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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年01月23日 16:50:45
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Everyone knows Albert Einstein as a wild-haired, violin-playing genius who revolutionized physics, and many have heard how he arrived at his groundbreaking theories via one ingenious thought experiment, or gedankenexperiment, after another. But did you know that he was also an eccentric who gleefully eschewed socks, dodged German military service and spurned social conventions? Or that he was an enthusiastic but third-rate sailor?在众人眼中阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦是一位伟大的物理学家,他梳着一头标志性的乱发,喜欢拉小提琴,开创了物理学的新纪元。众所周知,他经过一次次巧妙的假想和试验,最终创立了相对论。可是你了解这位天才的怪脾气吗?他从来不穿袜子、在德国逃避兵役、藐视社会习俗,他还是一个狂热的航海爱好者,不过他的航海技术实在让人不敢恭维。Ever since solar eclipse observations in 1919 made him front-page news, we haven#39;t been able to get enough of this guy. And why not? Einstein#39;s influence extended beyond the scientific fields he revolutionized. His theories of relativity, which departed from the classical Newtonian view of the cosmos, came to symbolize a broader societal shift away from Enlightenment-influenced concepts of art, literature, morality and politics. More than that, thanks to his strong political and social views, often distilled into playful, philosophical and pithy es, he#39;s been a mainstay of dorm-room posters and pop culture for decades. But with the revelations that accompanied the release of his private papers 30 years after his death, do we finally have too much of Einstein? Do they remind us to never meet our heroes, or merely that all geniuses are, finally, human?1919年,一场日食观测活动让他成为头条新闻,可是我们对这位伟大科学家的了解还不够多。爱因斯坦的影响力不仅在于开创了科学领域的新纪元。他提出相对论,这一理论从经典牛顿宇宙观出发,象征一种更加广泛的社会转变——使艺术、文学、道德和政治等领域的观念更加成熟。他不仅拥有坚定的政治观和社会观,而且常常感悟出一些精辟、富于哲理又不失幽默的至理名言。因此,几十年来,他一直都是最受崇拜和欢迎的偶像。在他去世30年后,随着一些私人信件的公开,他的个人生活逐渐曝光,我们终于能够更好地了解爱因斯坦了吗?这些曝光的个人生活是让我们心中的偶像形象破灭,还是让我们明白天才也不过是个普通人?10.He Took Up Speaking Late as a Child10.他很晚才会说话Einstein did not speak until comparatively late in childhood, and he remained a reluctant talker until the age of 7. This fact, combined with his single-minded devotion to physics, his imposition of routines on his wife, his musical talent and other factors have led some to argue that Einstein had Asperger#39;s syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder that affects language and behavioral development in children.爱因斯坦在幼年时很晚才会说话,在7岁之前一直沉默寡言。这一事实,以及他对物理学研究的专一,他在生活中强加给妻子的束缚和他的音乐天赋等种种事情综合在一起,让一些人认为爱因斯坦患有阿斯伯格综合症——一种影响儿童语言和行为发育的自闭症。Other historical talents, including physicists Isaac Newton and Marie Curie and artists like Wassily Kandinsky and J.M.W. Turner, have received similar postmortem armchair diagnoses. Departing from this view, Stanford economist and author Thomas Sowell coined the term ;Einstein Syndrome; to describe non-autistic gifted people with delayed speech. How his ideas are viewed by child development experts, or how they differ from the more commonly known phenomenon of asynchronous development, in which gifted children develop faster than average in some areas and more slowly in others, remains unclear. In the end, Einstein, a lifelong visual thinker, might simply have had a rich inner life and no need for speech because, as one famous anecdote claims he said, ;up to now everything was in order.;人们经过分析发现,历史上很多天才都有类似的自闭特征,其中包括物理学家艾萨克·牛顿和玛丽·居里,以及瓦西里·康定斯基和约瑟夫·马洛德·威廉·透纳等艺术家。斯坦福大学经济学家兼作家托马斯·索维尔根据此观点创造出一个新词汇——“爱因斯坦综合症”,用来形容那些没有患上孤独症,但是语言发育迟缓的人。一些儿童发育专家认为艾斯伯格综合症与一般的自闭症不同,患有这种病症的儿童在某些方面天赋过人,而在另一些方面却发育迟缓,但是目前为止该理论并未得到实。爱因斯坦,身为一个视觉思想家,或许他的内心生活十分丰富,但无需向人表达,正如他曾说过的那句话:“目前来看一切都井然有序。”9.He Did Not Actually Do Poorly in School9.他的学习成绩其实没那么糟糕We love to swap ironic facts about famous people, especially in our click-bait-driven Internet culture. So it#39;s no surprise that the notions that Einstein struggled with math and that he failed his college entrance exams have such staying power. In truth, he excelled in physics and math from a young age and studied calculus while only 12 years old. He also knew his way around Greek conjugation and Latin declension. So how did the idea that he failed math gain traction? Possibly because, during one year of Einstein#39;s education, school officials reversed the grading system, turning the numerical equivalent of A#39;s into F#39;s (and confusing unwary future biographers).我们都喜欢八卦名人轶事,尤其在拼点击率的互联网文化的驱使下,这些名人轶事被更快地传播开。因此,有关爱因斯坦数学很烂,而且没通过大学入学考试这样的传闻会深入人心,也就不足为奇了。事实上,他从小擅长物理和数学,甚至12岁时就学习了微积分。对希腊语和拉丁语也略知一二。那么有关他数学很烂的传闻从何而来呢?原来,在爱因斯坦入学考试那年,学校管理者更改了评分制度,将成绩“A”档改成了“F”档(后来的传记作家没有仔细考才造成了今天的误会)。Einstein did fail his first round of entrance exams -- due to extenuating circumstances. When the young man applied to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, he was a 15-year-old dropout who lacked the equivalent of a high school diploma. Moreover, the rigid educational system that he grew up in did not provide him the background in French, chemistry and biology that he needed to pass the institute#39;s exams. He scored so highly on his mathematics and physics tests, however, that the university accepted him anyway, on the condition that he complete his secondary education soon after.爱因斯坦的确没有通过第一轮入学考试——但是情有可原。他向苏黎世联邦理工学院提出入学申请时,只有15岁,因为中途退学而没有拿到高中文凭。此外,他就读的学校,教育体制僵化,没有开设法语、化学和生物学等课程,而这些是入学考试的必考科目。由于他的数学和物理学成绩优异,学校最终还是录取了他,但前提是要他完成高中学业。8.He Had an Illegitimate Daughter With a Mysterious Fate8.他有一个私生女,命运成谜While attending university in Zurich, Einstein fell in love with an older physics student, Mileva Maric, who would eventually become his first wife. By the standards of late 19th-century Europe, theirs was a modern love affair. They soon grew quite close and gave one another nicknames: He called her ;Dollie,; and she nicknamed him ;Johnnie.;在苏黎世上大学期间,爱因斯坦和物理系学——米列娃·玛丽克坠入爱河,米列娃·玛丽克最终成为他的第一任妻子。从19世纪后期欧洲的开放程度来看,弟恋是一件非常时髦的事。他们的恋情发展迅速,彼此之间还起了昵称:爱因斯坦叫妻子“多莉”,妻子则亲昵地叫他“约翰尼”。Maric was a remarkable woman, having overcome enormous social resistance to earn a place as the fifth woman accepted to the prestigious university. But for years after graduation, Einstein remained too poor to marry her. Moreover, his parents rejected Maric as a too-old, bookish Eastern Orthodox Serb, and his father did not approve the marriage until just before his death in 1902. Earlier that year, in January, the couple had a daughter named Lieserl (diminutive for Elisabeth). Maric returned to her parent#39;s home near Novi Sad, a Serb cultural center then located in the Kingdom of Hungary but today part of Serbia#39;s rural Vojvodina region. There she gave birth to the child, after which the couple never spoke of their daughter to others, even friends. Lieserl#39;s fate remains a mystery to this day. The two prevalent theories hold that she died of scarlet fever or was given up for adoption.玛丽克是一位非凡的女性,她冲破社会阻力,成为第五位就读名牌大学的女性。可是毕业多年以后,爱因斯坦仍然穷得娶不起她。这桩婚事还遭到爱因斯坦父母的反对,在他们看来,玛丽克不仅年纪太大,而且还是个信仰东正教的书呆子。他的父亲直到1902年去世之前,才同意他们的婚事。同年一月,他们的女儿来到世上,取名丽瑟尔(伊丽莎白的爱称)。玛丽克回到父母身边,他们住的地方离诺维萨德很近。当时的诺维萨德位于匈牙利帝国,是塞尔维亚的文化中心,而如今的诺维萨德则隶属于塞尔维亚伏伊伏丁那自治省。自从玛丽克在那里生下女儿之后,这对夫妻从未向别人提起过她,连他们的朋友也不知道。直到今天,丽瑟尔的命运仍是一个谜。人们普遍持两种观点:一种观点认为丽瑟尔死于猩红热,另一种观点认为她被遗弃,随后被人收养。7.He Was a Cad With a Tumultuous Family Life7.他是个花心男,私生活混乱不堪Whatever closeness Einstein and Maric shared did not survive long into their marriage, as their correspondence makes clear. Indeed, his own letters paint him as an unkind philanderer who neglected and mistreated her while openly enjoying several flirtations and affairs. One mistress, his cousin Elsa, would eventually become his second wife, although he also considered marrying her daughter, his future stepdaughter. This must have made family reunions both uncomfortable and confusing, especially since Elsa was Einstein#39;s first cousin on his mother#39;s side and his second cousin on his father#39;s side. He cheated on Elsa as well, but she allowed it as long as he kept his affairs quiet.曾经的亲密无间也没能延长爱因斯坦和玛丽克的婚姻,这一点从他们的信件中很容易看出来。实际上,从爱因斯坦的信中可以看出,他是个无情无义的。他喜欢到处和异性调情,丝毫不掩饰自己的风流韵事,也不在乎这些事对妻子造成的伤害。他的表艾尔莎,也是他的情妇之一,后来成了他的第二任妻子。然而在此之前,他甚至考虑娶她的女儿,也就是自己未来的继女为妻。从他们的亲戚关系来看,这桩婚姻让家庭聚会变得十分尴尬,因为对于爱因斯坦来说,艾尔莎既是他的表又是他的堂。这段婚姻也没能让爱因斯坦有所收敛,但是只要他不公开这些风流韵事,艾尔莎都默然接受了。Meanwhile, because he could not afford to support himself and his first wife in the case of a divorce, Einstein struck a deal with Maric: She would grant him a divorce, and he would give her and their two sons the prize money from his presumably imminent Nobel. Finally, after five years living apart, Maric divorced Albert in 1919. Thereafter, he grew estranged from his sons, one of whom was schizophrenic, leaving Maric to care for them and her own crumbling family.另一方面,爱因斯坦负担不起与第一任妻子的离婚费用,因此与玛丽克达成协议:她同意离婚,如果将来爱因斯坦获得诺贝尔奖,必须把奖金交给她和两个儿子。1919年,玛丽克和爱因斯坦分居五年后,两人正式离婚。从此以后,他与两个儿子渐渐疏远,其中一个患有精神分裂症,玛丽克只好独自照顾他们,撑起这个破碎的家庭。6.He Had One Heck of a Year6.爱因斯坦奇迹年In 1905, Einstein published four papers that rocked contemporary views of space, time, mass and energy and helped set the stage for modern physics, all while writing a doctoral dissertation and working as a third-class examiner in the Swiss patent office. After graduation, Einstein had applied for numerous academic posts, but school after school had rebuffed him. Their rejections stemmed in part from a letter of recommendation that Einstein had foolishly requested from Heinrich Weber, a professor whose classes he had regularly ditched. As decisions go, it was an object lesson in the difference between intelligence and wisdom. But the clerkship left Einstein enough daydreaming time to conceive his four landmark Annals of Physics journal papers, all published in a single annus mirabilis:1905年,爱因斯坦发表了四篇论文,颠覆了当时有关空间、时间、质量与能量的一切观点,为现代物理学的发展奠定了基础。同年,他还取得了士学位,并且晋升为瑞士专利局的三级技术员。毕业之后,爱因斯坦向多所学校申请了学术职位,但均遭到拒绝。他们之所以拒绝爱因斯坦,一部分因为海因里希·韦伯教授为他写的推荐信。上学时,爱因斯坦经常翘这位教授的课。虽然他智力超群,但是找海因里希·韦伯写推荐信实在不是明智之举。爱因斯坦只得到了试用职位,却让他有大把的时间用来构思四篇划时代的论文。四篇论文均在《物理学年鉴》上发表,并于同一年出版,人们称这一年为“爱因斯坦奇迹年”。;On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light; explained the photoelectric effect using quantum theory.《关于光的产生和转化的一个试探性观点》用量子理论解释了光电效应。;On the Movement of Small Particles Suspended in Stationary Liquids Required by the Molecular-Kinetic Theory of Heat; experimentally proved the existence of atoms.《基于热分子运动论的静止液体中悬浮粒子的运动研究》从实验上明原子的存在。;On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies; established the mathematical theory of special relativity.《论动体的电动力学》创立狭义相对论。;Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?; explained how relativity theory led to a mass-energy equivalence of E mc2.《物体的惯性同它所含的能量有关吗?》解释如何用相对论推导出质能等价方程式:E mc#178;翻译:刘安琪 审阅:烟囱 来源:前十网 /201602/427509The Prosperity Index ranks countries according to their performance across eight equally-weighted sub-indexes. The 2015 rankings reveal the most and least prosperous in the world. Norway ranks 1st gloablly in the 2015 Prosperity Index, having kept its place for 7 years. The U.S. dropped out the top 10 to place 11th. The 10 overall rankings in 2015 are Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, New Zealand, Swenden, Canada, Australia, Netherlands, Finland and Ireland. China ranks 52th in the overall rank and 3rd in economy sub-index.据美国Market Watch网站近日报道,英国智库列格坦研究所本周发布了“2015全球繁荣指数”,挪威连续7年蝉联第一,美国意外跌出前十名,成为第十一名。最繁荣国家前十名分别为挪威、瑞士、丹麦、新西兰、瑞典、加拿大、澳大利亚、荷兰、芬兰、爱尔兰。中国位列第52名,其中经济指标成绩位居全球第3位。Along with the health and safety categories, the London-based think tank used 89 variables to score each country on eight other ;sub-indexes;, including economy, entrepreneurship and opportunity, governance, education, health, safety and security, personal freedom and social capital. The last ones takes into account such as vague metrics wuch as marriage and religion. A lower score in ;social capital; lead to the decline in the U.S. rankings.列格坦研究在统计该指数时,纳入了89个变量,再按照8个指标对每一个国家进行评定,这八个指标分别是经济、创业和就业机会、教育、健康、安全、政府监管、个人自由、社会资本。对社会资本的衡量因素包括婚姻、宗教等。美国在“社会资本”这一项上的得分偏低,从而拉低了美国在繁荣指数榜上的整体分数。This year the ed States ranks 33rd on the Safety and Security sub-index. Safety amp; Security is the only sub-index in which the US ranks outside the top 30.影响美国得分走低最大的因素是“安全保障”,美国是该指数榜前二十名中唯一在“安全保障”这一项跌破30名的国家。 /201511/408342

;I#39;m sorry, Madam, but I shall have to charge you twenty dollars for pulling your boy#39;s tooth.;“对不起,夫人,为您孩子拔牙我要收取20美元。”;Twenty dollars! Why, I understand you to say that you charged only four dollars for such work!;“20美元!为什么?不是说好只要4美元。”;Yes, but this youngster yelled so terribly that he scared four other patients out of the office.;“是的,但是你的孩子大喊大叫,把另外四个病人吓跑了。” /201511/411292

  For nearly four decades, a giant neon cow suspended above a steakhouse in Hong Kong’s Western District was a neighborhood landmark. It was where, if you were giving directions, you told someone to get off the bus or to take the next left. A glowing bovine beacon nearly 10 feet long and 8 feet tall, cantilevered over the street, you couldn’t miss it.香港——四十年来,香港西区一家牛排餐厅上挂着的巨型霓虹灯奶牛已经成了地标。如果你给人指路,告诉别人在哪儿下车,在哪儿左拐,都会提到它。这头闪闪发光的牛将近10英尺长,8英尺高,悬挂在街头,肯定不会错过。It was supposed to be an Angus, said Iry Yip, the manager of Sammy’s Kitchen. The sign was designed in 1978 by her father, Sammy Yip, the restaurant’s founder, who at 84 still sits behind the cash register.森美餐厅的经理叶凤仪(Iry Yip)说,它是一头安格斯牛(Angus),是她的父亲、餐厅创始人叶联(Sammy Yip)在1978年设计的。他老人家今年84岁,仍然坐在餐厅的收银台后面。But the sign maker decided that longer legs would look better, hence the world’s only known long-legged, bluish-white Angus, with “Sammy’s Kitchen Ltd.” emblazoned across its flank in green in English and in red in Chinese.但是制作这个霓虹招牌的师傅觉得牛的腿还是长一点好看,于是它就成了世界上唯一一只长着四条长腿,呈蓝白色的安格斯牛,它的腹部装点着绿色的“Sammy’s Kitchen Ltd.”与红色的“森美餐厅”字样。But in 2011, the city’s Buildings Department decided the sign was unsafe and ordered it removed. After an unsuccessful campaign to save it, the sign came down in August.但是2011年,香港屋宇署认为这个招牌不安全,要将它拆掉。要求保留招牌的活动没能成功,今年8月,它被拆除了。“It feels like something is missing,” Ms. Yip said. “The street has gotten so empty.”“感觉就像少了什么,”叶凤仪说,“整条街变得空荡荡的。”Since the mid-20th century, endless towers of flashing, throbbing neon have defined Hong Kong’s landscape as much as Victoria Harbor and the skyline of densely packed high-rises.自从20世纪中期,无数跳跃闪烁的霓虹灯便装点着香港的街景、维多利亚湾,以及高楼大厦林立的天际线。“When you think of Hong Kong and visual culture, one of the first things that comes to the fore is neon signs,” said Aric Chen, curator of M+, a museum that is collecting images of Hong Kong’s neon signs online and some of the signs themselves as they are retired, including the neon cow.“一想起香港与它的视觉文化,首先跃入脑海的就会有它的霓虹招牌,”M+物馆的策展人陈伯康(Aric Chen)说,这家物馆专门在线收集香港的霓虹招牌照片,也收集一些被拆除的霓虹招牌,比如森美餐厅的霓虹奶牛。The Hong Kong immortalized in the films of Wong Kar-wai, the director of “In the Mood for Love” and “Chungking Express,” is awash in neon, Mr. Chen said.在《花样年华》与《重庆森林》的导演王家卫的影片中,那个沐浴在霓虹灯中的香港得以永远留存,陈伯康说道。“If his representations of Hong Kong in the popular imaginations are seminal, which I think they are,” he said, “you can’t separate that image from the neon ambient glow.”“我认为他呈现的香港在大众想像中具有深远的影响,”他说,“那个香港的形象与霓虹灯的光辉密不可分。”But the neon of Hong Kong’s streets is dimming.但是如今,香港街头的霓虹灯光愈来愈黯淡。Neon has declined rapidly since the 1990s, sign makers and experts say, as building regulations here have tightened and new signs are made of LEDs, which lack neon’s warmth but are brighter and less expensive to maintain.自从20世纪90年代,霓虹灯开始迅速消失,招牌制作师傅和有关专家们说,香港的建筑规划愈来愈严格,新的标志都是用LED灯制作,它没有霓虹灯的暖意,但是更加明亮,保养费用也较为低廉。The Hong Kong Buildings Department has no record of how many neon signs remain in the city or how many existed at their peak, but the department acknowledges that it removes hundreds of signs a year for failure to meet code. Signs are removed for safety and structural reasons, or when they are abandoned or unauthorized.香港屋宇署没有这个城市目前还剩多少霓虹招牌的统计数字,也没有它在全盛时期的准确数字。但该机构承认,它在一年内拆除了数百个不符合相关规定的霓虹招牌。拆除不是出于安全与建筑结构原因,就是因为安装时未经许可,或者招牌本身已被弃置不用。In a workshop with gray, peeling walls, Lau Wan, one of the last of Hong Kong’s neon sign makers, heated a glass tube on a naked flame, effortlessly bending it into the Chinese character for Polytechnic University.刘稳是香港最后一批霓虹招牌制作师傅之一,在墙皮斑驳脱落的车间里,他用明火给一个玻璃管加热,一边轻松地将它弯曲成“香港理工大学”的中文字样。Mr. Lau, who has been making neon signs by hand since 1957, helped turn Hong Kong nights into blazing, garish days. He created one of the city’s largest and most famous signs, the red-and-white Panasonic billboard that covered an entire building on Nathan Road from 1973 to 1995.1957年入行后一直靠手工制作霓虹灯的刘稳,和其他工匠制作的霓虹光管一起,把香港的夜晚变成了五光十色、令人目眩的白昼。他的作品包括香港最大也最著名的霓虹招牌之一——红白两色的“乐声牌”(Panasonic)广告招牌,从1973年到1995年,它占据了弥敦道上一座大厦的一整面外墙。According to Guinness World Records, another Hong Kong sign, a 210-by-55-foot ad for Marlboro cigarettes, was the world’s largest in the 1980s. It was eclipsed here in 1999 by a giant dragon sign, about 299 feet by 151 feet, Leila Wang, a Guinness spokeswoman, said.根据吉尼斯世界纪录,20世纪80年代,210英尺×55英尺的香港万宝路香烟霓虹广告牌曾是世界上最大的霓虹招牌。吉尼斯女发言人莱拉·王(Leila Wang,音译)说,1999年,它的纪录被香港的另一座霓虹招牌超过,那是一座299英尺×151英尺的巨龙招牌。Now, at 75, Mr. Lau said he feared that his craft was dying.75岁的刘稳说,他担心这门手艺会失传。“I want it preserved, but I probably won’t be able to see it,” he said.“我希望它可以保存下去,但我可能看不到了,”他说。His colleague, Wu Chi-kai, 47, is the second-youngest of the nearly dozen neon sign makers left in the city, and there are no apprentices being trained for the next generation.他的同事、47岁的胡智楷是香港第二年轻的霓虹招牌师傅,但在这里仅存的十来位师傅中,大家都无徒可授。“Just like every other industry, if the business is good, there must be new blood,” Mr. Wu said. “If no one is joining the industry, the reason is the lack of business.”“和所有行业一样,如果生意兴隆,就会有新鲜血液,”胡智楷说,“如果没有人加入这个行业,那就是没有生意做。”Neon was a Western import that quickly gained its own vocabulary in China, first in Shanghai, then Hong Kong, combining the ancient Chinese art of calligraphy with modern advertising. 霓虹灯是西方的舶来品,但是很快在中国发展起新的形式,先是在上海,然后是在香港,它把古老的中国书法艺术与现代商业广告结合在一起。Before computer fonts took over, master calligraphers drafted the Chinese characters, making sketches that were traced by sign makers.在电脑字体一统天下之前,霓虹招牌上的中文字由书法大师起草,再由师傅按照这个底稿进行制作。Fung Siu-wa, 66, calls himself the champion of the character outlining game. He still has no computer in his office, where the most advanced piece of technology is a television. Sipping a cup of black tea in his black silk tang suit, he said the work involved spending time learning the shapes of the words, understanding the structures of the characters and catering to the needs of particular industries.66岁的冯兆华(Fung Siu-wa)自称为勾勒字体的冠军。他的办公室里仍然没有电脑,最先进的东西就是一台电视。他身穿黑色丝绸唐装,品着红茶,说自己的工作就是研究中文方块字的形状结构,以便适应不同行业的需要。“Every industry has different preference for typeface,” he said. “Restaurants and hotels like more honest-looking characters, while more artistic businesses like salons, nightclubs and karaoke prefer ethereal-looking ones that give a romantic and relaxing sensation.”“不同的行业喜欢不同的字体,”他说。“饭馆和酒店喜欢看上去更老实的字体,而沙龙、夜店、卡拉OK那些比较艺术化的行业更喜欢浪漫、轻松的感觉。”Certain tropes have developed, such as the badge-shaped sign that every Hong Kong resident knows as the logo for pawn shops. The design resembles a bat holding a coin in its mouth. The Chinese word for bat sounds like the word for fortune, and the coin symbolizes wealth.这个行当还发展出了特定的修辞,比如所有香港人都知道,某种徽章形状的招牌是典当行的标识,上面的图案是一只蝙蝠嘴里叼着一个铜板。在中文里,“蝠”与“富”谐音,而铜板象征着钱财。What the medium itself represents has changed over time. When Hong Kong first fell for neon in the 1920s, it was an indicator of urban sophistication and prosperity.作为媒介,霓虹灯的意义也随着时间的变化而变化。20世纪20年代,香港刚刚迷上霓虹灯的时候,它曾是城市品位与繁荣的象征。By the 1960s and ‘70s, when some neighborhoods here were as chockablock with neon as Times Square, it was considered gaudy, if not headache-inducing. By the 1980s, neon signs were often associated with urban decay and red-light districts.60年代到70年代,香港的一些地方开始像纽约的时报广场一样布满了霓虹灯,人们觉得它们就算不是让人头疼,至少也是过于花哨俗气。80年代,霓虹招牌经常和城市的堕落与红灯区联系在一起。Today, as they grow scarcer, they have become retro-chic artifacts and objects of nostalgia. Old signs are purchased as folk art by collectors and museums, while modern artists incorporate neon in their work.如今,随着霓虹招牌日渐稀少,它们开始成为用于复古与怀旧的东西。收藏家和物馆把老的霓虹招牌当做民间艺术收购,现代艺术家们则把霓虹灯融入自己的作品。Mr. Chen of M+ says the signs should remain in their natural habitat, suspended above Hong Kong’s busy streets. But his museum has acquired signs to save them from the junk heap. M+, which for now has no space of its own, hopes to display them when its building is finished in 2019.M+的陈伯康说,霓虹招牌应该保留在原来的地方,悬挂在香港繁忙街道的上方。不过,他的物馆也在从垃圾堆里抢救它们。M+如今还没有自己的空间,要到2019年场馆落成后,才能公开展示自己收藏的霓虹招牌。Plenty of handmade neon remains in the city for those who notice it. Mr. Chen says most residents do not.香港还是有很多手工制作的霓虹灯,根本无人注意。陈伯康说,大多数居民不会留意身边的霓虹招牌。“Neon signs are so familiar to people in Hong Kong that, of course, they almost don’t need to think about it,” he said. It often takes a foreign eye, he said, to see the beauty.“香港人非常熟悉这些霓虹招牌,所以多数人理所当然地不会多想它们,”他说。大多数时候,异乡人的眼睛才能看到它们的美。The sign makers, however, downplay any artistic pretension. As their work began to blanket the city, art was not the point.不过,霓虹招牌制作师们并不重视艺术化的虚饰。他们的作品遍布全城的时候,艺术根本不重要。“The only requirement at that time was to be able to immediately catch someone’s attention among a street full of signs,” Mr. Wu said. “That was the standard.”“当时满街都是招牌,唯一的要求就是,你的招牌能够立刻吸引人们的注意力,” 胡智楷说,“这是行业的标准。”Most of the work today, Mr. Wu said, consists of indoor decorative signs for boutiques, bars and restaurants.胡智楷说,如今,他们的大多数作品是为精品店、酒吧和饭馆制作室内装饰性的招牌,也包括室内装潢。These pieces may be lovely, and may even be art, but they are obscure. The neon signs Mr. Wu and Mr. Lau once made were seen by a city of seven million.这些作品或许很可爱,甚至堪称艺术品,但它们不为人所知。然而胡智楷和刘稳以前制作的那些招牌可以被整个城市的800万人看到。“When foreigners came to Hong Kong, looking at the scenery of the narrow streets, and were stunned by the neon signs, it made us sign makers quite proud,” Mr. Lau said. “We worked so hard for Hong Kong and were actually making contributions.”“外国人来到香港,看到狭窄街头登上的景象,到处都是霓虹招牌,总会让他们惊叹不已,这让我们招牌师傅非常骄傲,”刘稳说。“我们为香港拼命工作,真是做了不少的贡献。” /201510/403777

  Archaeologists have discovered the oldest tea in the world among the treasures buried with a Chinese emperor. New scientific evidence suggests that ancient Chinese royals were partial to a cuppa – at least 2150 years ago. Indeed, they seem to have liked it so much that they insisted on being buried with it – so they could enjoy a cup of char in the next world.考古学家在一位中国皇帝的陪葬品中,发现了世界上最古老的茶叶。这一新的科学据表明,中国的古代皇室是偏爱茶,至少在2150年前是这样的。事实上,这些皇室似乎很喜欢茶叶,以至于他们坚持要与它一起埋葬,这样他们可以在另外一个世界享受一杯热茶。The new discovery was made by researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.这一新的发现是由中国科学院的研究人员提出的。The high-quality tea leaves found in the tomb of the Han Dynasty Emperor Jing Di, who died in 141 , are 2,150 years old.这些高品质茶叶是在汉景帝墓中出土的。汉景帝卒于公元前141年,因此这些茶叶已有2150年历史。By examining tiny crystals trapped between hairs on the surface of the leaves and by using mass spectrometry, they were able to work out that the leaves, buried with a mid second century Chinese emperor, were actually tea.研究人员通过研究茶叶表面绒毛间的微小晶体并利用质谱分析法,分析出了与这位公元前2世纪皇帝一起埋葬的陪葬品中的叶子就是茶叶。The scientific analysis of the food and other offerings in the Emperor#39;s tomb complex have also revealed that, as well as tea, he was determined to take millet, rice and chenopod with him to the next life.对汉景帝墓葬群中的食物和其他祭品的科学分析结果显示,除了茶,汉景帝还决定带着谷子、大米以及藜科植物去另一个世界。Other items included weapons, pottery figurines, an #39;army#39; of ceramic animals and several real full size chariots complete with their horses.此外,其他发现的物品还包括武器、陶瓷雕像,陶瓷动物和几辆马匹完备的真正的战车等等。 /201601/422068。

  

  Cue the sweaty palms.这可能会让你吓得手心出汗。Travelers will soon be able to walk across the world#39;s longest and highest glass-bottom bridge, which spans two cliffs in China#39;s Hunan province.游客们很快就可以体验这座世界最长最高的玻璃桥了。这座桥建在中国湖南省,横跨两座悬崖。This week, workers were photographed installing the bridge#39;s first piece of glass.本周,工人被拍到正在桥上安放第一块玻璃。Set against dramatic landscapes in Zhangjiajie National Forest Park, the bridge is 430 meters long, six meters wide and hovers over a 300-meter vertical drop.这座桥悬于半空,全长430米,宽6米,垂直高度达300米。站在桥上面可以一览张家界国家森林公园的壮丽景观。Construction on the bridge was originally expected to be finished at the end of 2015. It#39;s now set to open in May this year.玻璃桥原本预计将在2015年底完工,最新消息称将于今年5月份开放。World#39;s highest catwalk?世界最高的T台?Designed by Israeli architect Haim Dotan, the glass-bottom bridge will also feature the world#39;s highest bungee jump and serve as a runway for fashion shows.这座玻璃桥由以色列建筑师渡堂海设计。桥上还设有世界最高的蹦极跳台,同时还可作为时装表演的T台。Hanging above Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon, it will be able to hold up to 800 people at once.这座桥悬挂在张家界大峡谷的上空,一次可以容纳800名游客。Digital renderings of the bridge highlight the architectural firm#39;s vision -- to build a glass structure that fades into the clouds.玻璃栈道的数字效果图展现了建筑公司的愿景——建一座高耸入云的玻璃建筑。Stunning as the view is, tourists will likely t carefully.尽管桥上美景震撼人心,游客们在行走的时候还是会小心翼翼。In October last year, cracks appeared in a mountainside glass walkway in Yuntaishan Scenic Park, in China#39;s central Henan province, just two weeks after opening.去年10月,河南省云台山世界地质公园新建的玻璃栈道开通后仅仅两周就出现了裂纹。The incident sent visitors running and screaming in panic, according to witnesses.目击者称,事故发生时游客们奔跑、尖叫,全都吓坏了。Park officials said the damage was superficial and posed no threat to safety.公园方面解释说,玻璃栈道的裂纹只是表面破损,不会对安全构成威胁。 /201601/424724Even though taking a daily pill can protect almost completely against getting H.I.V., a third of primary care doctors and nurses in the ed States have never heard of it, federal health officials said this week.美国的联邦卫生官员在本周表示,虽然每日用一种药片几乎可以完全预防H.I.V.(人类免疫缺陷病毒)感染,但在美国,有三分之一的初级保健医生和护士从来没有听说过它。Taking Truvada daily gives better than 90 percent protection to men at risk of getting H.I.V. from gay sex, and better than 70 percent protection to drug injectors at risk of getting it from sharing syringes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,C.D.C.)称,对于因同性性行为而存在感染风险的男性,每日用特鲁瓦达(Truvada)可实现90%以上的保护率;对于因共用注射器而有感染风险的注射吸毒者,保护率达70%以上。“Providers play a central role in increasing awareness and uptake of PrEP,” Dr. Eugene McCray, director of the agency’s division of H.I.V. prevention, said, using the acronym for pre-exposure prophylaxis, as the practice of taking the drug for prevention is known.“供应商在增进人们对PrEP的了解和接受中发挥了核心作用,”该机构H.I.V.预防部门的主管尤金·麦克雷(Eugene McCray)士说。由于用药物预防的做法日渐为人所知,他在谈话中直接使用了“暴露前预防”的英文缩写。Truvada is currently the only antiretroviral drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for PrEP, but its maker, Gilead Sciences, does not advertise it for that purpose. The C.D.C. calculated that about 25 percent of all healthy gay men, 20 percent of all healthy drug injectors and about 0.4 percent of all healthy heterosexual women would benefit from being on the drug; the gay men because they have an infected partner or have unprotected sex with multiple partners, the drug injectors because they share syringes and the women because they have partners who inject drugs or are bisexual. There are an estimated 45,000 new H.I.V. infections in the ed States each year.特鲁瓦达是目前唯一被美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)批准用于PrEP的抗逆转录病毒药物,但它的制造商吉利德科学公司(Gilead Sciences)却未曾给它的这一用途做过广告。按照C.D.C.的计算,这种药物可造福于约25%的健康男同性恋者、20%的健康注射吸毒者和约0.4%的健康异性恋女性。男同性恋者的风险在于他们的伴侣有可能是感染者,以及他们可能会与多个性伙伴发生不安全的性行为;注射吸毒者的风险在于共用注射器;而女性的风险在于她们的伴侣可能是注射吸毒者或双性恋者。据估计,美国每年约有4.5万例新发H.I.V.感染。 /201512/412960

  

  

  Yu is the hero of controlling flood.禹是治水安民的历史英雄人物。It is said that in the reign of Yao and Shun, the overrunning flood was mischievous, so Yao assigned Gun to regulate it.尧、舜时期,洪水泛滥为害。尧命夏族首领鲧治洪水。Gun failed with embankment and was killed by Shun.鲧用筑堤防的方法治水无功,为舜杀死。Then, Shun recruited Yu,Gun,s son,to continue the work. Spending a backbreaking thirteen years and bypassing his house three times but never going in, Yu dredged new river channels as outlets, guiding water to river and river to sea.舜又命鲧之子禹治水,禹“居外十三年,过家门不敢人”,用疏导法治水,导小水入于川,导川水致于海。This not only eliminated the flood, but contributed to the development of agriculture.不仅消除了洪水,还为农业生产发展创造了良好条件。Yu was revered as Yu the Great for his achievement and selected to succeed to the throne by Shun.禹因有大功于人民,被尊称为“大禹”,并因此被舜选为接班人。 /201510/407407。

  The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期Spring and Autumn Period春秋时期Marked by overlord politics, this period was named after the book Spring and Autumn Annals (the history of Lu) adapted by Confucius.春秋,这一群雄争霸的时期,得名与孔子所编撰的一部鲁国史书《春秋》。After the eastward move of King Ping, some vassal states progressed in social economy.周平王东迁后,一些诸侯国社会经济迅速发展。They became stronger while the royal authority took a nose dive, gradually losing its control over them.它们日益强盛,而王权则一落千丈,逐渐失去对诸侯们的控制权。During the Spring and Autumn Period, there were over 150 kingdoms coexisting with Zhou, among them Qi, Lu, Jin, Yan, Qin, Chu, Wu, Yue, etc were the stronger.在春秋战国时期,有超过150个诸侯国与周共存,其中齐,鲁,晋,燕,秦,楚,吴,越等国较为强大。These powerful states, relying on their military and economic advantages, launched wars to expand their territories; forcing small states follow them so as to establish their dominance as overlords.这些强大的国家,依靠自己的军事和经济优势,发动战争以扩大自己的疆土;迫使小国成为它们的附属,从而建立自己的统治地位的霸权。In the early to middle stage of the Spring and Autumn Period, five dukes, namely Huangong of the Qi state, Xianggong of the Song, Wengong of the Jin, Mugong of the Qin and Zhuangwang of the Chu, once fought for the “ overlordship”,known as the “the Five Overlords of the Spring and Autumn Period”,in which Huangong of Qi was the first one to establish his hegemony by advocating respect the king and repulse the alien tribes. ”春秋前期至中期,五位诸侯,即齐恒公、宋襄公、晋文公、秦穆公、楚庄王,都曾为了“霸主地位”而发起过战争,被称为“春秋五霸”,其中齐桓公首先提出“尊王攘夷”的口号以建立自己的霸权。Continuous wars brought enormous balefulness to the people giving rise to wide opposition in the small states.连年的战争给人民带来巨大的灾难,小诸侯国内开始出现大范围的反抗。Finally, in 579 and 546 , two treaties were made between Jin and Chu kingdoms, resulting in a short peace in the Central Plains.最终,在公元前579年至公元前546年,秦国和楚国缔结条约,为中原地区带来了短暂的和平。In the epilogue to the struggle to become overlord of the Central Plains, Wu and Yue, two kingdoms located in the downstream area of the Yangtze River, rose up.当中国诸侯争霸战争进入尾声之时,地处长江下游的两个国家吴国和越国发展壮大起来。Firstly defeated by the kingdom of Wu, Goujian, the king of Yue, applied himself to the development of agriculture and training his army.被吴国打败之后,越王勾践卧薪尝胆,潜心发展农业,训练军队。He finally got an opportunity to conquer the Wu and became the last overlord during the Spring and Autumn Period.最后,他抓住机会消灭吴国,成为在春秋时期的最后一个霸主。According to historical records, during this period, a total of thirty-six kings were killed and fifty-two vassal states were demolished.据史料记载,在此期间,共有36国王被杀,52诸侯国被消灭。This constant conflict and annexation of one state by another during the Spring and Autumn Period hastened social and economic change and had the effect of integrating people of different tribes and nationalities.春秋时期这种国与国之间不断的冲突和吞并加剧了社会及经济的变化,并对来自不同部落和国家的人们产生了深远的影响。The consequence of this period of drastic upheavals, reshufflings and regroupings, what had been several hundred states were reconstituted into seven megastates.经历了这一时期的剧烈动荡、兼并、重组,数百个诸侯国最终被七大国(齐、楚、燕、韩、赵、魏、秦)吸收兼并。China entered the Warring States Period.自此,中国进入战国时期。 /201509/395424

  

  BEIJING — As Beijing disappeared into the heavy smog shrouding the region in recent days, an artist covered seven models with body paint until they, too, faded against a desolate grove of trees on the eastern outskirts of the city.北京——随着最近几日北京被浓重的雾霾笼罩,一名艺术家在北京东部郊区,对七名模特进行身体绘伪装,直至他们与背后的荒凉树林融为一体。“Instead of passively disappearing, I’d rather actively make people disappear to express my attitude,” said the artist, Liu Bolin, who has been called the “Invisible Man” for blending into his surroundings by meticulously applying paint to his body.“与其被动消失,我更愿意主动使人消失,从而表达我的态度,”艺术家刘勃麟说。因为善于通过仔细地在身上进行绘,将自身融入周围环境,他被称为“隐形人”。“I’m using this active disappearance to voice my protest,” he said in an interview about his latest work, “Winter Solstice.”“我通过这种主动的消失,来表达抗议,”他在最近接受采访,谈到最新作品《冬至》时说道。Last year, he made four rows of people disappear against a photograph of Tiananmen Gate, which was grayed by smog. This time, Mr. Liu said his new work was inspired by the red alerts issued this month in Beijing for hazardous levels of air pollution.去年,他对四排人进行绘伪装,使他们融入了背景中被雾霾笼罩的天安门的照片。刘勃麟表示,这一次,作品的灵感来自北京因空气污染达到有害程度,而发布的红色预警。On Saturday, Beijing issued its second-ever red alert, the highest level of a four-tier warning system, effective through Tuesday. It came only a week after its first one, even though the capital has been plagued by heavy smog for years. By Wednesday, 10 cities in China had issued red alerts, the state news agency Xinhua reported.上周六,北京发布了有史以来的第二次红色预警——四个预警级别中的最高级别,此次预警持续到周二。而在一周之前,北京才刚刚发布首次红色预警,尽管北京多年来一直受到严重雾霾的困扰。官方通讯社新华社报道,截至周三,中国已有十座城市发布红色预警。Mr. Liu decided to name his new work “Winter Solstice” because it was carried out on Sunday, two days before the winter solstice, an important festival in the traditional Chinese calendar.刘勃麟决定将新作品命名为《冬至》,因为该作品是在周日,也就是冬至的两天之前创作的,冬至在中国是一个重要的节气。The seven models, all modern dancers, posed for photographs and then danced for a , Mr. Liu said.这七名模特都是现代舞者,他们先摆好姿势拍照,然后又拍摄了一段舞蹈视频,刘勃麟说。“These are the movements people instinctively make when their lives are suppressed,” he said of the dance moves, adding that this was the first time he had portrayed his disappearing subjects in motion.他形容其中的舞姿时说,“这些动作是人们在生活受到压制时,本能做出的动作。”他还表示,这是他首次让隐形人动起来。The work is a continuation of the political and social commentary often found in Mr. Liu’s works. He has staged disappearances into backdrops that have included the Great Wall, the Temple of Heaven, a wall painted with Communist Party slogans, a portrait of Mao and a police officer to reflect ordinary Chinese people’s sense of invisibility in a fast-changing economy.该作品延续了刘勃麟一贯以来的政治及社会风格。他曾融于长城、天坛、涂有共产党口号的墙壁、毛泽东及一名警察的画像等背景之中,以此体现普通中国民众隐形于快速变化的经济之中的感觉。Mr. Liu, 42, first went invisible in 2006. When Suo Jia Cun, an artists’ village in suburban Beijing where he worked as a sculptor’s assistant, was forcibly demolished, Mr. Liu disappeared into the ruins to protest the destruction. That became the first work in his “Hiding in the City” series, which won him international attention.42岁的刘勃麟于2006年第一次化身为隐形人。当时他在北京郊区索家村艺术区,为一位雕塑师担任助理。当索家村被强行拆除时,他隐形于废墟之中,抗议强拆行动。这成为了《城市迷》(Hiding in the City)系列的第一个作品。他凭借这一系列作品,赢得了国际关注。“Smog, as a top-level carcinogen, has created fear among Chinese people,” Mr. Liu said of “Winter Solstice.” (The World Health Organization has classified outdoor air pollution and one of its major components, particulate matter, as cancer-causing agents.)“雾霾是高度致癌的,它在中国民众当中引发了担忧,”刘勃麟评价《冬至》时说。(世界卫生组织将室外空气污染及其主要成分颗粒物质归类为致癌物。)“This work actually shows the helplessness modern people feel,” he said. “The fear in their hearts. Their struggles.”“这个作品实际上展现了现代人的无助感,”他说。“他们心中的恐惧。他们的挣扎。” /201512/419111

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