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航城街道中医医院在线咨询网上养生长乐安全人流术的价格

2019年10月15日 09:07:06来源:爱问口碑

SAN FRANCISCO — An elite group of security technologists has concluded that the American and British governments cannot demand special access to encrypted communications without putting the world’s most confidential data and critical infrastructure in danger.旧金山——一个由顶尖安全技术专家组成的团队得出结论,向美国和英国政府提供获取加密通讯的特殊手段,势必会令全球最秘密的数据和至关重要的基础设施陷入危险境地。A new paper from the group, made up of 14 of the world’s pre-eminent cryptographers and computer scientists, is a formidable salvo in a skirmish between intelligence and law enforcement leaders, and technologists and privacy advocates. After Edward J. Snowden’s revelations — with security breaches and awareness of nation-state surveillance at a record high and data moving online at breakneck speeds — encryption has emerged as a major issue in the debate over privacy rights.在情报和执法部门领导人与技术和隐私倡导人士的交锋中,由全球14位知名密码学和计算机科学家组成的团队发布的这篇论文,形成了一次排山倒海的攻势。在爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)披露后,随着网络入侵事件频发、对政府监控的戒备意识空前强烈,以及数据在网络间的高速传输,加密已经成为隐私权争论的一个焦点话题。That has put Silicon Valley at the center of a tug of war. Technology companies including Apple, Microsoft and Google have been moving to encrypt more of their corporate and customer data after learning that the National Security Agency and its counterparts were siphoning off digital communications and hacking into corporate data centers.这就让硅谷成为了这场拉锯战的中心。得知美国国家安全局(National Security Agency)及他国情报机构在窃听数码通讯,并侵入企业数据中心后,包括苹果、微软和谷歌在内的科技公司已经开始增加对企业和客户数据的加密。Yet law enforcement and intelligence agency leaders argue that such efforts thwart their ability to monitor kidnappers, terrorists and other adversaries. In Britain, Prime Minister David Cameron threatened to ban encrypted messages altogether. In the ed States, Michael S. Rogers, the director of the N.S.A., proposed that technology companies be required to create a digital key to unlock encrypted data, but to divide the key into pieces and secure it so that no one person or government agency could use it alone.然而,执法和情报部门领导人认为,这样的措施会影响他们监控绑架犯、恐怖分子及其他敌人的能力。英国首相戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)威胁要全面禁止讯息加密。而在美国,国家安全局局长迈克尔·S·罗杰斯(Michael S. Rogers)提议,科技公司应该制作一种用于解除加密数据锁定的数码密钥,但是可以把密钥分成多份,分别妥善保存,这样没有任何个人或单一的政府机构可以独自加以使用。The encryption debate has left both sides bitterly divided and in fighting mode. The group of cryptographers deliberately issued its report a day before James B. Comey Jr., the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and Sally Quillian Yates, the deputy attorney general at the Justice Department, are scheduled to testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee on the concerns that they and other government agencies have that encryption technologies will prevent them from effectively doing their jobs.这场关于加密的争论使双方产生了巨大分歧并处于对战状态。按计划,联邦调查局(FBI)局长小詹姆斯·B·科米(James B. Comey Jr.)和司法部副部长莎莉·奎利安·耶茨(Sally Quillian Yates)即将出席参议院司法委员会(Senate Judiciary Committee)的听会,就以下议题发言:如果他们和其他政府机构使用这种加密技术,就无法有效地完成工作。这些密码专家故意选择在此次听会的前一天发布了自己的报告。The new paper is the first in-depth technical analysis of government proposals by leading cryptographers and security thinkers, including Whitfield Diffie, a pioneer of public key cryptography, and Ronald L. Rivest, the “R” in the widely used RSA public cryptography algorithm. In the report, the group said any effort to give the government “exceptional access” to encrypted communications was technically unfeasible and would leave confidential data and critical infrastructure like banks and the power grid at risk.这份新报告,是公共密钥密码学先驱惠特菲尔德·迪菲(Whitfield Diffie)和罗纳德·L·瑞威斯特(Ronald L. Rivest)等著名密码专家和考虑安全事宜的人士对政府提议的首次深度技术分析。广泛使用的RSA公共加密算法里的“R”就取自瑞威斯特姓氏的首字母。这些专家在报告中表示,任何赋予政府获得加密通讯信息等“特殊权限”的做法,从技术层面而言都不具有可行性,而且会使机密数据及和电网等基础设施暴露在风险之下。Handing governments a key to encrypted communications would also require an extraordinary degree of trust. With government agency breaches now the norm — most recently at the ed States Office of Personnel Management, the State Department and the White House — the security specialists said authorities could not be trusted to keep such keys safe from hackers and criminals. They added that if the ed States and Britain mandated backdoor keys to communications, China and other governments in foreign markets would be spurred to do the same.把获取加密通讯信息的密钥交给政府,需要非同寻常的信任。鉴于政府机构目前频频泄密——最近的泄密事件发生在美国人事管理办公室(ed States Office of Personnel Management)、国务院和白宫——这些安全专家表示,他们无法信任当局能保这些密钥不被黑客和罪犯窃取。他们还表示,如果美国和英国强行要求持有通讯信息的后门密钥,那么也会刺激海外市场上的中国等国家的政府采取同样的举动。“Such access will open doors through which criminals and malicious nation-states can attack the very individuals law enforcement seeks to defend,” the report said. “The costs would be substantial, the damage to innovation severe and the consequences to economic growth hard to predict. The costs to the developed countries’ soft power and to our moral authority would also be considerable.”“这种权限将对犯罪分子和不怀好意的国家敞开大门,使他们能够攻击执法部门试图保护的那些个人,”报告称。“代价将会很大,创新将受到严重打击,对经济增长的影响也将难以预料。发达国家的软实力和我们的道德权威也将受到重大影响。”A spokesman for the F.B.I. declined to comment ahead of Mr. Comey’s appearance before the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings on Wednesday. Mr. Comey recently told CNN, “Our job is to find needles in a nationwide haystack, needles that are increasingly invisible to us because of end-to-end encryption.”FBI的一个发言人拒绝在科米周三出席参议院司法委员会的听会前发表。科米最近告诉CNN,“我们的工作就是在整个国家的这片大海中捞针,因为端到端的加密,这些针现在越来越难找了。”A Justice Department official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity before the hearing, said that the agency supported strong encryption, but that certain uses of