长乐做无疼人流大概多少钱医苑咨询

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年11月13日 15:10:20
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Here’s the thing: I would prefer to be in no-pants land all day and night. Unfortunately, people exist, and inevitably, so does judgement, but with these 10 pajamas you can wear in real life (and in any kind of wardrobe), you’ll have no problem putting on clothes and hitting the door. Because who doesn’t want to spend all day in soft PJs?很多人喜欢整天整夜地处于无裤日的状态。不幸的是,人的存在是不可避免的。不过,有10款你可以穿出去的睡衣,谁不想无拘无束的呢。1. This Long Sleeved Dress长袖连衣裙2. The Overall Jammies连体睡衣3. The Preppy Nightie校园风睡衣4. The Summer Florals夏日碎花睡衣5. The Boho Frock波西米亚风睡衣6、 The Classic Black Robe经典黑色长袍7、This Silky Set丝绸套装Vocabulary:1、floral英 [#39;fl爂()l; #39;fl-] 美 [#39;fl爂夀氂崀昀氀漀爀愀氀 [#39;fl:r氂崀adj。花的;由花制成的;像花的;描绘花的[F-]关于佛罗拉的,花神的植物区系的;植物群的2、boho[#39;boho]adj. 波希米亚式的;放荡不羁的;颓废派文化人的n. 无用的人;废物3、robe英 [r訂戂崀 美 [rob]n. 长袍,礼;制vi. 穿长袍vt. 使穿长袍n. (Robe)人名;(德、罗、塞)罗贝;(英、法)罗布 /201507/386183

Associate professor Benjamin Edelman had threatened legal action and demanded the Sichuan Garden in Brookline compensate all other customers who might have been similarly overcharged after he said it charged him more on each of the four items he ordered for takeout last week.这位名叫BenjaminEdelman的副教授以法律诉讼相威胁,并要求这家位于布鲁克莱恩的四川饭庄赔偿所以可能多付了钱的顾客。此前,他说自己上周叫外卖时点了四道菜,而餐馆每道菜分别多收他一块钱。But after facing wide criticism, Edelman posted a brief message on his personal website saying he has reached out to apologize to Ran Duan, who helps manage his parent#39;s restaurant business.在受到广泛批评后,Edelman在个人网站上发出简洁信息说明他已经向协助父母管理这家餐馆的段然(RanDuan)致歉。Based on the prices listed on the restaurant#39;s website, Edelman said he had expected to pay .35 for his order.根据餐馆网站上的价目表,Edelman说他原本应付的价格是53.35美元。In emails first made public by boston.com, Duan acknowledged to Edelman that the prices listed onthe restaurant#39;s website were out of date. He promised to update them soon and offered to refund the overages.从首封公开在boston.com上的邮件中可以看到,段向Edelman确认餐馆网站上的价目表过期了,他答应会立刻更新并退还多收的费用。But Edelman, who consults for AOL,Microsoft, the NFL, Wells Fargo, the New York Times, among many others on ;preventing and detecting online fraud,; according to his personal website, accused the restaurant of systematically overcharging customers.据Edelma的个人网站,他是美国在线公司、微软公司、美国国家橄榄球联盟、富国、纽约时报及其他公司 “预防检测网络欺诈”方面的顾问。Edelma还控告这家餐馆利用系统多收费。He demanded a refund, arguing that hewas eligible for triple damages under the state#39;s consumer protection statute.Edelman, a Brookline resident, also contacted local officials to demand the restaurant compensateall other customers who might have been affected.他要求餐馆赔偿12美元,并争论说根据国家消费者保护法,他有资格得到3倍的赔偿。住在布鲁克莱恩的Edelman还联系了当地官员,要求餐馆赔偿所有可能牵涉其中的顾客。;It strikes me that merely providing are fund to a single customer would be an exceptionally light sanction for the violation that occurred,; he wrote in one of the exchanges with Duan.;You don#39;t seem to recognize that this is a legal matter.;他在写给段的一封邮件中说,“我突然觉得他们仅想一名顾客赔款的话,那制裁也太轻了。你好像并没有认识到这是个法律问题”。At one point, after a flurry of email exchanges, Duan, who generally remained respectful in his replies to Edelman,wrote: ;Like I said, I apologize for the confusion, you seem like a smart man, but is this really worth your time?;在多次进行邮件交流后,段的回复大体保留着恭敬的态度,他写道:“正如我说过的,我就造成的困惑向你致歉,感觉你是个明智的人,但你真的觉得值得花这个时间吗?”Edelman later told the Boston Globe that Brookline officials declined to intervene. The restaurant, he said, subsequently offered to refundhim half the cost of his total bill after he requested it.Edelman之后对《波士顿环球报》说,布鲁克莱恩的官员们拒绝干涉此事。他说,经他要求,这家餐馆随后退给他半数金额。 /201412/348122

  When a group of wealthy investors compete with each other to buy an asset, surely they have a clear idea of its financial value? Jussi Pylkk#228;nen, president of Christie’s, who on Monday night auctioned Picasso’s “Les Femmes d’Alger” (Version O) to an anonymous buyer for 9.4m, thinks they do.当一群富有的投资者竞购某项资产时,他们肯定特别清楚这项资产值多少钱喽?佳士得(Christie#39;s)总裁尤西#8226;皮尔卡宁(Jussi Pylkk#228;nen)认为确实如此。上周一晚,皮尔卡宁以1.794亿美元的价格把毕加索(Picasso)的《阿尔及尔的女人(0版)》(Les Femmes d’Alger (Version O))拍卖给了一位匿名买主。“People sometimes think of buying art as a frivolous occupation but these bidders are very conscious of what the object is worth, and they make decisions in an extremely considered way,” Mr Pylkk#228;nen assured me afterwards. He emphasised that the final bids for the Picasso, in a New York auction that raised 6m for 34 works of 20th-century art, proceeded in careful, 0,000 increments.“人们有时认为购买艺术品是一种无用的占有,但这些竞标者很了解标的的价值,他们是经过深思熟虑才做出决定的,”皮尔卡宁后来向我保说。他强调称,买家对毕加索画作最后报价时,小心翼翼地每次只加价50万美元。上周一的纽约拍卖会上成交了34件20世纪艺术品,成交金额达7.06亿美元。Amid record-breaking auctions in London and New York, art is increasingly treated as a financial asset. “Swamped”, a painting by Peter Doig, a 56-year-old Scottish artist, sold for .9m on Monday night. Billionaires fly to Art Basel Miami Beach to buy from big galleries, private bankers tell clients to diversify into art; masterpieces clog free port warehouses in Geneva.随着伦敦和纽约拍卖会屡次拍出破纪录价格,艺术品越来越被当做金融资产对待。56岁苏格兰艺术家彼得#8226;多伊格(Peter Doig)的《沼泽地》(Swamped)上周一晚以2590万美元成交。亿万富豪们飞往巴塞尔迈阿密海滩艺术览会(Art Basel Miami Beach),从大型画廊购进作品,私人家们告诉客户要提高资产配置多样性,增加艺术品配置;著名作品堆满了日内瓦的自由港仓库。But paintings are not securities. The financial value of any work of art remains as unknowable and intangible as the Mona Lisa’s smile. As the economist William Baumol put it 30 years ago, the prices of paintings “float more or less aimlessly#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;exacerbated by the activities of those who treat such art objects as ‘investments’”. Those seeking intrinsic value, in the financial sense, must look elsewhere.但画作不是券。任何一件艺术品的金钱价值仍像蒙娜丽莎(Mona Lisa)的微笑一样不可知晓、难以确定。正如经济学家威廉#8226;鲍莫尔(William Baumol)30年前所说,画作的价格“或多或少无目的地上下波动……那些把这些艺术品视为‘投资’的人们的行为,会进一步加剧这种波动”。那些寻找金钱意义上内在价值的人,必须把眼光转向别处。Although we do not know who bought the Picasso, beyond the fact that he or she can afford to drop 9m on a work that would be difficult to shift for the same price in a market panic, we can speculate on the motive. The true value lies in owning a painting that the Tate or Getty museums would love to display in public, and being able to dazzle yourself and others in private.尽管我们不知道谁买走了上述毕加索作品,除了他或她有强大的财力,能以1.79亿美元买下一幅难以在市场恐慌时以同样价格售出的作品之外,我们还可以推测其动机。真正价值在于,拥有一副泰特物馆(Tate Museum)或者盖蒂物馆(Getty Museum)将愿意公开展出、也能在私下里让自己和其他人叹的画作。The only way to prove that you are the kind of person who is both cultured and wealthy enough to own a major Picasso is to buy one. Auction houses prosper by holding it in front of you briefly, while offering to sell it to your rival. “They suddenly say, ‘I am never going to get this chance again’, and go all the way,” Mr Pylkk#228;nen says of the world’s ultimate art collectors.要明自己是既有文化品位、又富有到买得起毕加索重要作品的那类人,唯一方式就是购买一幅毕加索重要作品。拍卖行的生财之道就是,把作品短暂地向你展示,同时又向其他竞购者提供购买这幅作品的机会。皮尔卡宁谈起世界上那些终极艺术收藏者时说,“他们会突然说,‘我再也得不到这个机会了’,然后就一鼓作气把它买到手了”。Works of art are “a very rational choice for those who derive a high rate of return in the form of aesthetic pleasure,” Mr Baumol concluded. The economist John Picard Stein wrote in 1977: “Any superior performance derivable from paintings can be attributed entirely to the viewing pleasure they provide, not capturable by speculators.”艺术品“对那些能够从审美享受方面获得很大回报的人来说,是非常合理的选择,”鲍莫尔总结道。经济学家约翰#8226;皮卡德#8226;斯坦(John Picard Stein)在1977年写道:“画作产生的任何超常表现,都可完全归功于它们提供的观赏乐趣,这是投机者们所理解不了的。”There are social as well as aesthetic rewards. The status value of buying art — being invited to gallery and museum dinners, and regarded as a person of exquisite taste — is alluring. Sixty one per cent of collectors surveyed last year by Deloitte, the accounting firm, admitted to this motivation.除审美方面的回报以外,还有社会地位方面的回报。购买艺术品在提高社会地位方面的价值——被邀请参加画廊和物馆晚宴,被当做具有优雅品味的人士对待——是有吸引力的。去年接受会计师事务所德勤(Deloitte)调查的收藏者中,有61%的人承认这一动机。 /201505/376111

  You should probably be drinking your morning cup of coffee around10 a.m., according to a new from AsapScience.科普频道AsapScience近日发布视频声称,早上十点或许是喝咖啡的最佳时间。We know, we know. If you#39;re an I-need-caffeine-as-soon-as-I-wake-up kind of person, this isn#39;t great news. But as AsapScience explains it, the production of cortisol, the ;stress hormone; associated with the way the body naturally wakes itself up, generally peaks between 8 and 9 am -- right around the time most people are sipping their cappuccinos and lattes.我们知道,如果你是那种一起床就需要喝咖啡的人,这并不是个好消息。AsapScience解释说,人体内的皮质醇,也就是“压力激素”的分泌与身体自然唤醒的方式相关,其分泌高峰期一般在早上八点到九点,也就是大部分人喝咖啡的时间。Peak cortisol hours also happen between 12 and 1 p.m. and 5:30 and 6:30 p.m. And according to AsapScience, drinking coffee during those hours lessens caffeine#39;s effects.皮质醇的其他分泌高峰分别是中午十二点到一点和下午五点半到六点半。AsaaScience认为,在这些时段喝咖啡,会削弱咖啡因的作用。If you#39;re an early or late riser, your peak cortisol hours are probably different from the average person#39;s. So whenever it is you wake up, just wait a bit before hitting the coffee maker.早起或晚起的人分泌皮质醇的高峰期与平均值会有所不同。所以最好起床后过一段时间再去泡咖啡。“Cortisol levels do indeed increase about 50 percent right after you wake up, regardless of the time,; the explains. ;Science says, wait at least an hour to get your cup of joe and your body will be optimally y to go.”视频中介绍说:“无论几点起床,皮质醇的含量在起床后都会激增50%左右。科学家认为,起床一小时后再饮用咖啡,可以让身体获得更多动力。”Hey, we#39;re all about reaping all of coffee#39;s benefits -- especially because it#39;s been linked to a healthier heart and, ahem, a lower risk of erectile dysfunction. Let#39;s keep that stuff brewing.我们这也是为了充分利用咖啡的功效啊,尤其是听说它能强健心脏并减少勃起功能障碍。喝咖啡不能停啊。 /201506/378241。

  

  Exercise seems to be good for the human brain, with many recent studies suggesting that regular exercise improves memory and thinking skills. But an interesting new study asks whether the apparent cognitive benefits from exercise are real or just a placebo effect — that is, if we think we will be “smarter” after exercise, do our brains respond accordingly? The answer has significant implications for any of us hoping to use exercise to keep our minds sharp throughout our lives.体育锻炼似乎对大脑有益,最近的许多研究表明,经常锻炼可以改善记忆和思维能力。但一项有趣的新研究却提出了这样的问题:体育锻炼在提高认知能力方面显现出来的益处,是真实存在,还是心理作用?也就是说,假如我们相信自己在运动之后会“更聪明”,我们的大脑会不会做出相应的反应?对于想要通过锻炼来在一生中保持头脑敏捷的人来说,这个问题的至关重要。In experimental science, the best, most reliable studies randomly divide participants into two groups, one of which receives the drug or other treatment being studied and the other of which is given a placebo, similar in appearance to the drug, but not containing the active ingredient.在实验科学中,最出色可靠的研究会把参与者随机分为两组,一组得到正在研究的药物或治疗方法,另一组得到的则是无效的安慰剂,其外观与第一组拿到的药物类似,但不含活性成分。Placebos are important, because they help scientists to control for people’s expectations. If people believe that a drug, for example, will lead to certain outcomes, their bodies may produce those results, even if the volunteers are taking a look-alike dummy pill. That’s the placebo effect, and its occurrence suggests that the drug or procedure under consideration isn’t as effective as it might seem to be; some of the work is being done by people’s expectations, not by the medicine.安慰剂很重要,因为它们帮助科学家来控制受试者的预期。例如,如果人们相信一种药物会产生某些效果,他们的身体可能就会出现相应的反应,即使志愿者只是吃了外观相似的无效药物。这就是安慰剂效应,它的存在意味着,正在研究的药物或疗程并没有看上去那么有效;有些效果是由人们的期待促成的,而不是药物本身。Recently, some scientists have begun to question whether the apparently beneficial effects of exercise on thinking might be a placebo effect. While many studies suggest that exercise may have cognitive benefits, those experiments all have had a notable scientific limitation: They have not used placebos.最近,一些科学家开始怀疑,体育锻炼表现出来的改善思维的益处可能是安慰剂效应。尽管许多研究显示,运动或有提高认知能力的好处,但这些实验都存在一种明显的科学局限性:它们没有使用对照组。This issue is not some abstruse scientific debate. If the cognitive benefits from exercise are a result of a placebo effect rather than of actual changes in the brain because of the exercise, then those benefits could be ephemeral and unable in the long term to help us remember how to spell ephemeral.这个问题本身并不涉及什么深奥的科学辩论。如果运动提高认知能力的益处是安慰剂效应,而不是大脑因为运动发生了真正的改变,那么这些好处可能就会转瞬即逝,无法长期帮助我们记住“转瞬即逝”这种复杂词汇。Studying this issue, however, is difficult. There is no placebo for exercise and no way to blind people about whether they are exercising. They know if they are walking or cycling or not.然而,研究这个问题却很困难。对于体育锻炼来说,不存在无效对照剂,也没有办法不让受试者知道自己是不是在运动。他们清楚自己有没有步行或骑自行车。So researchers at Florida State University in Tallahassee and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign came up with a clever workaround. They decided to focus on expectations, on what people anticipate that exercise will do for thinking. If people’s expectations jibe closely with the actual benefits, then at least some of those improvements are probably a result of the placebo effect and not of exercise.因此,来自塔拉哈西的佛罗里达州立大学(Florida State University)以及伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)的研究人员想到了一个聪明的迂回办法。他们决定把关注点放在:受试者预期锻炼会对思维产生何种影响。如果他们的期待与实际的益处吻合,那么至少部分好处很可能是源于安慰剂效应,而不是锻炼的结果。The scientists had seen this situation at work during an earlier study of games and cognition. Past research had suggested that playing action-oriented games improves players’ subsequent thinking skills. But when scientists in the new study asked -game players to estimate by how much the games would improve their thinking, the players’ estimates almost exactly matched the gains seen on cognitive tests after playing. In other words, the cognitive benefits of playing games appear to be largely a result of a placebo effect.在早前对视频游戏与认知能力的关系所做的研究中,科学家们就遇到过这种情况。过去的研究显示,玩动作类视频游戏可以改善玩家的思维能力。但当进行新研究的科学家们让视频游戏玩家估计游戏能在多大程度上改善他们的思维能力时,玩家的估计几乎和玩后的认知测试的加分完全吻合。换句话说,玩视频游戏的认知好处似乎主要是心理作用。For the new study, which was published last month in PLOS One, the researchers repeated this experiment but focused on exercise. Recruiting 171 people through an online survey system, they asked half of these volunteers to estimate by how much a stretching and toning program performed three times a week might improve various measures of thinking, including memory and mental multitasking.关于锻炼的这项新研究上个月发表在《公共科学图书馆:综合》期刊(PLOS One)上。研究人员重复了这个实验,但把实验内容换成了体育锻炼。他们通过一个在线调查系统招募了171人,要求其中一半的志愿者来评估,如果一周进行三次拉伸运动,能够在多大程度上改善思维能力,比如和一心多用的能力。The other volunteers were asked the same questions, but about a regular walking program.另一组志愿者被问到同样的问题,不过锻炼项目换成了有规律的步行运动。In actual experiments, stretching and toning regimens generally have little if any impact on people’s cognitive skills. Walking, on the other hand, seems to substantially improve thinking ability.在真实的实验中,拉伸运动基本上对认知能力没有多少影响。另一方面,散步则显示出能大幅改善思维能力。But the survey respondents believed the opposite, estimating that the stretching and toning program would be more beneficial for the mind than walking. The volunteers’ estimates of the likely cognitive improvements from gentle toning averaged about a three on a scale from one to six. The estimates of benefits from walking were lower.不过,在这项实验中,受试者的想法则正好相反。他们估计拉伸项目比步行对大脑更有益处。以1到6级来衡量,志愿者认为,轻度拉伸对认知的潜在改善的平均等级是3。他们对步行的评估则低一些。These data, while they do not involve any actual exercise, are good news for people who do exercise. “The results from our study suggest that the benefits of aerobic exercise are not a placebo effect,” said Cary Stothart, a graduate student in cognitive psychology at Florida State University, who led the study.这些数据虽然没有涉及真正的体育锻炼,对于真正从事锻炼的人来说却是个好消息。“我们的研究结果显示,有氧运动的好处不是安慰剂效应,”佛罗里达州立大学的认知心理学研究生卡里·斯托塔特(Cary Stothart)说。他牵头进行了这项研究。If expectations had been driving the improvements in cognition seen in studies after exercise, Mr. Stothart said, then people should have expected walking to be more beneficial for thinking than stretching. They didn’t, implying that the changes in the brain and thinking after exercise are physiologically genuine.斯托塔特解释,假如是人们的期待在驱动研究中发现的锻炼对认知能力的改善,那么受试者就应该是期待步行比拉伸更有益处。他们没有,这就意味着体育锻炼之后,大脑和思维能力真的发生了生理上的变化。Of course, this study was small and involved a self-selected group of people who happen to like completing online surveys. Some said they exercised, others said they did not. None claimed to be familiar with the science related to exercise and the brain, but it is impossible to know if people were being forthright.当然,这项研究的规模较小,参与者只涵盖了喜欢完成网上调查的人。有些人声称自己平时锻炼,其他人则说自己不运动。没人自称熟悉与运动和大脑有关的科学,但也无法知道他们是不是都说了真话。Still, the findings are strong enough to suggest that exercise really does change the brain and may, in the process, improve thinking, Mr. Stothart said. That conclusion should encourage scientists to look even more closely into how, at a molecular level, exercise remodels the human brain, he said. It also should spur the rest of us to move, since the benefits are, it seems, not imaginary, even if they are in our head.不过,斯托塔特表示,这些发现仍然足以明,锻炼真的会改变大脑,或许在这个过程中,还可能改善思维能力。他说,这个结论应该可以鼓励科学家们进一步探索:在分子层面上,运动是如何重塑了我们的大脑。它还应该激励我们其他人动起来,因为看来这些益处并非想象出来的,虽然它们的确发生在我们的大脑里。 /201411/344933

  

  An unusual method for producing antibiotics may help to solve an urgent global problem: the rise in infections that resist treatment with commonly used drugs, and the lack of new antibiotics to replace ones that no longer work.耐受常用药物治疗的感染日渐增多,却缺乏新型抗生素来替代那些不再有效的药物,这已成为全球亟待解决的问题。一种生产抗生素的特殊方法或可对此有所助益。The method, which extracts drugs from bacteria that live in dirt, has yielded a powerful new antibiotic, researchers reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday. The new drug, teixobactin, was tested in mice and easily cured severe infections, with no side effects.研究人员在周三的《自然》(Nature)杂志上报道,这种从生活在泥土里的细菌中提取药物的方法生产出了一种新的强力抗生素。在小鼠试验中,这种新药——teixobactin可以轻松治愈严重感染,且没有出现副作用。Better still, the researchers said, the drug works in a way that makes it very unlikely that bacteria will become resistant to it. And the method developed to produce the drug has the potential to unlock a trove of natural compounds to fight infections and cancer — molecules that were previously beyond scientists’ reach because the microbes that produce them could not be grown in the laboratory.更妙的是,研究人员称,这种药物具有独特的作用机理,使其几乎不会引起细菌耐药性。而且,这种生产药物的方法或许还能成为一把钥匙,打开蕴藏着可抵抗感染和癌症的天然化合物大宝藏——要知道,在此之前,由于能产生这些化合物的微生物不能在实验室中生长,科学家们对它们一直只能望而兴叹。Teixobactin has not yet been tested in humans, so its safety and effectiveness are not known. Studies in people will not begin for about two years, according to Kim Lewis, the senior author of the article and director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University in Boston. Those studies will take several years, so even if the drug passes all the required tests, it still will not be available for five or six years, he said during a telephone news conference on Tuesday. If it is approved, he said, it will probably have to be injected, not taken by mouth.Teixobactin尚未接受过人体试验,因此它的安全性和有效性尚属未知。该文章的责任作者,美国东北大学抗微生物药物发现中心(Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University,位于波士顿)主任基姆·刘易斯(Kim Lewis)称,要展开人体研究大概还需要两年左右。他还在上周二的电话新闻发布会上说,这些研究将花费数年时间,所以即使该药物通过了所有必需的测试,也还需要五六年的时间才能面世。如果能通过审批,他说,该药物很可能采用注射给药,而非口。Experts not involved with the research said the technique for isolating the drug had great potential. They also said teixobactin looked promising, but expressed caution because it has not yet been tested in humans.几位未参与该研究的专家表示,这种用于分离药物的技术具有巨大的潜力。他们还说,teixobactin看起来前途无量,但因为毕竟它尚未经过人体试验,他们也都表现出了谨慎的态度。Dr. William Schaffner, an infectious disease specialist at Vanderbilt University, called the research “ingenious” and said “We’re in desperate need of some good antibiotic news.”范德堡大学(Vanderbilt University)的传染病专家威廉·沙夫纳(William Schaffner)士称这项研究“新颖独特”,并表示“我们迫切需要一些有关抗生素的好消息”。Regarding teixobactin, he said: “It’s at the test-tube and the mouse level, and mice are not men or women, and so moving beyond that is a large step, and many compounds have failed.” He added, “Toxicity is often the Achilles’ heel of drugs.”至于teixobactin,他认为:“它尚且处于实验室和小鼠试验水平,而小鼠距离人类还有很远的距离,许多化合物都没能成功跨越这一大步。”他又补充道:“毒性往往是药物的‘阿喀琉斯之踵’(译注:指致命弱点)。”Dr. David A. Relman, a professor of medicine at Stanford, said by email, “It illustrates the amazing wealth and diversity of as-yet-unrecognized, potent, biologically-active compounds made by the microbial world — some of which may have real clinical value.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的医科教授大卫·A·瑞尔曼(David A. Relman)士在一封电子邮件中写道:“该研究揭示,微生物界可生产出丰富多样的、我们尚未认识、且具有生物活性的强效化合物——其中的一些可能具有实际临床价值。”Drug-resistant bacteria infect at least 2 million people a year in the ed States and kill 23,000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization warned last year that such infections were occurring all over the world, and that drug resistant strains of many diseases were emerging faster than new antibiotics could be made to fight them. Compounding the problem is the fact that many drug companies backed away from trying to develop new antibiotics in favor of other, more profitable, types of drugs.据美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)的数据显示,在美国,每年至少有200万人感染耐药菌,其中23000人因此死亡。世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)警告说,去年,此类感染在世界各地都有发生,许多疾病的耐药菌株正在以比能克制它们的新抗生素更快的速度不断出现。众多制药公司纷纷放弃研制新的抗生素,将研发重点转向了更有利可图的其他类型的药物,使得这一问题进一步地复杂化了。The new research is based on the premise that everything on earth — plants, soil, people, animals — is teeming with microbes that compete fiercely to survive. Trying to keep one another in check, the microbes secrete biological weapons: antibiotics.这项新研究建立在一个前提之上,即:地球上的一切——植物、土壤、人、动物——都充斥着在激烈的竞争中求生存的微生物。为了牢牢抑制住自己的竞争对手,微生物们分泌出了生物武器:抗生素。“The way bacteria multiply, if there weren’t natural mechanisms to limit their growth, they would have covered the planet and eaten us all eons ago,” Dr. Schaffner said.沙夫纳士指出:“按照细菌那种繁殖方式,要是没有一种自然机制来限制它们的增长,早在亿万年前它们就会覆盖整个地球,把我们全都吃干抹净了。”Scientists and drug companies have for decades exploited the microbes’ natural arsenal, often by mining soil samples, and discovered lifesaving antibiotics like penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, as well as some powerful chemotherapy drugs for cancer. But disease-causing organisms have become resistant to many existing drugs, and there has been a major obstacle to finding replacements, Dr. Lewis said: About 99 percent of the microbial species in the environment are bacteria that do not grow under usual laboratory conditions.数十年来,科学家们和制药公司都在利用微生物这座天然兵工厂(这些微生物通常是从土壤样本中发掘筛选而来),并发现了青霉素、链霉素、四环素等多种拯救了无数生命的抗生素,以及一些可用于治疗癌症的强力化疗药物。然而,致病微生物开始对多种现有药物产生耐药性,要寻找替代性药物,却存在一个重大障碍,刘易斯士解释道:自然环境中约99%的微生物物种都无法在普通的实验室条件下生长。Dr. Lewis and his colleagues found a way to grow them. The process involves diluting a soil sample — the one that yielded teixobactin came from “a grassy field in Maine” — and placing it on specialized equipment Then, the secret to success is putting the equipment into a box full of the same soil that the sample came from.刘易斯士和他的同事们发现了一种可以培养这些微生物的方法。具体程序包括稀释土壤样本(生产出teixobactin的土壤样本来自“缅因州的一片草地”),并将其放在专门的设备上。然后,就是成功的秘诀:将该设备放进满满一盒与样本来源相同的土壤当中。“Essentially, we’re tricking the bacteria,” Dr. Lewis said. Back in their native dirt, they divide and grow into colonies. Once the colonies form, Dr. Lewis said, the bacteria are “domesticated,” and researchers can scoop them up and start growing them in petri dishes in the laboratory.“从本质上讲,我们是在糊弄那些细菌,”刘易斯士说,让它们以为自己回到了家乡的泥土中,于是就可以自然而然地分裂,生长成菌落。一旦形成菌落,代表这些细菌已经被“驯化”了,这时研究人员就可以将它们采集起来,开始在实验室的培养皿中培养。The research was paid for by the National Institutes of Health and the German government (some co-authors work at the University of Bonn). Northeastern University holds a patent on the method of producing drugs and licensed the patent to a private company, NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals, in Cambridge, Mass., which owns the rights to any compounds produced. Dr. Lewis is a paid consultant to the company.这项研究由美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)和德国政府(一部分共同作者在波恩大学[University of Bonn]工作)资助。东北大学对这种生产药物的方法持有专利并将其授权给了一家私营公司NovoBiotic Pharmaceuticals(位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市),该公司对使用该方法生产的任何化合物持所有权。刘易斯士是该公司的有酬顾问。Teixobactin is the most promising candidate isolated from 10,000 strains of bacteria that the researchers screened. In test tubes, it killed various types of staph and strep, as well as anthrax and tuberculosis. Tested in mice, it cleared strep infections and staph, including a strain that was drug-resistant. It works against bacteria in a group known as “Gram-positive,” but not against microbes that are “Gram-negative,” which include some that are major causes of drug resistant pneumonia, gonorrhea and infections of the bladder and bloodstream. Dr. Lewis said researchers were trying to modify the drug to make it work against Gram-negative infections.Teixobactin是研究人员从10000株细菌菌株中筛选分离出来的最有前途的候选药物。在试管中,它可以杀死多种类型的葡萄球菌和链球菌,以及炭疽和结核病的病原体。在小鼠身上测试时,它可以清除链球菌感染和葡萄球菌,其中也包括耐药菌株。它可以作用于一类被称为“革兰氏阳性”的细菌,但对“革兰氏阴性”细菌(如耐药性肺炎、淋病、膀胱和血液感染的某些主要致病菌)无效。刘易斯士表示,研究人员正试图对该药物进行改良,希望它也可以用来治疗革兰氏阴性菌感染。Twenty-five other drug candidates were also identified, but most had drawbacks like toxicity or insolubility, Dr. Lewis said, adding that one, though toxic, may work against cancer and will be tested further.刘易斯士说,他们还识别出了二十五种其他的候选药物,但它们大多存在毒性或不溶性之类的缺点,但他也补充说,其中一种虽然有毒,但可能具有抗击癌症的效果,他们将对其进行进一步的测试。Teixobactin attacks bacteria by blocking fatty molecules needed to build cell walls, which is different from the way most antibiotics work. Those molecules are unlikely to change and make the microbes resistant, the researchers said. But if resistance does occur, Dr. Lewis predicted, it will take a long time to develop.Teixobactin与大多数抗生素的机理不同,它是通过阻断脂肪分子,从而阻碍细菌细胞壁的合成来发挥作用的。研究人员表示,脂肪分子不容易发生变异,因此不容易令微生物产生耐药性。刘易斯士预言,假若确实会出现耐药性,也将需要很长很长的时间。Dr. Relman said the argument against resistance was reasonable. But he cautioned that “unsuspected mechanisms of resistance” sometimes develop, and that the only way to tell would be to monitor carefully what happens as the drug is used more and more.瑞尔曼士认为上述关于耐药性的论述具有合理性。但他也警告说,有时候,“耐药性会以出人意料的机制产生”,在药物推广的过程中仔细监测是发现它们的唯一方式。Dr. Lewis said he hoped the research would point the way to a new approach to searching for novel antibiotics. Until now, he said, scientists have assumed that resistance would inevitably develop, and that the only solution would require scrambling to develop new antibiotics in hopes of keeping up.刘易斯士表示,他希望这项研究能指引出一条寻找新型抗生素的新路。迄今为止科学家们一直假设耐药性的产生不可避免,唯一的解决办法就是争分夺秒地开发新的抗生素,期望可以跟上菌株演化的速度。“This gives us an alternative strategy,” he said. “Develop compounds to which resistance will not develop.”“这项研究向我们提供了另一种策略,”他说,“开发不会引起耐药性的化合物。” /201502/360136

  Brompton, the British fold-up bike manufacturer, recently put the finishing touches to five customised designs to be sold in China — one sporting the colours of the Union Jack; another traditional English racing green, complete with a Brooks leather saddle.英国折叠自行车生产商Brompton最近完成了五款专门定制的设计,准备销往中国。其中一款带有英国国旗的图样,还有一款则拥有传统的英国赛车式的绿色配色,并配有布鲁克斯(Brooks)皮革座椅。The bikes, along with about 40 other British brands including Clarks shoes, Austin Reed clothing and Cow amp; Gate baby formula, will be promoted and sold through a Royal Mail online “shop front” on Tmall, a website operated by Chinese ecommerce company, Alibaba.这些自行车将和其他40种英国品牌一起,在英国皇家邮政(Royal Mail)位于天猫(Tmall)的在线“店面”上推销和出售。这些品牌中包括了Clarks的鞋子、Austin Reed的装、以及牛栏(Cow amp; Gate)婴儿奶粉。天猫是中国电子商务企业阿里巴巴(Alibaba)运营的一个网站。For Britain’s recently privatised mail operator, which is under pressure from stiff competition in the parcels market, and an irreversible decline in letters volumes, the tie-up with Tmall is an ambitious move to capture the delivery market to China, aly the biggest international buyer of British products online.英国皇家邮政是英国一家邮件运营商。这家最近刚刚私有化的邮件运营商正面临极大压力,它一方面遭遇了快递市场的激烈竞争,另一方面还要面对信件递送量不可逆转的下滑趋势。与天猫的合作,是该公司一项大胆举措,旨在占领发往中国的快递市场。目前,中国已成为英国产品在国际市场上最大的在线买家。Postal operators are scrambling to adapt to the rise of ecommerce and China, with a 25 per cent share of overseas purchases bought over the internet from the UK, looks a prize market.目前,诸多邮政运营商正努力适应电子商务的迅猛增长。对于它们来说,中国市场不啻为一份大礼。中国通过互联网从英国购物的规模,占了英国境外网购总额的25%。Other overseas operators have also struck deals with Tmall, including Australia Post, Singapore Post, the Brazilian Post and the French La Poste.包括澳大利亚邮政(Australia Post)、新加坡邮政(Singapore Post)、巴西邮政(Brazilian Post)和法国邮政(French La Poste)在内,其他多家境外邮政运营商也已经和天猫达成了协议。“Everyone wants to sell to the Chinese and Alibaba’s Tmall gives them an opportunity,” says Cathy Robertson, an analyst at Transport Intelligence, a consultancy.咨询公司Transport Intelligence分析师凯茜#8226;罗伯逊(Cathy Robertson)表示:“所有人都想把东西卖给中国人,阿里巴巴的天猫为他们创造了机遇。” /201505/373421。

  The robots are coming and they want your job. Savioke recently developed a three-foot tall SaviOne robot that replaces the human delivery of snacks and amenities to your hotel room. The robotic butler can navigate your room, make deliveries and even ride the elevator — all without sleeping or going to the bathroom. In addition, robots don’t quit their jobs, whereas the hotel industry, according to the American Hotel amp; Lodging Association, experiences staff turnover of around 50% in non-management staff.机器人来了,而且想抢走你的工作。Savioke公司最近开发了一款三英尺高的机器人SaviOne,它可以代替务员,向酒店房间送零食或洗漱用品。除了可以自动找到你的房间、送东西之外,它甚至还可以自行坐电梯,而且既不用睡觉也不用去洗手间。此外,机器人也不会辞职——据美国酒店业协会(American Hotel amp; Lodging Association)估算,在美国酒店业中,非管理岗位的员工流动率高达50%左右。Moving beyond the hotel industry, Momentum Machines invented a burger-flipping robot that can produce a burger every 10 seconds. This robot replaces three full-time kitchen staff and takes up far less space, potentially able to reduce costs. Momentum Machines Co-Founder Alexandros Vardakostas recently said in an interview at Lemnos Labs that his robot “isn’t meant to make employees more efficient. It’s meant to completely obviate them.”除了酒店业,Momentum Machines公司也发明了一款会烤汉堡的机器人,每10秒钟就可以做一个汉堡包。该机器人可以代替三名全职厨房员工,占据的空间也更少,有望降低成本。Momentum Machines公司的联合创始人亚里山德罗斯o瓦尔达克斯塔斯最近在利姆诺实验室(Lemnos Labs)接受采访时称,他的机器人“并不是为了让员工更有效率,而是要完全取代他们。”Both Savioke and Momentum Machines are early signs of the upcoming Technology Revolution. Spawned by advances in robotics, big data, cloud computing and mobile, the revolution could replace millions of jobs. If you recall, the Industrial Revolution was no different than what we will likely see in the future. In 1820, the UK employed approximately 240,000 cotton hand weavers. Within 40 years, 99% of those jobs vanished as a result of the mechanical loom.Savioke和Momentum Machines的机器人,都是即将到来的科技革命的早期信号。拜机器人学、大数据、云计算和移动技术的长足进步所赐,这次科技革命可能会取代千百万人的工作。在这次革命中,我们看到的图景可能与工业革命时期没什么不同。在1920年,英国企业雇佣的手工绵纺织工约为24万人。而随着机械织布机的兴起,不到40年,其中99%的工作岗位都消失了。About half, 47%, of today’s jobs could be automated away over the next 20 years, according to a recent study by Oxford University. Following the Industrial Revolution during the early 1800s, new inventions created more than enough new work to replace the jobs that were dislocated. But given the ability of today’s technology startups to reach massive scale with minimal headcount, things very well might be different this time around. In 2012, Instagram reached 30 million users and was acquired by Facebook FB -3.35% for billion — all with just 13 employees. By contrast, Kodak filed for bankruptcy in 2012 and employed 145,000 people during its peak.牛津大学(Oxford University)最近的一项研究显示,在未来20年中,现有工作的47%都有可能被自动化所取代。自19世纪早期的工业革命以来,各种新发明创造的新工作岗位,足以抵补那些失去的职业。但鉴于如今的科技创新企业能够以最少的人数创造极大的成就,这次的情况可能会非常不一样。比如在2012年,Instagram的注册用户达到3000万人,并被Facebook出价10亿美元收购——Instagram当时只有13名员工。相比之下,柯达公司(Kodak)于2012年申请破产,它在最高峰时曾拥有14.5万名员工。Indeed, disruption is coming. So what should we do about it?大颠覆的确就要到来了,那么我们应该做些什么呢?If history is any indication, some will push for protectionism, shielding certain jobs in order to preserve employment levels in the short-term. Over the next decade, 233,000 taxi drivers and 1.7 million truck drivers in the U.S. could be at risk of having their jobs automated away by driverless vehicles. Given that many cities have aly attempted to block the expansion of Uber, we could experience similar tensions when driverless cars arrive. However, in the long-term, attempting to block innovation is short-sighted and makes countries less competitive relative to others who are willing to accept new, more efficient technologies.如果以史为鉴,有些人可能会推动保护主义,使某些工作不被自动化取代,以保持短期内的就业水平。在下一个10年里,随着无人驾驶汽车的发展,美国有23.3万名出租车司机和170万名卡车司机都要面临失业的风险。现在美国的许多城市已经试图封堵打车应用Uber,所以在无人驾驶汽车问题上,我们可能也会遇到同样的反对声浪。但在长期看,封锁创新是一种短视行为,而且会使国家失去竞争力,落于于那些乐于接受更高效的新技术的国家。Over the next two decades, the most pain will be felt by lesser-skilled workers most likely to lose their jobs to automation. As a result, the gap between the “haves and the have-nots” will widen. This could potentially create tension and fuel lobbying to increase the minimum wage. But like protectionism, raising the minimum wage could ultimately be counter-productive. Increasing minimum wage for hotel or fast-food employees, for example, could actually make companies more interested in automating away those positions if it actually saves companies more money.在未来20年里,那些非熟练技术工更有可能感受到被机器人夺走工作的痛苦。贫富差距会进一步加大。这有可能进一步加剧紧张局面,刺激更多人游说提高最低工资。但是就像保护主义一样,提高最低工资最终也可能起到反效果。比如提高酒店业和快餐业员工的最低工资,可能会进一步提高企业对自动化的兴趣,因为他们觉得这样做无疑会给公司省更多的钱。Instead of protecting jobs or increasing the minimum wage, we should seriously consider improving America’s antiquated education system. Education is what saved the nation during the 19th century and it could be critical this time as well.因此,与其推行就业保护主义、提升最低工资,我们还不如认真考虑应该如何改进美国过时的教育体系。在19世纪,正是教育拯救了这个国家。这一次,教育也同样是决定性因素。According to MIT Economist David Autor, “By the late 19th century … many Americans recognized that farm employment was declining, industry was rising and their children would need additional education to earn a living.” The World Bank notes that between 1900 and 1940, the percentage of 14- to 17-year-olds enrolled in high school in the U.S. increased from 10% to 75%. As a result, millions of workers left farms and were able to obtain higher-paying jobs as the economy matured.麻省理工学院(MIT)经济学家大卫o奥特指出:“到19世纪末……很多美国人意识到,农业的就业率正在下降,工业就业率正在上升。而他们的孩子需要接受额外的教育才能够养家糊口。”世界也指出,在1900到1940年之间,美国14至17岁青少年的高中入学率从10%上升到75%。因此,随着经济的成熟,数百万劳动者离开农场后,能够获得薪水更高的工作。But this time, we don’t need more schools, we need different schools. Schools will need to place a greater focus on skills that will enable the next generation to benefit from the upcoming technological wave instead of merely getting swept aside. In particular, robots are still horrible communicators and problem solvers. So schools should evolve to emphasize critical thinking and social skills. It is also highly unlikely that during the next couple decades robots will learn how to design and manage themselves, so schools should stress creativity and management skills.但这一次,我们需要的不是更多的学校,而是不同的学校。学校需要投入更大精力,向下一代人传授新的技能,使他们能在新的科技革命中受益,而不是“靠边站”。特别需要指出的是,机器人的沟通和解决问题的能力依然很糟糕。所以,学校应该重点加强学生的批判式思维和社交能力。另外,在未来的一二十年,机器人大概也很难掌握设计和自我管理能力,因此,学校应该着重培养学生的创造力和管理技能。In addition to focusing on different skill sets, schools will need to teach students how to work with machines and other emerging technologies. Today, those who have conquered computers have given themselves a much greater chance of succeeding. Tomorrow, the same will be true as it pertains to robots and big data. In a recent paper, Autor observed that people often “overstate the extent of machine substitution for human labor and ignore the strong complementarities.” In 20 years, our success will not necessarily be driven by our quantitative skills or our work effort, but by how well we collaborate with robots.除了重点传授不同的技能,学校还应教会学生如何与机器和其它新兴技术共同工作。如今,那些征了电脑的人有更大的成功机会。而在未来,那些掌握了机器人和大数据的人也将是如此。奥特在最近发表的一篇论文中指出:人们“经常夸大了机器对人力的取代作用,忽视了它极强的补充作用。”在未来20年中,我们的成功不一定取决于我们的量化技能或努力程度,而是取决于能否很好地与机器人协同工作。Two years ago, a relative of mine was diagnosed with prostate cancer. Ironically, he is a talented urologist who has performed over 3,000 prostate cancer surgeries, but couldn’t operate on himself. When it came to choosing a doctor, he selected a surgeon who was arguably the best in the world at operating with the da Vinci Surgical System, a robotic surgical system. His physician’s skills were still as important as ever but the robot enabled his doctor to translate his hand movements into smaller, more precise incisions. Although the Technology Revolution will come with its share of challenges, like the Industrial Revolution, it will ultimately enable us to do our jobs better than before and solve problems that we can’t even fathom solving today.两年前,我的一个亲戚被诊断出患有前列腺癌。讽刺的是,他自己就是一名杰出的泌尿科医生,曾经做过3000多例前列腺癌手术,但是他没法给自己手术。他在选择医生时,选择了一名据说是最善于操作达芬奇外科手术系统(Da Vinci Surgical System,一种机器人手术系统)的外科医生。他的医术当然依然很重要,但是机器人能让医生的双手进行更微小、更精确的切割操作。虽然像工业革命一样,科技革命将给人类带来挑战,但机器人最终会帮助我们更好地完成工作,解决那些我们今天甚至无法解决的问题。(财富中文网)Ryan Feit is CEO and co-founder of SeedInvest, a New York City-based equity crowdfunding platform that connects investors with startups.本文作者莱恩o费特是SeedInvest公司的CEO和联合创始人,SeedInvest是纽约的一家连接投资人和创业公司的私募众筹平台。 /201412/347718

  

  

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