有可能会滋生漫天要价的行为,但雷恩的悲剧提醒了人们,药品需先经过批准再上市发售的逻辑强而有力。20世纪60年代,FDA没有批准沙利度胺(thalidomide)在美国发售,这种药物导致英国和德国数千名婴儿患先天性身体缺陷,这件事明了谨慎细致的监管审查的价值。The Rennes incident occurred during the first phase of a clinical trial in the standard (and costly) three-stage process for bringing a product to market. Plainly, this drug was put into testing prematurely and there will be pressure to further strengthen regulation. However, in the industry and outside, some aly justly criticise these approval processes for being too bureaucratic.药品上市前需经历标准的(且成本昂贵的)三阶段临床试验过程,雷恩事故发生在第一阶段。很显然,该药过早被投入临床试验,而且此事将带来加强监管的压力。但在行业内外,已经有人理直气壮地批评这些审批程序过于官僚。It is politically safer for a regulator to allow patients to die because a potentially life-saving drug has been held back than to allow patients to die because a dangerous drug has been released early.对于监管者来说,听凭病人因可能救命的药物推迟发售而死亡,比听凭病人因使用提前发售的危险药物而死亡,政治上要更安全。Such rigorous and costly testing creates market opportunities for people such as Shkreli and, industry complaints notwithstanding, enables the pharmaceuticals sector to report enviable returns on capital.正是这些严格且昂贵的临床试验为史克雷利这类人创造了市场机会,并帮助药品行业取得令人羡慕的资本回报率——虽然该行业对此仍抱怨不已。It is tempting to conclude that, where the state regulates products and market entry, it must also regulate prices. What, though, is a fair price for a drug? Prices should surely include acknowledgment of the value of an effective drug but it would be unconscionable to propose that beneficiaries of a life-saving product pay what it is worth to them. The Daraprim price rise dealt a fatal blow to any belief that the question could be resolved by appeal to the good sense and public spirit of the pharma industry.因此很容易得出这样的结论,既然国家控制了药品上市和市场准入,就必须对药物定价也进行控制。不过对于一种药品来说,怎样才算合理定价呢?药物价格当然应包括对一种有效药物价值的承认,但让某种救命药的受益者按照该药物对他们的价值付药价,这种提议也不合理。有一部分人相信定价问题可以通过呼吁制药行业表现出理智和公德心来加以解决,达拉匹林价格上涨对这种观念造成了致命打击。This is a problem with no right answer. Although much pharmaceuticals spending is directly or indirectly funded by government, state control of the industry in the Soviet Union produced very little innovation.这个问题没有正确。虽然很大一部分药品研发出直接或间接来自国家资助,但在前苏联,国家对制药行业的控制基本没产生创新。Perhaps we should make more use than we do (or once did) of prizes for discoveries of public benefit. Otherwise, a mix of devices used around the world — supervision of aggregate industry revenues, monopolistic purchasing negotiations and iness to undermine dominant positions when they are abused — seems the proper, pragmatic course.也许我们应该更多地对符合公共利益的发现进行奖励。另外,在全球使用组合手段——监督行业总收入,垄断性采购谈判,一旦发生滥用市场配地位的情况时削弱这种配地位——似乎是正确、务实的路线。The industry has to understand, as Shkreli did not, that its responsibilities are to a wider community than its own shareholders. The Rennes incident is a reminder of those responsibilities.药品行业必须认识到,自己负责的对象不止是股东,更是全社会。史克雷利就不明白这一点。雷恩事故是对这些责任的一次提醒。 /201602/426170福建省镜洋镇宫颈糜烂2度多少钱

福清天安医院B超多少钱Drug-resistant gonorrhea is on the increase. It causes severe reproductive complications and disproportionately affects sexual, racial and ethnic minorities. (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)抗药性淋病感染正在增加。它导致严重的并发症,且不成比例的影响不同性别,种族。(感染性疾病研究所)Infections from three sexually transmitted diseases have hit another record high, federal health officials reported.三种性病感染创历史新高,联邦卫生官员称More than 1.5 million cases of chlamydia were reported last year, up 6 percent from the year before. About 400,000 cases of gonorrhea were reported, a nearly 13 percent increase from 2014. The biggest increase, 19 percent, occurred in syphilis cases, with nearly 24,000 reported, according to the annual report on STDs released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.据疾病控制与预防中心关于性病的年度报告称:去年发现了超过150万衣原体感染病例,较前年上升了6%。约40万淋病病例,自2014年上升了近13%。梅毒感染病例增长最多,上升了19%,将近24000病例。All three diseases are curable with antibiotics, but gonorrhea is growing increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics.三种疾病均可用抗生素治疗,但淋病对抗生素治疗的抗性正在增加。CDC officials said STD rates are rising at a time when many of the country’s systems for preventing those infections have eroded. In recent years, more than half of state and local STD programs have had their budgets cut, resulting in more than 20 health department STD clinics closing in one year alone, the CDC said. In 2014, the number of chlamydia cases also rose to record levels.疾病控制与预防中心说在许多国家防控相关传染病系统关闭后,性病率升高。近年来,超过一半联邦和地方的性病项目遭到预算削减,单单一年时间内就导致超过二十个健康部门性病门诊关闭,疾病控制与预防中心说。在2014年,淋病病例也曾达到历史新高。“We have reached a decisive moment for the nation,” said Jonathan Mermin, director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention.“我们国家正处在决定性的时刻,” 乔纳森默明,国家疾控中心艾滋病病毒/艾滋病、病毒性肝炎、性病和结核病防空主任说。Americans ages 15 to 24 account for half of the estimated 20 million new STDs in the ed States each year. Numbers and rates of reported cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea continue to be highest among those ages 15 to 24. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)15-24岁的美国人预计在每年2000万新增性病感染中约占一半。在已发现的感染衣原体、淋病的数量和比例,15-24岁仍将是最高的(疾病控制与预防中心)。Most STD cases continue to go undiagnosed and untreated, putting people at risk for severe and often irreversible health consequences, the CDC said. The economic burden to the U.S. health-care system is nearly billion a year, according to the CDC.大部分经病感染者未确诊未治疗,使人们处于严重且常常是不可逆的风险中,疾病控制与预防中心说,对美国卫生保健系统造成每年160亿财政负担。Young people and gay and bisexual men face the greatest risk of infection, and there continues to be a troubling increase in syphilis among newborns, who are infected by their mothers.年轻人、同性恋和双性恋男性面临更大的感染风险,母婴传染导致的新生儿梅毒继续令人不安的增多。The 2015 data, the latest available, show:2015年最新的数据显示:Americans age 15 to 24 accounted for nearly two-thirds of chlamydia diagnoses and half of gonorrhea diagnoses.15-24岁美国人占2/3的衣原体确诊病例,和一半的淋病确诊病例。Men who have sex with men accounted for the majority of new gonorrhea cases and the most contagious forms of syphilis.啪男人的男人占大部分新增淋病病例,也是最多的梅毒感染途径。Women’s rate of syphilis diagnosis increased by more than 27 percent from 2014 to 2015.女性梅毒确诊病例从2014年到2015年上升了超过27%。Congenital syphilis, which occurs when the infection is transmitted from a pregnant woman to her baby, increased by 6 percent.先天性梅毒,即由怀的母亲传染给孩子的梅毒,上升了6%。Officials urged health-care providers to make STD screening a standard part of medical care, especially in pregnant women. Individuals need to get tested regularly and reduce risk by using condoms.官方敦促卫生保健提供者将性病筛查纳入医疗,特别是妇。个人需要定期测试和用避套降低风险。 /201703/499801 福清无痛人流医院哪家比较便宜青口镇儿童医院好吗

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