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武汉治疗淋病哪家好武汉硚口区男科医院在那儿应城市人民医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱 Business商业报道Companies and emissions企业使命Carbon copy复写本Some firms are preparing for a carbon price thatwould make a big difference一些公司准备使用碳价 这将带来极大的转变THE marketsfor CO2 have had about as good a year as Obamacare.对二氧化碳的市场管理就如同奥巴马医改一样,实施已有一年了。Europesemissions-trading system, the worlds largest carbon market, collapsed inApril.欧洲碳排放交易系统作为全球最大的碳市场在今年四月崩溃。Australiasnew government is killing off that countrys fledgling market.澳大利亚的新任政府正在遏止该国羽翼未丰的市场。Yet companiesare blithe.然而公司的经理人是很高兴的。Internal carbon prices, the price of a tonne of CO2 used for planning purposes within firms, are becoming an increasingly common business tool.Perhaps firms know something that markets and politicians do not.内部碳价作为用于公司内部计划目的的每吨二氧化碳的价格,正逐步成为一个常用的商业工具。或许企业的管理者知道与此相关的事物,而这却不在市场及政治家考虑的范围之内。A study byCDP, a research group, asked large firms based or operating in America whattools they had for managing risk; 29 said they used an internal carbon price.一个名为CDP的研究机构做了一项调查。该调查询问美国的公司或在美国经营的公司采用何种方式进行风险管理。29家公司表示他们用内部碳价进行风险管理。Anecdotally, more apply such a price but did not mention it as a risk-mitigation measure.更为让人惊奇的是,更多的公司运用这种策略却不称之为风险缓和措施。This is the first economy-wide picture of how farinternal carbon pricing has gone and what it is used for.这是第一幅展现内部碳价的作用的经济全景图。The pricesrange from 6-7 a tonne of carbon dioxide at Microsoft to 60 a tonne at ExxonMobil.每吨二氧化碳的定价根据公司不同而不同,从微软每吨6-7美元到埃克森美孚每吨60美元。The span is not surprising, since companies use carbon prices for different purposes.因为各个公司出于不同的目的制定碳价,这种差别并非惊人。As a rule, those whose assets have a long productive lifeand which might be affected by green policies far into the future use higher prices than consumer-goods firms whose products aremainly influenced by current policies.通常,那些生产较长寿命的设备的公司及在未来受环保政策影响的公司的碳价比那些主要受当前政策影响的消费品公司的高。For manycompanies the aim is to prepare themselves for future environmentallegislation.对许多公司来说,他们制定碳价的目的是为将来的应对环保立法做准备。AEP, a power supplier, says it uses the system because it assumesa price of carbon…will begin in the US by roughly 2020.美国电力公司这个电力供应商称他们利用该定价系统因为该公司人碳价…大约会在2020年在整个美国普及。Delta AirLines says it uses a price for evaluating flights to Europein anticipation of compliance with EU ETS.德尔塔航空公司称该公司利用定价机制评估飞往欧洲的航班,以期欧洲电信标准作出让步。This is notthe only reason.这并非唯一的原因。Many firms use an internal carbon price to calculate the valueof future projects and to guide investment decisions.许多公司利用内部碳价计算未来项目的价值从而指导投资决策。Conoco Phillips, an oilfirm, requires that capital projects worth over 75m calculate the cost ofemissions based on a price of between 8 and 46 a tonne, depending on the lifeof the project.康菲石油公司要求超过7500万美元的重要项目,必须根据项目的生命周期以每吨8-46美元的价格计算二氧化碳排放的成本。The forecast value of a new oilfield would be: estimated outputmultiplied by the estimated future oil price minus development costs and carbonemissions.估计一个新油田的价值将会是:预计产量+预估未来的油价-开发成本-碳排放成本。Shell,another oil company, applies a carbon price—40 a tonne—to some currentoperations, not only future ones.另一个石油公司英荷壳牌不仅仅对未来的项目,即便是当下运作的项目,也采取每吨40美元的碳价。The idea is to identify tall poppies.这一思想旨在确认最高碳价。The price implies that existing projectscould spend up to 40 to reduce a tonne of CO2.该定价暗示现有项目每减少一吨二氧化碳的排放需花费40美元。Angus Gillespie, Shells vice-president for CO2, says we applythe carbon price as much to spur mitigation as to quantify risks.英荷壳牌负责二氧化碳事宜的副总裁安格斯?吉莱斯皮称我们运用碳价来尽可能地缓解量化危机。Disney, amedia conglomerate, goes further still.媒体企业集团迪斯尼公司走得更深更远。It invests in schemes to offset orreduce carbon emissions and charges the cost of these to business units in proportionto how much they contribute to the companys overall emissions.该公司投资商业计划来抵消或减少碳排放并将碳排放的成本按照它们占公司总排放量的比例纳入商业单位。In effect, thisworks like an internal carbon tax.实际上,这就相当于一种内部碳税。Perhaps themost intriguing thing about the prices, though, is how high some of them are.可能碳价最吸引人的地方就是它们能达到多高。The market price of carbon is 4.90 per tonne of CO2 in the EU, 11.50in California.每吨二氧化碳排放的市场价在欧洲是4.9欧元,加利福尼亚是11.5美元。Big oil companies charge 34 or more. That is closer to the social cost ofcarbon—the damage from an extra tonne of CO2—than to the market price.大型石油公司定价为34美元或更多。这比市场碳价更接近社会碳成本—一吨碳导致的破坏。Americasadministration recently estimated the social cost at 37 a tonne.美国行政机构近期估计社会碳成本是每吨37美元。These priceschange behaviour.这些定价改变人们的行为。A huge amount of attention is paid to government action.人们更加重视政府的行动。But the sort of carbon price some companies are using for planning would, if itbecame a market price, have a much bigger impact than any of the policies thatgovernments are now talking about.但是某些公司运用这种碳价来制定商业计划,倘若该价格成为市场价格,将会比政府现在讨论的任何政策产生更大的影响。 /201312/269273武汉市江汉区治疗阳痿早泄

武汉软下疳医院武汉华夏男科医院是什么级别医院 Science and technology科学技术Forensic zoology法医动物学The elephant in the room房间里的大象—保护大象,刻不容缓!Dating ivory has just become easier. Poachers beware确定象牙年代已变得更容易了,偷猎者们要小心喽!FEW megafauna are more charismatic than elephants, and that charisma gives them political clout.在大型动物里,没有几种动物可以匹敌大象的魅力,这种魅力让大象很有政治影响。On July 1st, for example, Barack Obama used the Tanzanian leg of his tour of Africa to announce an executive order intended to give teeth to Americas obligation, as a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, to prevent the smuggling of poached ivory.比如说今年7月1日,奥巴马总统在非洲行程中的坦桑尼亚站宣布了一项行政命令,该命令旨在通过强制实施有效手段来更好地履行美国《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》的一员防止偷运偷猎象牙的义务。The rules on trading ivory, though, are hard to enforce, for if it comes from an animal killed before 1990 such trade is legal.但是,针对象牙贸易的规定很难实行,因为如果象牙来自的大象是在1990年之前被杀的,那么这种贸易是合法的。Not surprisingly, a cottage industry in making ivory look older than it is has grown up.因此,让象牙看起来比实际年代更久的家庭手工业的发展壮大就并不奇怪了。But a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, by Kevin Uno of the University of Utah and his colleagues, may deal with that.犹他大学的Kevin Uno和他的同事发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇论文可以解决这个问题。For Dr Uno has worked out how to use one of sciences less glorious episodes, the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, to work out exactly how old a piece of ivory really is.因为Uno士研究出了如何利用科学不甚光的一段—核武器大气层实验,来算出一节象牙的真实年代是多少。Dr Unos method uses the ivorys carbon-14 content in a way that was not previously employed.士Uno的方法用到了象牙的碳-14含量,他利用碳-14含量的方式从来没人用过。What radiochemists call 14C forms naturally in the atmosphere by the action of cosmic rays on nitrogen atoms.被放射化学家称作碳-14的物质是宇宙射线撞击空气中的氮原子而在大气中自然形成的,It has a half-life of 5,730 years, which makes it ideal for dating objects pertinent to human history, and it can do so to within a few decades of their true age—which is great for archaeology.其半衰期约为5,730年,这让其十分适合测量与人类历史有关事物的年代,其测量误差不超过其真实年代前后几十年。It is not, though, much use for finding out whether a particular piece of ivory was detached from the elephant that grew it before or after a specific date just over 20 years ago.但碳定年法在测量象牙年代,看其生长的时期是在20年前的之前还是之后,则并无甚用武之地。But Dr Uno realised there has recently been a second source of 14C—those bomb tests. And they give him the precision he requires.但是Uno士意识到最近碳-14还有另一个来源—那些核爆试验,而这些试验给了他他所想要的精度。Normally, the amount of 14C in the atmosphere is governed by the rate at which cosmic radiation creates it and the rate at which things like photosynthesis absorb it.通常来说,大气中碳-14的数量取决于宇宙射线产生碳-14的速率和像光合作用一类的反应吸收碳-14的速率。Between 1952 and 1962, however, when bomb tests above ground were commonplace, the amount of 14C in the air shot up until it was nearly double the normal level.但是,在1952至1962年间,地面上的核爆试验十分普遍,因此空气中的碳-14数量骤升,达到了近正常值的两倍。Since then it has fallen, also quite steeply, as plants have absorbed the surplus.但自那以后,碳-14的数量也急剧下降,因为植物把剩余的碳-14吸收掉了。And it will continue to fall until the old equilibrium reasserts itself.并且碳-14的值会不断下降,直到降到原来的平衡值。This bomb curve, as it is known, changes so fast that year-by-year differences in the 14C levels of recent specimens should be detectable.我们知道,这种爆炸曲线的变化如此之快,因此我们就可以探测出近期空气中每年碳-14值的不同。To test this hypothesis, Dr Uno and his colleagues looked at 29 specimens of known age, from 1905 to 2008.为对这一假想进行测试,Uno士和他的同事研究了已知年代,即从1905年至2008年的29个样品。These included elephants tusks, teeth and tail hair, and hippopotamus teeth.这其中包括大象的长牙、牙齿和尾部的毛发,还有河马的牙齿。They measured the specimens 14C content using a sensitive technique called accelerator mass spectrometry.他们使用一项被称作加速器质谱的高灵敏度技术来测量样品中碳-14的含量。For those tissues that had grown after 1955 the 14C concentration did, as the researchers hoped it would, closely match the bomb curve.正如研究者们所预料的那样,对于1955年以后生长的组织,其碳-14浓度与爆炸曲线严格吻合。Indeed, for these the match was so good that their ages could be determined to within a year of the truth.的确,对于这些样品来说,吻合度如此之高,以至于对其年代的确定可精确到一年以内。At the moment Dr Unos technique costs 1,000 a pop, so some places, particularly poorer countries in Africa, might be reluctant to deploy it.由于Uno士的技术每次要耗费一千美元,因此有些地方,尤其是非洲更贫困的地区就可能不愿使用这种技术了。But in the context of an illegal trade in ivory reckoned to be worth about 1 billion a year, that is not a huge amount of money.但是,鉴于非法象牙贸易一年约价值十亿美元,这就不是一个大的数目了。And if it helps preserve elephants, whose numbers in Africa have fallen from 1.3m to 600,000 in the past 40 years, many would see it as money well spent.而且,如果这种技术有助于保护大象,那么很多人会认为这个钱花得很值,因为在过去的40年里,大象的数量已从一百三十万下降到了六十万。 /201310/262180武汉市中心医院看男科好吗

鄂州龟头炎症 Bitcoin in China比特币在中国A dream dispelled美梦破碎Chinese regulators make life hard for crypto-currencies中国的监管机构使加密电子货币难以生存NOT so long ago, China looked to be the promised land for crypto-currencies. Bitcoin and its rivals were traded freely and online exchanges proliferated. On one estimate, China accounted for more than half of the worlds trade in Bitcoin last year. Near the end of last year, when its price was above ,000, more than 100,000 coins were being traded daily on BTC China, a local exchange.不久前,中国看起来还是加密电子货币的应许之地,比特币与其竞争对手在此进行自由买卖,在线交易量激增。有人估计,中国去年的比特币交易量超过其全球总交易量的一半。去年年末,比特币价格高于1,000美元,作为国内比特币交易平台,比特币中国那时的日交易量超过10万比特币。Alas, those heady days are gone. Prices have plunged below 0 of late and hardly 2,000 coins are now traded daily on BTC China. According to Bobby Lee, the exchanges founder, “Most investors have left the market.” What happened? The short answer is regulation.唉,可叹那些激动人心的日子已然一去不复返。比特币价格在后期爆跌至500美元以下,比特币中国的日交易量几乎还不到2,000比特币。其创始人李启元表示,“大部分投资者已离场。”到底发生了什么?说得简单点:监管插手了。In early December Chinas central bank declared that Bitcoin was not a currency. This slowed its rise, but enthusiasts remained unbowed as the declaration fell far short of the outright ban some had feared. Then regulators forbade the firms that act as middlemen between businesses and credit-card networks from working with the exchanges. That was a more serious blow, but exchange operators found ways round the ban.去年12月初,中国央行宣告比特币不是货币。这减缓了比特币增速,但仍有狂热者并不为之所动,坚称央行的此项声明远未达到有些人所畏惧的全面禁止比特币的程度。但紧随其后,监管机构关停那些与比特币交易平台合作,充当商家和信用卡网络交易“中间人”角色的第三方公司,则是对其更严重的打击。然而,交易平台运营商们还是找到了绕过禁令的方式。Rumours now suggest that the central bank has instructed commercial banks to halt all dealings with cyber-exchanges by April 15th. Such a move would be even more harmful to Bitcoin, says Zennon Kapron of Kapronasia, a local expert on the topic. As in most places, Bitcoin has not taken off as a means of payment in China; instead, it is mainly a speculative investment. But the steady drip of new rules makes it ever harder for ordinary Chinese to invest.当前有传言称,央行已指示商业于4月15日前停止一切相关的网络虚拟交易。财务和技术咨询企业亚锴璞隆的曾诺?卡普隆是国内研究此类问题的专家,他表示,这一举动会对比特币造成更大伤害。在中国的大多数地方,比特币仍未成功变为一种付手段,与之相对,它主要充当一种投机性的投资工具。但新规定的稳步渗透使中国的普通百姓越来越难以用其进行投资。Still, one venture capitalist keen on crypto-currencies predicts “some workaround is likely”. If banks are forbidden to hold corporate accounts for exchanges, one insider whispers that personal bank accounts of senior executives could be used instead. OKCoin, another Chinese exchange, insists it has an emergency plan involving an “overseas version”.不过,一位热衷于加密电子货币的风险投资家预测,“打擦边球还是有可能的”。据一位内部知情人士透露,如果被禁止持有企业账户进行交易,高管的个人账户可用来作为替代。另一个中国比特币交易平台OKCoin则坚称它一直拥有涉及“海外版本”的应急预案。It is too early to declare Bitcoin dead in China. On March 21st the central bank clarified that it was not banning trading in crypto-currencies. Still, its crackdown has dispelled the dream that was helping to drive up Bitcoins value in the first place. As Mr Lee points out wistfully, “A billion Chinese wont all be buying Bitcoin anytime soon.”现在就断言比特币在中国必死还为时过早。3月21日,央行澄清称它并未禁止买卖加密电子货币。但尽管如此,它对比特币的打压还是使人们最初对于助推比特币价值飙升的美梦破碎了。正如李先生所担忧的那样,“十亿中国人并不都会在一时间立即购买比特币。” /201404/287828武汉阴茎发炎怎么办江汉大学附属第三医院男性专科

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