原标题: 湖州韩式双眼皮价格爱问乐园

I was standing on top of a cliff looking at a loudspeaker the size of a small block of flats facing out to sea. There was music playing, the woman’s voice so loud it hurt my ears. But this was down to the vastness of the speaker, not the song, which was plaintive and mellifluous and heartbreaking, even though I couldn’t understand a word. 我站立在悬崖顶上,眺望着面朝大海、足有小型公寓楼大的一个大喇叭。喇叭里正播放着歌曲,女歌手的歌声震耳欲聋。但这主要拜巨型喇叭、而非歌曲本身所赐。虽然我压根听不懂一句歌词,但歌声哀怨而又甜美、十分伤感。 The music stopped. The woman talked, in Mandarin, the recording crackling. “Dear friends in mainland China,” she said, my guide, Chifa Chen, translating. “I am happy to be here in Kinmen. I hope you can share the same freedom. Please, just come here and realise your dreams.” 突然音乐声停了,随之听到的是女歌手的普通话声音,录音吱吱作响:“亲爱的大陆朋友,”她播道,我的导游陈赤发(Chifa Chen,音译)为我一句句翻译。“我幸福地生活在金门(Kinmen),希望你能同享自由,请到我们这边来,你会梦想成真。” I turned to face the sea, following the woman’s voice. Across the strait, just six miles away, through the diaphanous smog, I could see the ghostly skyscrapers of Xiamen city in mainland China. The voice, Chen told me, was the late Teresa Teng’s, Taiwanese folk singer and soldiers’ sweetheart, whose patriotic ballads of the 1970s, blasted nightly across the strait, were a potent propaganda tool in the cold war between Taiwan and China. Despite being banned at one point, Teng enjoyed huge popularity in China, where lovestruck fans christened her “Little Deng” (on the mainland, her name was spelt in the same way as China’s then leader). “It is said that Deng Xiaoping ruled China by day,” said Chen. “But Deng the singer ruled China by night.” 顺着女播音员的声音,我转向大海。六英里外的海峡那边,透过薄薄的云雾,依稀能看到大陆那边厦门市(Xiamen) 的天楼群。陈告诉我,广播里的女声是已故台湾歌星邓丽君(Teresa Teng),她是国军士兵心中的偶像;她在上世纪70年代演唱的那些爱国民歌,每天夜晚都会播到海峡那边的大陆,是大陆与台湾冷战时期强有力的宣传工具。尽管邓丽君的歌曲曾经遭禁,但她在大陆是家喻户晓的明星,那些热恋中的年轻歌迷尊称她为“小邓”(在大陆,她与当时的中国领导人邓小平(Deng Xiaoping)同姓)。“都说大陆白天由邓小平统治,”陈说。“但到了晚上则是邓丽君‘统治’。” I had flown 200 miles west from Taiwan’s capital city Taipei to Kinmen, a bow-tie-shaped lump of granite gneiss, just 58 square miles in all. The Taiwan Strait is studded with tiny islands, familiar to Taiwanese holidaymakers but virtually off the radar of western tourists. I was to spend a week exploring a few of them. 我从台湾首府台北(Taipei)坐了200英里飞机抵达金门(Kinmen),这座蝴蝶结形状的花岗片麻岩小岛总面积只有58平方英里。台湾海峡小岛林立,台湾的度假者对它们耳熟能详,但西方游客对此却知之甚少。我打算花一周时间,寻芳探幽一番。 Kinmen was the first place Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist forces landed and claimed in their 1949 retreat from Mao Zedong’s Communist regime. At its closest point, it is just over a mile from the mainland. For the next 30-odd years Kinmen was shelled remorselessly by China; and the cliff-top sirens did their thing. 1949年,蒋介石(Chiang Kai-shek)的国民党军队(Nationalist forces)被毛泽东的共产党军队打败后,溃退后的首个立足点就是金门。金门离大陆最近的地方只有一英里,在接下来的30多年时间里,金门不断遭到大陆炮火的无情打击,悬崖顶上的大喇叭就是对大陆作宣传之用的。 But rapprochement eventually followed and, in 1995, Taiwan designated Kinmen a national park, embarking on a massive programme to turn the once off-limits military zone, one of the most heavily fortified places on earth, into a tourist destination – with its cold war history one of the key draws. And the tourists they mainly want to attract? The newly wealthy Chinese, of course: what sweet irony. 但两岸最终走向和解,1995年,台湾把金门设为国家公园,并启动大规模的开发计划,把昔日的军事禁区、这个地球上固若金汤的堡垒打造成旅游胜地——把国共冷战时期的历史作为主要旅游景点。 . . . . . . We drove through tunnels of horsetail trees, swishing in the breeze, a wave of noise from the cicadas, like squealing car tyres, accompanying us. These trees, very wind resistant, explained Chen, were planted by the military to reforest the island, which had been denuded by shipbuilding dating back to the Ming era. We passed a large granite statue, flowing red cape around its shoulders, incense burning in its lap – a wind lion god, said Chen, one of 70 erected to protect the island from the violent winds that rip through the strait. 我们驱车穿过长满马尾树的坑道,马尾树在微风中嗖嗖作响,耳畔传来知了的阵阵噪叫,就象汽车轮胎辗过地面发出的那种长而尖的声音。陈对我说,这些马尾树特别能防风,军方种它们,是想让金门岛绿树成林,从明代起,岛上的树就被砍伐一空,用来建造船只。我们穿过一座巨大的花岗岩雕塑,肩上披着红色的披肩,迎风飘展,膝盖前面香烟袅袅——陈说,这就是风狮爷(wind lion god),全金门共有70座,先人树此目的是让金门免遭台湾海峡狂风之肆虐。 We stopped at Maestro Wu’s knife factory. From 1958 to 1978, the Chinese dropped nearly 5m shells on Kinmen. Many of them have ended up at Maestro Wu’s, after it was discovered that the high-grade steel made for superb kitchen knives. 我们在金合利钢刀厂(Maestro Wu’s knife factory)停下车来,从1958年至1978年,中国大陆落在金门岛上的炮弹差不多有500万发。发现这些高质量的钢可制成质量上乘的厨房刀具后,很多炮弹最终成了钢刀厂的用料。 I met the current maestro, Wu Tsong-shan, 56, who had followed his father and grandfather into the business. He selected a shell from the huge pile in the workshop, cut out a section with a blowtorch, then hammered and polished it and hammered it again. Within 20 minutes, he was handing me my very own knife, made from a Chinese bomb. 我见到了钢刀厂如今的制刀大师吴增栋(Wu Tsong-shan),他今年56岁,随自己父亲与爷爷学艺后进入此行。他从车间的一大堆废炮弹中挑出一枚,用喷灯切割下一段后,不断敲打、打磨,而后再次锤打。不到20分钟,吴增栋大师就把用大陆炮弹制成的钢刀递到了我手上。 We walked around Kincheng, Kinmen’s sleepy little main town, along Mofan Street, flanked by 1920s red-brick buildings with arched front doors in the Japanese style. At the Chef Huang restaurant, we drank bitter herbal tea made from the luo han guo gourd, ate beef jerky infused with cumin, and then beef noodle soup, scarlet red and powered by yeast and chillies. Kinmen’s beef is famous throughout Taiwan, the cattle being fed on the brewing leftovers from the potent and equally famous 58 per cent proof sorghum-based kaoliang liquor that is made here. 我们在金城(Kincheng,见右图)里转,这座宁静小镇是金门的主要集镇,我们沿着模范街(Mofan Street)转,两边是上世纪20年代、拱形大门的日本式红砖洋房。在黄家酒楼(Chef Huang),我们喝了由罗汉果冲泡的苦茶,品尝了孜然牛肉干,还点了牛肉面,酵母发过的面条放上辣子后,通红通红。金门牛肉全台湾知名,它的牛是用本地酿造的58度烈性高粱酒酒糟所喂养出来的。 We drove around the island, along narrow hedgerowed country lanes, where hoopoes, Kinmen’s emblematic striped bird, stood in our way, their feathered crowns defiantly erect. We stopped at a sandbank peppered with nesting holes, and watched the air pulse iridescent blue as hundreds of bee-eaters swooped around us. We drove past mangrove swamps, alive with huge black-and-white common mime butterflies and fiddler crabs, past fields of wild mint and peanuts, and then emerged once more at the coast, where a long, palm-fringed beach could have had you in the Caribbean were it not for the neat rows of steel spikes embedded in concrete that covered its entirety and a giant sign facing the sea ing, “Destroy the Evil Communists.” “There’s a local saying that Kinmen is a garden built upon a fortress,” said Chen, before adding, reassuringly, that they’d finally cleared the last of the mines. 我们沿着两连灌木篱笆墙的狭窄小道驱车浏览金门岛,路两旁不断有带标志性花纹的金门戴胜鸟飞起,它们的羽毛冠醒目地竖立着。我们在一块沙丘边停下车,只见上面密布巢穴,成千上万的食蜂戴胜鸟在飞落下来时,四周的空气都颤动着闪亮的蓝色。我们驱车经过红树林沼泽时,到处可见巨大的黑白色斑凤蝶与招潮蟹,它们飞(爬)过大片的野薄荷与花生地,不一会儿又在海滩边现形。在棕榈树点缀的长长海滩上,要不是看见混凝土上密密麻麻布满的一排排整齐钢钉,以及看见面向大海、写着“打败共匪”的大标语牌,真以为自己正身处加勒比海呢!“当地人曾说金门是建在碉堡上的花园,”陈对我说,然后又以肯定的语气补充说已经把最后所有的地雷都排干净了。 That night we stayed in Qionglin, an old village whose ubiquitous sweeping swallowtail roofs were a symbol of its former wealth and status. Approached from the hillside above, Qionglin had looked like a vast scaled monster. Our Bamp;B was built in the 1850s but modelled on the classic Ming-era vernacular. Wrapped around a small courtyard, it dripped with pendulous lanterns, the gables engraved with vivid peonies and birds and golden dragons. The ancient hardwood doors to my bedroom creaked with age as I opened them. 当天晚上,我们住在琼林古村(Qionglin),这儿随处可见扫燕尾屋顶的房屋,它们曾是本地财富与身份的标志。从上面的山坡来到这里,整个村庄酷似巨型怪物。我们入住的旅馆(含早餐)建于19世纪50年代,但仍采用典型的明代民居建筑风格。整个旅馆围小院子而建,悬挂着灯笼,山墙上雕刻着栩栩如生的牡丹、鸟以及金龙。打开房间时,它的硬木老门还吱吱作响。 We went out for a dinner of squid balls and fried sandworms, a Kinmen delicacy, and a few shots of kaoliang, downed in one from thimble-sized glasses, its throat-stripping effects somewhat but not entirely annulled by its traditional accompaniment of dried black beans. 我们到街上去享用金门本地的美味(鱿鱼丸子与炸沙虫),并喝了几小酒盅高粱酒,一口喝下去,只觉得嗓子眼有点儿烧,尽管酿酒时加入干黑豆,但酒劲仍挺大。 After dinner we walked back through Qionglin, slightly giddy from the kaoliang, along alleyways so narrow I had to turn sideways, the languid, humid night suffused with jasmine, the swallowtail roofs silhouetted against the moonlight. Old men drew water from street wells. Women sat under flickering lamps shucking the wild oysters they’d harvested from the beach. 吃完饭后,我们漫步于琼林村,步行回旅馆,酒劲上来后,脑子觉得有些飘飘然,小巷太过狭窄,于是就转向旁边的路,慵懒、潮湿的夜晚弥漫着茉莉花的香味,在月光的衬托下,扫燕尾屋顶的轮廓清晰可见。老人们从街道的井里汲水,女人们则坐在摇曳的灯光下,正在去除海滩上捡拾的野生牡蛎外壳。 The next day, we saw more of Kinmen’s cold war legacy. First, we walked through the elaborate network of cramped tunnels the people of Qionglin dug under the village to escape the Chinese shells, and then to Zhaishan where, in the early 1960s, the military dug a 375-metre tunnel out of solid granite, filled it with seawater and used it to shelter its navy from bombardment. Ernst Stavro Blofeld would have felt very much at home. 第二天,我们亲眼目睹了金门在国共冷战期间的更多遗物。首先,我们穿行于密密麻麻的狭窄坑道网,这是由琼林村村民当时挖掘的,旨在躲避共产党军队炮火的攻袭,而后又参观了翟山坑道(Zhaishan),上世纪60年代,国民党军队在坚硬的花岗岩中,挖掘了一条375米长的坑道,并灌满海水,以用它来保护自己海军免受炮火攻击。布鲁弗(Ernst Stavro Blofeld,007系列电影中的反面人物,译者注)看到这里,定会觉得特别亲切。 But Kinmen is about more than war. We drove past more pagodas and lakes brimming with birds – Kinmen has more than 300 species, resident and migratory – and more exquisite old Fujian villages – Shuitou, Jhushan, Shanshou – and then through forests of Madagascar almond and golden flame trees, spotting the wind lions as we went. We passed a vast building, nearing completion. It was, Chen told me, a five-star hotel and shopping mall, due to open at the end of this year. In a sign of ever-increasing closeness between the two countries, it was the first hotel and mall in Taiwan to be funded by a Chinese property developer. It looked terribly out of place. 但金门不仅只是反映战争,我们驱车经过很多佛塔与湖泊,上面停满了各种鸟(金门有300多种留鸟与候鸟),还有众多精致的闽南古村落——水头村(Shuitou)、竹山村(Jhushan)、山后村(Shanshou),然后又穿过小叶榄仁树与金黄色凤凰木的树林,不时能看到矗立的风狮雕塑。快到旅程终点时,我们经过一幢规模宏大的建筑。陈告诉我这是一家五星级宾馆与大型购物商场,它预定今年底正式开张。作为两岸关系越来越紧密的标志,这是首家由大陆地产商开发的酒店与商场,但它显得不伦不类。 In the Taipei Times, Li Wo-shi, Kinmen’s county commissioner, was proposing the island become a duty-free destination, integrating travel and shopping, better to detain the Chinese holidaymakers from just across the water, who currently arrived in Kinmen by ferry from Xiamen but flew straight out again to Taipei. The islanders, Wo-Shi had been ed as saying, should have a hard think about this. Chen aly had – about the impact this would have on lovely little Kinmen – and he was worried. 金门县长李沃士(Li Wo-shi)在《台北时报》(Taipei Times)上撰文,提议把金门岛变为免税区,集旅游与购物于一身,以更好地吸引一水之隔的大陆观光客,对方如今从厦门坐渡轮来金门,但去台北却直接从厦门坐飞机。引用李沃士县长的话说,金门岛的居民真应该好好反思。此举对美丽小岛金门的影响,陈本人想到了,他对此忧心忡忡。 I flew east to Penghu, just 30 miles from the coast of Taiwan. Penghu comprises 90-odd islands – only a quarter of which are inhabited – formed from volcanic eruptions 17 million years ago. On the main archipelago, four islands forming a horseshoe and connected by bridges, I wandered around Makung, the pretty seaside capital, lost in a delicious walking reverie. I watched the locals praying at the Matsu Temple, dating from the late 16th century, with its stunning woodcarvings, sweeping swallowtail roof and a palpable sense of the eternal. Then I continued along Central Street, Makung’s oldest, winding and brick-paved, past Confucian temples and ancestral shrines. 我随后坐飞机,赶往距台湾本岛只有30英里的澎湖(Penghu,右图为澎湖的海岸线)。澎湖由90多个岛屿构成,形成于1700万年前的火山喷发,其中只有四分之一的岛屿有人居住。呈马蹄形的澎湖主群岛由四座岛屿构成,相互之间用桥梁连结。我漫步于澎湖县治所在地、美丽的海滨小城马公市(Makung),不禁浮想联翩。我看到当地人在妈祖庙(Matsu Temple)里祈祷,扫燕尾屋顶的妈祖庙始建于16世纪末,庙里的木雕工艺巧夺天工,宁静悠长的历史感触手可及。我沿着中华路(Central Street)继续前行,这是马公市最古老的街道,蜿蜒曲折,均用砖头铺就,路过了好几座孔庙与祠堂。 I drove out of town, first south, to Shanshui beach, an expanse of golden sand I had virtually to myself, and then north to Erkan, a township of 50 or so exquisite Fujian-style houses with coral walls dating from the early 20th century. There I drank cold almond tea and ate vivid vermilion-coloured ice-cream made from cactus, a Penghu speciality, and watched the villagers roll the incense sticks they sell to tourists. 我驱车出城,先是向南来到山水海堤(Shanshui beach),一望无际的金色沙滩上就我一个人,然后驱车往北,赶往二崁村(Erkan),那里坐落着大约50幢珊瑚墙打造、始建于20世纪初的闽南风格精致民居。在那儿,我喝了冰凉的杏仁茶,又品味仙人掌制作的朱红色新鲜冰淇淋,这是澎湖本地的特色,还观看了当地村民制作兜售给游客的佛香。 The next day I took a ferry to Chipei Island, barely two miles wide, and walked along the Chipei Tail, a great tongue of golden sand jutting out into the water. It was quite deserted on this summer’s day but, come September, when the 50-knot winds blast down the Taiwan Strait from the north, it will be packed with the windsurfers who flock to Penghu, “the Canary Islands of the Orient”, from all corners. 第二天,我乘渡轮前往吉贝屿(Chipei Tail),这块美丽的金色狭长沙滩一直伸向大海之中。炎炎夏日,这儿游客稀少,但一到九月,每小时50哩的北风刮过台湾海峡时,海滩上就会挤满从世界各地蜂拥而至的冲浪好手,这儿被誉为“东方的加那利群岛”(the Canary Islands of the Orient)。 I took a ferry south, a tiny boat in big swells, past Tongpan, barricaded by walls of basalt columns, to Chimei Island, where I hired a scooter and rode along the clifftops, looking down at the churning water and the Two Hearts Stone Weir, an ancient fish trap that forms the backdrop to many a Taiwanese honeymoon photo. And then on to tiny Wang’an, where I rode past abandoned ancient dwellings, more fabulous, deserted beaches and grassy hillsides carpeted with vivid orange and yellow firewheels. 我又乘渡船南行,小船在汹涌波涛中穿过玄武岩柱林立的桶盘屿(Tongpan),抵达了七美岛(Chimei Island)。我在岛上雇了一辆小型托车,然后沿着悬崖顶一路骑行,纵览大海中的漩涡与“双心石沪”( Two Hearts Stone Weir),这个古老的陷阱是许多台湾蜜月度假照片的背景。然后我又坐船前往小小的望安岛(Wang’an),在这儿,我看到废弃的古代聚居地、更多美丽空旷的海滩、以及郁郁葱葱的山坡,山坡上长满了惹人可爱的橙色与黄色“风火轮”树。 My guidebook directed me to the most famous sight on Wang’an, a “footprint” in a piece of basalt halfway up a hill which, legend has it, was formed when Lu Dongbin, one of China’s eight immortals, squatted here to urinate. It seemed a long way to come to look at the footprint of a god taking a leak but as I sat there and looked across the island – wild, remote, utterly unspoilt – I was glad I had. 我的旅游手册指引我前往望安岛上最知名的景点——位于半山腰玄武岩石上的一个“脚印”,传说这是八仙中的吕洞宾(Lu Dongbin)蹲此小便留下的。看来我得爬很长距离才能看到吕洞宾的“圣迹”,但我坐在那儿眺望望安小岛(它无人居住、地处偏僻、完全保持原始风貌)那头时,幸运的是我真正看到了所谓的“圣迹”。 On my last day in Penghu, I walked along the Makung harbour front. It was Dragon Boat racing day, and the locals were paddling their craft up and down. It was delightfully restrained, more like a school sports day than the razzmatazz of the same event going on at the same time just across the Taiwan Strait in Hong Kong. 在澎湖的最后一天,我沿着马公港口漫步。今天是端午节(Dragon Boat)赛龙舟日,当地人奋力划桨,龙舟在浪花中上下翻飞,活动一板一眼,看得赏心悦目,与其说象海峡对岸香港举办的龙舟赛那样活力四射,倒不如说更象一场普通的校运会。 That same day, the China Times had run a story about Penghu. In 2009, the islands had held a referendum on whether to allow the building of casinos – as with Kinmen, better to attract Chinese tourists. There was also talk about building huge beach resorts. The referendum had been narrowly defeated, causing proposed investment in the islands to be slashed. Now, according to the Times, the pro-casino group was gathering signatures again for a second public vote, confident this time it would win. 同一天,《中国时报》(China Times )登载了一则发生在澎湖的新闻。2009年,澎湖举行了公投,以决定是否允许和金门一样兴建,吸引大陆观光客。另外还传出兴建大型海滩度假区的计划。公投最后以微弱少数惜败,结果让计划中的投资澎湖大幅削减。据《中国时报》报道,如今持兴建的一派又在收集签名,以举办第二次公投,他们坚信这一次一定能胜出。 As I walked back to my hotel, along Makung’s quiet streets, past the old temples with swallows flitting in and out of the eaves, I wondered what Kinmen and Penghu would look like in 10 years’ time. I thought back to those plaintive cliff top exhortations, “Just come here and realise your dreams,” and wondered what Teresa Teng would make of it all. 我沿着僻静的马空街道步行回酒店、经过几座古庙时,只见燕子飞进飞出,不禁纳闷:10年后的金门与澎湖会变成啥模样。我又想起悬崖上大喇叭里的那些充满哀伤语气的劝词:“到我们这边来,你会梦想成真,”不知邓丽君再世,会如何理解这一切? /201310/261566

Say what you will about the Chinese, but they know how to make wholesale changes, and sometimes those changes are inarguably for the good. As noted in an editorial in The Lancet last week, the life span of the average person in China in 1950 was 40 years; by 2011 it was around 76. (The average life span in the ed States in 2011 was 79.)不管你怎么说中国人,他们的确知道该如何实现大规模变化;有时候,这些变化是无可争辩的好事。正如《柳叶刀》(The Lancet)杂志上周在一篇社论中指出的,1950年,中国人的平均寿命为40岁,而到2011年这一数字已经达到76岁左右(2011年美国人的平均寿命为79岁)。The causes of this near doubling of life span are no secret: China has developed public health programs that have reduced communicable diseases to a manageable level. This is certainly good news. But it means that people are now dying of noncommunicable diseases, or chronic diseases that are largely preventable. These diseases, most common in wealthier nations, are caused not by malnutrition in the classic sense but by overconsumption of disease-causing foods as well as lack of exercise and environmental dangers.寿命几乎延长一倍的原因,倒也不是什么秘密:中国开展了把传染病减少到可控水平的公共卫生项目。这当然是个好消息。但它也意味着,人们现在死于很大程度上可以预防的非传染性疾病或慢性疾病。这些疾病在富国最常见,它们不是由传统意义上的营养不良造成的,而是源于过度消耗致病食品,以及缺乏运动和环境危害。Because things are moving so fast in China, and because that country can learn from the example of the ed States and others, perhaps it can pull off a public-health leapfrog and avoid the West’s fate of a rapid and tragic increase in obesity levels and the diseases with which they’re associated.由于中国办事的速度非常之快,而且可以从美国等国家借鉴经验,我认为它可以在公共卫生领域大大迈进一步,避免走上西方可悲的老路:即肥胖和相关疾病发作率的迅速飙升。And there’s hope: The authors of the Lancet editorial wrote that Li Bin, China’s new minister of health and family planning, “has the political will, together with the support of international colleagues, to meet the urgent challenge” of these noncommunicable diseases and the problems they pose for China’s future.希望是有的:《柳叶刀》那篇社论的作者写道,中国新任卫生计生委主任李斌“拥有政治意愿和国际同行的持,可以去迎接迫在眉睫的挑战”,抗击这些非传染性疾病,以及它们给中国未来发展带来的问题。In high-income countries, excess weight is the third-leading risk factor in death. The importance of addressing this was brought home again last month with the publication of a new study and editorial, also in The Lancet. The work looked at 22 different cancers in Britain and their association with body mass index (B.M.I.), a simple but more effective measure of obesity than weight alone. The conclusions of the study, which involved a whopping 5.24 million people, were both notable and not entirely unexpected: When adjusted for factors like age and smoking, a higher B.M.I. was associated with a large increase in risk of cancers of the uterus, kidney, gallbladder, and liver, and smaller risk increases for at least six other types of cancer.在高收入国家,超重是第三大致死风险因素。上个月,同样发表在《柳叶刀》上的一篇新研究和社论,再次清楚展示了这个问题的重要性。该文章在英国研究了22种不同的癌症与身体质量指数(BMI)之间的关联;BMI是测试肥胖的指标,很简单,但比单纯采用重量指标更加有效。这项研究覆盖了524万人之多,其结论值得重视,但也并不是太出人意料:剔除年龄和吸烟因素的影响后,较高的BMI大幅增加了人们患上子宫、肾、胆囊和肝脏癌症的风险,而对于患上其他至少六种癌症,风险也有较小程度的提高。Most people are aware of the links among obesity, diabetes and heart disease, but cancer is only occasionally discussed. And although that association is not news precisely, there are a couple of aspects of the new study that make it notable. The sheer size and carefulness of the study add credibility to the obesity-cancer link. And by showing that the more obese a person is, the greater the likelihood of his developing certain cancers, it’s powerful.大多数人都知道肥胖和糖尿病、心脏疾病之间的联系,但对它与癌症的关系很少提到。虽然这种联系算不上什么新闻,但好几项新的研究,让它显得引人注目。本项研究的规模和细致程度,增加了肥胖和癌症关系的可信度。通过显示一个人越是肥胖,他患上某些癌症的可能性就越大,它具备了强大的说力。The ways in which obesity makes an individual more prone to cancer are far from well understood. Finding those ways may lead to more successful treatment of cancer, and it’s important and continuing work. But identifying what kind of policy might work to reduce obesity — regulations, taxes, subsidies for nonfattening foods, education about better diets and so on — is, or should be, the primary work of public-health officials, activists and forward-thinking politicians.肥胖为什么会让一个人更容易患上癌症,这种机制我们还远没能充分理解。研究这些机制,可能会带来更好的癌症疗法,这个工作很重要,而且也在持续进行中。但是,弄清楚什么样的政策可以减少肥胖——法规、税收、为健康食品提供补贴、增进人们对饮食的了解等等——是(或者说应该是)公共健康官员、活动人士和具有前瞻性思维的政治人士的首要工作。With a staggering 70 percent of our adult population overweight or obese, the ed States was until recently the world’s leader in this unenviable race. Recently, Mexico (71.3 percent), took our place. (In China, the combined obesity-overweight rate is hovering at under 30 percent, still frightening.) Yet Mexico, which many Americans and Europeans haughtily consider primitive, was the first major nation in the world to institute significant soda and junk food taxes. That law went into effect early this year, and the results are aly positive: Sales of soda are slipping.美国成人的超重率或肥胖率高达70%,直到最近,美国在这个不讨喜的世界排名中一直位居第一。近来,墨西哥(比率为71.3%)夺取了冠军。(在中国,综合肥胖超重率徘徊在30%左右,也很可怕。)虽然很多美国人和欧洲人傲慢地认为墨西哥是个落后国家,但它却是全球第一个对汽水和垃圾食品课以重税的大国。该法规于今年年初生效,现在已经显示了积极成果:汽水销量正在下滑。In the 21st century, it is inevitable that nearly every citizen of the world has been and will continue to be affected by the scourge of junk food and liquid candy. Even though intelligent proposals abound, few countries have attempted to curb their marketing or sales. Without limits, the consumption of unhealthy foods will result in higher rates of obesity, and therefore an increase in associated diseases and premature deaths.在21世纪,全球几乎每一个公民都已经并将继续受到垃圾食物和含糖饮料的影响,这是不可避免的。尽管明智的提议比比皆是,试图遏制市场营销或销售活动的国家却寥寥无几。如果没有限制,那么消耗不健康食品就会导致肥胖率升高,从而导致与之相关的患病率和早逝率升高。If we know how to diminish needless human suffering and mortality, why would we not? As Mexico has shown, it’s the responsibility of government to protect its population from hyper-processed food.如果我们知道该如何减少不必要的人类痛苦和死亡,那为什么不行动起来呢?墨西哥的状况已经表明,政府责无旁贷,理应保护公众免遭过度加工食品的侵害。China has the potential to apply the lessons learned not only from its own positive experience dealing with communicable disease, but from the tragic mistakes made by so-called developed nations. It has a chance to turn the tide against disease-causing diets before it’s too late. Sadly, we may need its example to wake up to our own problems.中国不仅可以运用自身控制传染病的积极经验,还可以借鉴所谓的发达国家在这个悲惨失误上的教训。现在为时还不晚,中国仍有机会力挽狂澜,和饮食引起的疾病做斗争。可悲的是,我们可能需要中国做出的表率,才能对自己的问题有所醒悟。 /201409/326620

Fifteenth-century Arabs were the first to cultivate coffee and a Frenchman was behind the 1843 debut of the world#39;s first commercial espresso machine.15世纪的阿拉伯人是最早栽培及食用咖啡的民族,而在1843年一名法国人首次制造出第一台商用咖啡机。There have been a few leaps forward since then.从那时起就有几次巨大的飞跃。;People are more and more interested in where the beans come from, and how they#39;re harvested and roasted, ; says New Zealand barista champion Nick Clark of Wellington#39;s Flight Coffee.“人们对咖啡豆的来源、如何收获、如何烘培越来越感兴趣,”新西兰惠灵顿咖啡比赛冠军咖啡大师Nick Clark说。;There are so many variables involved in producing a great cup of coffee these days, and the industry has had to evolve to meet growing consumer expectations.;“要想做出一杯好喝的咖啡,里面有太多的影响因素。咖啡业需要不断进步才能满足顾客日益高涨的期望。”The world#39;s best coffee cities are those where the coffee isn#39;t just good -- it#39;s great.在世界上咖啡最棒的城市里,那里的咖啡不仅仅是好——而是非常好。Aussies and Kiwis opened the city#39;s first espresso-focused coffee shops (such as Flat White and Kaffeine) a decade ago and they#39;ve been popping up across the city ever since.澳大利亚人和新西兰人十年前在该市开了首家以意式咖啡为主的咖啡馆(例如Flat White和 Kaffeine),从那时起,咖啡馆就不断出现。;London still has a long way to go with café service, but in the past five years there#39;s been so much growth; says Estelle Bright, head barista at London#39;s Caravan.“伦敦咖啡厅的务还有很长的路要走,但是在过去的五年里有很大的进步”, 伦敦Caravan的顶级咖啡师Estelle Bright说。Local order: Flat white or cappuccino.当地必点咖啡:白咖啡或卡布奇诺。;London is still in the grip of the flat white craze, but cappuccinos are similarly popular, ; says Bright.“伦敦人仍然热衷于白咖啡,但是卡布奇诺也同样受欢迎,”Bright说。;The coffee culture in Melbourne is just incredible, ; says reigning World Barista Champion Pete Licata, from the ed States.“墨尔本的咖啡文化简直不可思议,”来自美国的世界咖啡师大赛冠军Pete Licata说。Coffee is such an integral part of the Melbourne lifestyle that the city even hosts an annual coffee expo.对于墨尔本而言,咖啡是那里生活方式的不可分割的一部分,墨尔本甚至每年都要举行咖啡览会。Local order: Piccolo latte.当地必点咖啡:迷你拿铁。While lattes, cappuccinos and flat whites remain popular, piccolo lattes (made with less milk so the espresso tastes stronger) are the drink du jour.拿铁、卡布奇诺和白咖啡在那里仍然很流行,而迷你拿铁(使用了少量的牛奶,这样咖啡的味道更浓)最受欢迎。After the Dutch, Scandinavians have the highest coffee consumption per capita in the world.除了荷兰,北欧人是世界上人均咖啡消费量最多的国家。While Finns drink the most among Scandinavians, Icelanders are also coffee crazy.虽然在北欧人中,芬兰人是喝咖啡喝得最多的,但冰岛人也很热衷于咖啡。;You#39;d have coffee and cake and didn#39;t mind how the coffee was as long as the cake was good. ”“你会点咖啡和蛋糕,只要蛋糕口味不错,你就不会介意咖啡的味道。”;Then, about 25 years ago, people started to care about how their coffee was served.;“接着,大约在25年前,人们开始关心咖啡的务。“With Iceland#39;s lack of commercial coffee behemoths, smaller businesses have had a chance to flourish.冰岛缺乏咖啡巨头,小企业有机会蓬勃发展。Now you can hardly walk a city block without passing a coffee shop.现在你去每一个城市街区基本上都能看到咖啡店。Local order: Latte or cappuccino.当地必点咖啡:拿铁或卡布奇诺。;Drip coffee is popular in the home, but Icelanders tend go to coffeehouses for espresso-based drinks, ; says Thora.“过滤咖啡在家里很流行,但是冰岛人喜欢去咖啡馆喝浓缩咖啡,”Thora说。Coffee is so much a part of Italian culture that you#39;ll rarely encounter a local who doesn#39;t drink it.咖啡是罗马文化的一部分,你去罗马能难碰到不喝咖啡的当地人。But believe it or not, it#39;s not always that easy to find a decent espresso in Italy, with critics whispering that Italians have been resistant to adopt modern barista techniques.信不信由你,在意大利找到一家体面的浓缩咖啡店不是那么容易的,有批评者认为意大利一直抵制使用现代咖啡技术。But with the best of the nation#39;s baristas calling it home, Rome is your best bet for a quality cup.但是最好的咖啡师都把罗马称为咖啡之都,要想喝一杯高品质的咖啡,罗马是你最好的选择。Local order: Espresso.当地必点咖啡:浓缩咖啡Custom dictates that milky coffees can only be consumed at breakfast.那里的习俗是乳白色的咖啡只能在早晨时享用。;Coffee has always been an integral part of Singaporean life, but we#39;ve only recently embraced modern espresso technology, ; says Jovena Loon of Café Hopping Singapore. ;Locals have become so obsessed with latte art that it has become a basic criteria for a good café.;“咖啡一直是新加坡人生活中不可或缺的一部分,但是我们只在最近才开始接受浓缩咖啡的技术,”新加坡Café Hopping的Jovena Loon说。“当地人对拿铁艺术特别痴迷,以至于它成了好的咖啡馆的基本准则。Local order: Latte, mocha or cappuccino.当地必点咖啡:拿铁、 卡或卡布奇诺。If there#39;s one American city that#39;s consistently ahead of the game, it#39;s Seattle.如果从美国的城市中挑选一个咖啡城市,那非西雅图莫属了。The green mermaid is only a small part of the hometown coffee scene.“绿色美人鱼”的故乡是西雅图,而星巴克只是西雅图咖啡文化的一小部分。;Coffee is our liquid sunshine in Seattle, ; says Joshua Boyt from Victrola Coffee Roasters, one of the city#39;s best cafes for coffee geeks.“在西雅图,咖啡是我们的液体阳光,”来自Victrola Coffee Roasters的Joshua Boyt说。Victrola Coffee Roasters对咖啡极客来说是该市最好的咖啡馆。;Passion for the product, coupled with the sheer number of coffee shops across the city, has created a culture of constant improvement through competition and camaraderie.;“对产品的,在加上该市中大量的咖啡店,这些都创造了通过竞争和友谊不断改进的文化。”Local order: Espresso, cappuccino or a single-origin pour.当地必点咖啡:浓缩咖啡、卡布奇诺或 单品咖啡。They#39;re such an important part of Viennese culture that the city#39;s coffee houses were listed by UNESCO in 2011 as an Intangible Heritage.咖啡是维也纳文化中如此重要的一部分,以至于2011年该市的咖啡馆被联合国教科文组织列入非物质文化遗产。But modern coffee connoisseurs such as Vienna coffee blogger Lameen Abdul-Malik of From Coffee With Love admit that the standard of coffee in these beloved institutions, which act as public living rooms where people come to chat, newspapers and eat strudel, are lagging in terms of coffee technology and service expectations.但现代的咖啡鉴赏家如在CoffeeWithLove网站上写客的维也纳咖啡主Lammen Abdul-Malik承认,人们都喜欢去咖啡店里聊天、看报、吃点心,但咖啡店的咖啡标准在咖啡技术和务期望方面都有些滞后。Perhaps not for long.也许不会太久。;Since Vienna hosted the World Barista Championships in 2012, and new-style independent coffee shops began to open up, the quality of espresso drinks is steadily improving, ; says Abdul-Malik.“由于维也纳2012年举办了世界咖啡师大赛,新型的独立咖啡店开始开张,浓缩咖啡的质量在稳定提升,”Abdul-Malik说。Local order: Espresso or cappuccino in a new style cafe.当地必点咖啡:在新型的咖啡馆里点浓缩咖啡或卡布奇诺。 /201405/300327Famed novelist Gabriel García Márquez passed away on Thursday, according to a family member cited by the Associated Press. He was 87 years old.据美联社报道,著名小说家加夫列尔·加西亚·马尔克斯在周四逝世,享年87岁。The Colombian Nobel Prize winning author was hospitalized for nine days in late March for an infection in his lungs and urinary tract. He had been recovering in his home in Mexico City since April 8.在今年三月份,这位哥伦比亚籍的诺贝尔奖得主因肺部和尿道感染住院9天,从4月8号开始,他就一直在墨西哥的家中休养。García Márquez was born in Aracataca, Colombia on March 6, 1927. The northern Colombian town inspired the setting for his 1967 novel One Hundred Years of Solitude, which earned international critical acclaim and tens of millions of ers. García Márquez earned even more fans with his 1985 book, Love in the Time of Cholera. He was considered by many to be the most popular Spanish-language writer since Miguel de Cervantes, who wrote Don Quixote in the 17th century.加西亚·马尔克斯于1927年3月6日出生于哥伦比亚的阿拉卡塔卡,这座哥伦比亚北部的小镇曾是马尔克斯写于1967年的《百年孤独》里的故事背景,这部《百年孤独》赢得了国际界与万千读者的广泛赞誉。加西亚·马尔克斯出版于1985年的小说《霍乱时期的爱情》,吸引了更多的读者。他被认为是自米格尔·德·塞万提斯(他在17世纪时期创作了《唐吉诃德》)以来,最受欢迎的西班牙语作家。García Márquez won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 for his novels and short stories. When he won the award, he called Latin America a “source of insatiable creativity, full of sorrow and beauty, of which this roving and nostalgic Colombian is but one cipher more, singled out by fortune. Poets and beggars, musicians and prophets, warriors and scoundrels, all creatures of that unbridled reality, we have had to ask but little of imagination, for our crucial problem has been a lack of conventional means to render our lives believable.” He is credited with helping to invent the literary genre of magical realism.加西亚·马尔克斯凭借他的长篇小说和短篇小说获得了1982年的诺贝尔文学奖。他在领奖时,表示拉丁美洲是一个“永不枯竭的、充满不幸与美好事物的创作源泉,而我这个游浪和思乡的哥伦比亚人,只不过是一个被命运圈定的字码而已。诗人和乞丐、音乐家和预言家、武士和恶棍,总之,我们,一切隶属于这个非同寻常的现实的人,很少需要求助于想象力。因为对我们最大的挑战,是我们没有足够的常规手段来让人们相信我们生活的现实。”他被视为文学魔幻现实主义的创始人。 /201404/289614As a freelance writer, I do most of my work wearing cotton Old Navy pants, slumped down in a squishy arm chair with a computer on my lap. I also spend a small fortune on massages trying to work the increasingly annoying kinks out of my shoulders and upper back. Coincidence? Nope. The more time we spend sitting in front of our computers, the worse our posture gets. Modern technology is turning us into literally twisted creatures.身为一个自由作家,我大部分工作都是这样完成的:穿着一条旧的棉质海军裤,蜷坐在一张软绵绵的椅子上,把电脑放在膝盖上。我还花了一小笔钱买了个器,希望能缓解我肩膀和上背部的疼痛。巧合吗?才不是!我们在电脑前待的时间越久,我们的坐姿就会越差。现代科技正将我们变成“畸形生物”。In addition to being detrimental to how your body functions, bad posture isn’t cute. It causes you to jut your hips forward, slump your shoulders, and even breathe inefficiently, according to Pat Davidson, a trainer with a PhD in Exercise Physiology who is the Director of Training Methodology and Continuing Education Coordinator at Peak Performance in NYC. I went to see him for a painstakingly objective and honest assessment of my posture.除了对人的身体机能有害之外,不良坐姿还会对你的身材造成影响。帕特·戴维森(Pat Davidson),是一名运动心理学的士。同时还是瑞典户外运动品牌Peak Performance纽约市健身教育协调部主任。他表示不良的坐姿会使你的胯部突出,肩膀下垂,甚至会导致呼吸不顺畅。我找到他,希望他能费心对我的姿势做个客观实在的评判。Davidson explained that bad posture compromises your diaphragm, the big muscle right below the ribs that helps you take deep breaths. So instead, you start using other muscles, like your shoulders, to help you breathe. I found out that I’m guilty of shoulder breathing, which is likely contributing to some of my upper back fatigue and discomfort. I also learned that I “walk with my lower back.” Turns out, people with lousy posture don’t walk correctly, and they count on their lower back muscles to help propel themselves forward. (An adulthood devoted to high heels probably hasn’t helped my walking problem either.)戴维森说道,不良坐姿会对隔膜造成一定伤害。隔膜位于肋骨正下方,在它的帮助下我们才能够深呼吸。因此,用不良坐姿坐着时,身体会调动像肩膀等地方的肌肉来帮助呼吸。由此,我发现正是我自己造成了自身上背部的疲劳和不适。我还得知,我“靠下背部走路”。事实明,坐姿不正确的人通常走路姿势也不正确。他们通常依靠下背部的肌肉撑,推着身体向前走(成年后常穿高跟鞋这一事实或许也导致了我走路姿势的问题)。Aubin Sullivan, a physical therapist and the Clinical Director of Cynergy Physical Therapy in New York City, sees a lot of women like me in her practice. Here are a few quick fixes she recommends for correcting your slump:理疗学家、纽约赛诺秀理疗中心的临床主任奥宾·沙利文(Aubin Sullivan),在临床实验中,见过很多情况跟我相似的女性。在这里,她提供了几条建议,可以快速帮你矫正姿势。#8226; If you sit at a desk all day, don’t perch on the edge of your seat at work trying to sit up straight. The best thing you can do is scoot your hips and butt against the back of the chair, and use it for support—that’s what it’s there for. “You have to support your spine. Your muscles are going to get tired, they will fatigue and you’ll slowly start slumping down, ” Sullivan says.1、如果你要在桌子旁呆一整天,工作时别坐在椅子的边缘,要尽量坐直。 最好的方法是臀部贴着椅背而坐,用椅背撑住你的腰——这正是它之所以在那里的原因。“你得利用椅子来撑着你的脊柱。肌肉可能有点酸,有点累,而你也会慢慢地放松,背又驼了起来。”沙利文说道。#8226; Get up frequently and walk around. (I wear a Jawbone fitness tracker that vibrates when it senses that I haven’t moved in a long time. I also sometimes set my phone alarm to go off every 30 minutes, and I do jumping jacks. Sometimes.)2、多起来到处走走。 (我手上带了个Jawbone的健身追踪器。当仪器感知到你长时间没有运动的话,就会震动提醒。通常,我会设置以30分钟为间隔的闹铃,提醒自己做些跳跃运动,不过只是“有时”而已。)#8226; If you carry a heavy shoulder bag, make sure to carry it on both your right and left shoulder, switching off as each gets tired. Even better: wear a cross-body bag so that the weight’s more evenly distributed.3、如果背包很重,确保两边肩膀都要用到。 一边肩膀累了,就换另一边背。更好的方法是背斜挎包,这样背包的重量会分布的更均匀。#8226; Work out your core. Never mind a six-pack—you need to concentrate on the transverse abdominus, the deep abdominal muscle that acts as a “corset” around the lumbar spine, according to Sullivan. To do this: lay on your back with your knees bent, put your hands on your hips, breathe normally, and pull your belly button straight down to your spine. You don’t want your pelvis to tilt or lift, which is why you have your hands on your pelvis. Hold it for 5 seconds and repeat. “Once you get it, you can do it all the time, just sitting at work and it becomes a habit, ” Sullivan says.4、锻炼核心肌肉。 沙利文表示,别再纠结六块腹肌了,要多注重腹横肌的训练。腹横肌是深层腹肌,做一下几个动作:平躺,膝盖弯曲,把上放在屁股上,正常呼吸。然后吸气,让肚脐慢慢贴近脊椎。把手放在骨盆上是为了防止骨盆的倾斜或者抬升。坚持5秒后,再重复这个动作。沙利文说:“学会这个动作后你可以经常做,就像坐着工作一样。慢慢地,你会逐渐成为习惯。#8226; You can work on your posture in a more hard-core way at the gym, too. Davidson told me to try backwards jump-roping. “If the rope hits you, you have the wrong posture, ” he says. He also recommends hula hooping. (Fun!)5、你还可以在健身时多练习核心肌肉。 戴维森建议我向后跳绳。他说:“如果绳子打到你了,则说明你的姿势有问题。”他还建议可以转呼啦圈。(真有趣!)#8226; Sullivan recommends focusing on the upper back and shoulder muscles. One of her favorite exercises is having clients stand up against a wall, with their hips touching the wall. Put a tennis ball between your shoulder blades and try to squeeze the ball. Rows are also excellent for improving posture, since it causes you to pull your shoulders up and back.6、沙利文建议要加强对背部肌肉和肩膀肌肉的训练。 她最喜欢的训练就是让学员贴墙站立,并且臀部要触到墙面。还将一个网球放在肩胛骨处,然后学员得努力地挤压那个球。划船也能够很好的改善姿势,因为划船使肩膀得以前后拉伸。Now stop ing this article and go for a walk.好了,文章读完了,快出去走走吧! /201408/321011

For Michele Leonhart, the administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, there is no difference between the health effects of marijuana and those of any other illegal drug. “All illegal drugs are bad for people,” she told Congress in 2012, refusing to say whether crack, methamphetamines or prescription painkillers are more addictive or physically harmful than marijuana.在美国禁毒署署长米歇尔·莱昂哈特(Michele Leonhart)看来,大麻引起的健康问题和其他违禁药品引起的健康问题是没有区别的。“所有违禁药品都对人们有害,”她在2012年的时候对国会做了上述表示,但她不愿意评价精炼可卡因、冰毒或处方止痛药是否比大麻更容易上瘾、对身体的危害更大。Her testimony neatly illustrates the vast gap between antiquated federal law enforcement policies and the clear consensus of science that marijuana is far less harmful to human health than most other banned drugs and is less dangerous than the highly addictive but perfectly legal substances known as alcohol and tobacco. Marijuana cannot lead to a fatal overdose. There is little evidence that it causes cancer. Its addictive properties, while present, are low, and the myth that it leads users to more powerful drugs has long since been disproved.关于大麻,科学上已经有清晰的共识,认为它对人体健康的害处远比大多数禁药要小,危险性也比酒精饮料和烟草等合法的高成瘾性物品要低,但莱昂哈特的词反映出,陈旧的联邦法规强制措施与科学共识之间有着巨大的鸿沟。过量使用大麻不会引起致命后果。几乎没有据表明它能致癌。它虽然有成瘾性,但极其微小,关于它会导致使用者尝试更强烈的毒品这一神话早就被明是假的。That doesn’t mean marijuana is harmless; in fact, the potency of current strains may shock those who haven’t tried it for decades, particularly when ingested as food. It can produce a serious dependency, and constant use would interfere with job and school performance. It needs to be kept out of the hands of minors. But, on balance, its downsides are not reasons to impose criminal penalties on its possession, particularly not in a society that permits nicotine use and celebrates drinking.这并不意味着大麻完全无害;事实上,当前品种的药效可能会令几十年没有尝试过它的人感到震惊,特别是作为食物口使用。它可以造成严重的依赖,持续使用会影响工作与学习表现。未成年人必须远离它。但是总体来说,它的副作用并不足以持对持有者施加刑事惩罚,更何况这个社会允许使用尼古丁,还赞美饮酒。Marijuana’s negative health effects are arguments for the same strong regulation that has been effective in curbing abuse of legal substances. Science and government have learned a great deal, for example, about how to keep alcohol out of the hands of minors. Mandatory underage drinking laws and effective marketing campaigns have reduced underage alcohol use to 24.8 percent in 2011, compared with 33.4 percent in 1991. Cigarette use among high school students is at its lowest point ever, largely thanks to tobacco taxes and growing municipal smoking limits. There is aly some early evidence that regulation would also help combat teen marijuana use, which fell after Colorado began broadly regulating medical marijuana in 2010.大麻对健康的负面作用成为对其采取强硬措施的理由,在限制滥用合法物品方面,强硬措施作用显著。科学界与政府已经获得不少经验,比如说,该怎样让未成年人远离酒精饮料。通过禁止法定年龄以下的人饮酒的强制性法令,以及切实有效的市场宣传,2011年,未成年人饮酒率降低到24.8%,低于1991年的33.4%。受益于烟草税和日渐增加的市政吸烟限制规定,中学生的烟草使用率也已达到有史以来的最低点。已有若干早期据表明,制定相关规定有助于减少青少年对大麻的使用——2010年,科罗拉多州开始宏观管理医用大麻,青少年对大麻的使用率也随之下降。Comparing the Dangers危险性对比As with other recreational substances, marijuana’s health effects depend on the frequency of use, the potency and amount of marijuana consumed, and the age of the consumer. Casual use by adults poses little or no risk for healthy people. Its effects are mostly euphoric and mild, whereas alcohol turns some drinkers into barroom brawlers, domestic abusers or maniacs behind the wheel.与其他消遣物相比,大麻对健康的影响视使用频率、药效、使用量,以及使用者的年龄而定。健康的成年人偶尔少量使用,是几乎乃至完全没有任何危险的。大麻的效果主要是令人精神愉快,变得温和,而酒精则会令有些饮酒者在酒吧里惹是生非,在家里施行暴力,或者危险驾驶。An independent scientific committee in Britain compared 20 drugs in 2010 for the harms they caused to individual users and to society as a whole through crime, family breakdown, absenteeism, and other social ills. Adding up all the damage, the panel estimated that alcohol was the most harmful drug, followed by heroin and crack cocaine. Marijuana ranked eighth, having slightly more than one-fourth the harm of alcohol.2010年,一个英国独立科学委员会对比了20种药品对个体使用者的伤害,乃至对社会整体的伤害(包括导致犯罪、家庭破裂、旷工旷课,乃至其他社会问题)。将所有的伤害综合在一起后,该小组认为酒精是最有害的物品,海洛因与精炼可卡因紧随其后。大麻位列第八,伤害性约相当于酒精的1/4多一点。Federal scientists say that the damage caused by alcohol and tobacco is higher because they are legally available; if marijuana were legally and easily obtainable, they say, the number of people suffering harm would rise. However, a 1995 study for the World Health Organization concluded that even if usage of marijuana increased to the levels of alcohol and tobacco, it would be unlikely to produce public health effects approaching those of alcohol and tobacco in Western societies.联邦政府的科学家说,酒精与烟草带来的伤害较高,主要是因为它们可以合法获取,因此他们认为,如果大麻也合法化、可以轻松获取的话,那么受到伤害的人数也会增加。然而,1995年,世界卫生组织的一项研究推断,即便大麻的使用率增长到和酒精与烟草同样的水平,它在西方社会所引发的公共健康问题也不太可能达到酒精与烟草的程度。Most of the risks of marijuana use are “small to moderate in size,” the study said. “In aggregate, they are unlikely to produce public health problems comparable in scale to those currently produced by alcohol and tobacco.”这项研究声称,使用大麻所带来的大部分危险在等级上处于“很小或中等程度”。“总体而言,它导致的公共健康问题不太可能达到目前烟草与酒精所导致的这种规模。”While tobacco causes cancer, and alcohol abuse can lead to cirrhosis, no clear causal connection between marijuana and a deadly disease has been made. Experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the scientific arm of the federal anti-drug campaign, published a review of the adverse health effects of marijuana in June that pointed to a few disease risks but was remarkably frank in acknowledging widesp uncertainties. Though the authors believed that legalization would expose more people to health hazards, they said the link to lung cancer is “unclear,” and that it is lower than the risk of smoking tobacco.吸烟会导致癌症,酗酒则会导致肝硬化,而大麻与任何致死疾病之间都没有清晰的因果联系。国家药物滥用研究所的专家们是联邦反毒品行动中的科学力量,他们于6月发布了一份关于大麻对健康损害的报告,指出大麻有若干致病风险,但它也非常坦白地承认,这些风险存在着不确定性。尽管报告作者们相信,大麻合法化会使得更多人蒙受健康风险,但报告也说大麻与肺癌之间的关系“不明确”,而且吸大麻比吸烟的风险要低。The very heaviest users can experience symptoms of bronchitis, such as wheezing and coughing, but moderate smoking poses little risk. A 2012 study found that smoking a joint a day for seven years was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function. Experts say that marijuana increases the heart rate and the volume of blood pumped by the heart, but that poses a risk mostly to older users who aly have cardiac or other health problems.最为频繁的大麻使用者会有气管炎的症状,比如气喘和咳嗽,但一般用量的使用者风险很小。一项2012年的研究表明,连续七年每日吸一大麻卷烟不会引起肺功能损害。专家说大麻会加快心率,以及心脏的供血量,但这主要是对已经患有心脏病和其他健康问题的老年使用者有风险。How Addictive Is Marijuana?大麻的成瘾性有多高?Marijuana isn’t addictive in the same sense as heroin, from which withdrawal is an agonizing, physical ordeal. But it can interact with pleasure centers in the brain and can create a strong sense of psychological dependence that addiction experts say can be very difficult to break. Heavy users may find they need to take larger and larger doses to get the effects they want. When they try to stop, some get withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleeping difficulties and anxiety that are usually described as relatively mild.大麻的成瘾性与海洛因完全不能相提并论。戒除海洛因非常痛苦,是对身体的严峻考验。但是大麻可以与大脑中的快乐神经中枢互动,产生强烈的精神依赖,药物成瘾专家说这种联系很难消除。重度使用者可能会需要更大的剂量,才能达到自己想要的效果。想要停止使用时,会出现易怒、睡眠障碍和焦虑等戒断症状,这些症状通常被描述为相对轻微。The American Society of Addiction Medicine, the largest association of physicians specializing in addiction, issued a white paper in 2012 opposing legalization because “marijuana is not a safe and harmless substance” and marijuana addiction “is a significant health problem.”美国成瘾药物协会是最大的专攻成瘾药物的医生组织,2012年,它发表了一份白皮书,反对大麻合法化,因为“大麻不是一种安全无害的物品”,而且大麻成瘾“是严重的健康问题”。Nonetheless, that health problem is far less significant than for other substances, legal and illegal. The Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences, said in a 1999 study that 32 percent of tobacco users become dependent, as do 23 percent of heroin users, 17 percent of cocaine users, and 15 percent of alcohol drinkers. But only 9 percent of marijuana users develop a dependence.不管怎样,这种健康问题远比其他合法或不合法物品所带来的健康问题要轻微得多。药学研究中心是国家科学院的健康分部,它在1999年的一份研究报告中说,32%的吸烟者会上瘾,23%的海洛因使用者会上瘾,17%的可卡因使用者会上瘾,15%的饮酒者会上瘾,但只有9%的大麻使用者会上瘾。“Although few marijuana users develop dependence, some do,” according to the study. “But they appear to be less likely to do so than users of other drugs (including alcohol and nicotine), and marijuana dependence appears to be less severe than dependence on other drugs.”“大麻上瘾者人数很少,但确实有人会上瘾,”这项研究说,“但是和使用其他药品(包括酒精与尼古丁)相比,大麻的成瘾率很低。”There’s no need to ban a substance that has less than a third of the addictive potential of cigarettes, but state governments can discourage heavy use through taxes and education campaigns and help provide treatment for those who wish to quit.完全没有必要禁止一种成瘾率不到香烟1/3的东西,但各州政府可以通过征收重税和教育来防止人们大量使用大麻,并对需要戒断的人提供治疗。Impact on Young People对年轻人的影响One of the favorite arguments of legalization opponents is that marijuana is the pathway to more dangerous drugs. But a wide variety of researchers have found no causal factor pushing users up the ladder of harm. While 111 million Americans have tried marijuana, only a third of that number have tried cocaine, and only 4 percent heroin. People who try marijuana are more likely than the general population to try other drugs, but that doesn’t mean marijuana prompted them to do so.反对大麻合法化的人最常用的论据之一,就是大麻会导致使用者尝试更危险的毒品。但各种广泛研究明,大麻与使用者升级使用更危险的物品之间不存在因果关系。1.11亿美国人都曾尝试使用大麻,尝试使用可卡因的人只有该数字的1/3,尝试使用海洛因的人只相当于这个数字的4%。在使用大麻的人群中,尝试其他毒品的人数比例要比普通人群为高,但并不是大麻导致了此行为。Marijuana “does not appear to be a gateway drug to the extent that it is the cause or even that it is the most significant predictor of serious drug abuse,” the Institute of Medicine study said. The real gateway drugs are tobacco and alcohol, which young people turn to first before trying marijuana.药学研究中心的报告说,大麻“并不是一种入门药物,并不是药物严重滥用的原因,甚至也不是药物严重滥用的重要预示因素”。真正的入门药物是烟草和酒精,年轻人早在尝试大麻之前就已经接触到它们了。It’s clear, though, that marijuana is now far too easy for minors to obtain, which remains a significant problem. The brain undergoes active development until about age 21, and there is evidence that young people are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of marijuana.不过,对于未成年人来说,如今获取大麻显然非常容易,这仍然是个严重的问题。大脑发育活动要持续到21岁,有据表明年轻人更容易受大麻副作用影响。A long-term study based in New Zealand, published in 2012, found that people who began smoking heavily in their teens and continued into adulthood lost an average of eight I.Q. points by age 38 that could not be fully restored. A Canadian study published in 2002 also found an I.Q. loss among heavy school-age users who smoked at least five joints a week.2012年,一项新西兰的长期研究表明,从十几岁开始大量使用大麻,并在成年期持续使用大麻的人到38岁时智商会下降8分,无法完全恢复。另一项加拿大于2002年发布的研究表明,学龄期大量使用大麻(每周至少吸五大麻烟卷)会导致智商下降。The case is not completely settled. The New Zealand study was challenged by a Norwegian researcher who said socio-economic factors may have played a role in the I.Q. loss. But the recent review by experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse concluded that adults who smoked heavily in adolescence had impaired neural connections that interfered with the functioning of their brains. Early and frequent marijuana use has also been associated with poor grades, apathy and dropping out of school, but it is unclear whether consumption triggered the poor grades.这项结论并未完全定案。新西兰的研究受到挪威一个研究者的质疑,他声称社会经济因素也可能导致智商下降。但国家药物滥用研究所最近的专家报告认为,从青春期就大量使用大麻的人的神经连接会受到损害,从而影响大脑功能。过早经常使用大麻也与成绩不佳、缺乏兴趣和辍学有关,但成绩不佳是否由使用大麻导致,目前尚不明确。Restricting marijuana to adults is more important now that Colorado merchants are selling THC, the drug’s active ingredient, in candy bars, cookies and other edible forms likely to appeal to minors. Experience in Colorado has shown that people can quickly ingest large amounts of THC that way, which can produce frightening hallucinations.目前,更重要的是把大麻的使用局限在成年人范围之内,科罗拉多州商人正在贩卖掺入四氢大麻酚(这是大麻的活性成分,简称THC)的糖果、饼干,以及其他可食用物品,这对未成年人来说可能很有吸引力。科罗拉多的经验表明人们可以通过食用途径,迅速吸收大量THC,这有可能导致可怕的幻觉。Although marijuana use had been declining among high school students for more than a decade, in recent years it has started to climb, in contrast to continuing declines in cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Marijuana was found -- alone or in combination with other drugs -- in more than 455,000 patients visiting emergency rooms in 2011. Nearly 70 percent of the teenagers in residential substance-abuse programs run by Phoenix House, which operates drug and alcohol treatment centers in 10 states, listed marijuana as their primary problem.尽管十年多以来,大麻在高中生中的使用率已经下降,但近年又开始出现攀升,与此同时,吸烟和喝酒的比例一直在下降。2011年,有45.5万名急诊病人被发现使用大麻(以及其他药品)。“凤凰屋”(Phoenix House)在10个州中经营着毒品与酗酒治疗中心,在它所主办的家庭反滥用毒品计划中,近70%的受助青少年将大麻列为自己最初的问题。Those are challenges for regulators in any state that chooses to legalize marijuana. But they are familiar challenges, and they will become easier for governments to deal with once more of them bring legal marijuana under tight regulation.这些都是选择将大麻合法化的各州管理者所面临的挑战。但这都是一些熟悉的挑战,各州政府一旦将合法化的大麻置于严格管理之下,问题就会变得容易应付得多。 /201408/322918

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