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2019年06月20日 04:56:37|来源:国际在线|编辑:千龙在线
World keeps humour in 2008 despite economic woesWhether smashing plates in San Diego to relieve frustration or drinking "Bailout Bitter" beer in Canada sold as a "bitter ale for bitter times", people the world over kept a sense of humour in 2008 despite financial woes.Some of the year's top off-beat tales included a Canada brewery that created a special tough times bitter and "Sarah's Smash Shack" in California, which charges patrons for 15 minutes of pleasure pulverising dinnerware against a wall."It was the best we've spent in the last two years," said insurance broker Adam DeWitt, who smashed plates in San Diego with his wife after his home mortgage loan was rejected.A glance back at 2008 shows a world full of wonderful, weird and whacky stories both before and after the financial upheaval.In May, a Wall Street restaurant boasted it was selling the costliest burger in New York, with the 5 patty made of Kobe beef, black truffles and seared foie gras."Wall Street has good days and bad days," said Heather Tierney at her Wall Street Burger Shoppe. "We wanted to have something special if you really have a good day on Wall Street."One bank in Kazakhstan offered a diamond-encrusted credit card for well-heeled clients with incomes over 0,000. A jeweller in Tokyo kept busy selling 13-piece tableware sets made of gold for million -- aimed at newly rich Chinese customers.Yet there was no need for any plates at all in Bihar, one of India's poorest states where authorities encouraged people to eat rats to fight rising food prices and save grain stocks. They praised rat meat a healthy alternative to rice."Bailout" was crowned as the US word of the year, and the financial crisis also had implications in Russia where vodka consumption fell sharply and the National Alcohol Association lobby group in Moscow said vodka stockpiles were six times higher than usual.A Polish man got the shock of his life when he visited a brothel and spotted his wife among the establishment's employees, making some extra money on the side. After 14 years, the couple are divorcing. /200812/60020Dress for your body type为你自己量体穿衣 When you think about it, we spend much of our time as women shoppers trying to buy the latest color or jean type. But what we should really be doing is focusing mostly on buying pieces that fit our particular body type. For example, as much as I love sheath dresses, they just don't work great for my figure. So no matter howpopular/timeless/affordable/chic they are, I'm not going to ever do myself any favors by buying a sheath dress. 当你考虑到这一点时,我们绝大多数女性顾客此时此刻也许正在耗费大量时间抢购最新款式的衣或者牛仔裤类型。但是我们真正应该做的是买件适合我们的体型穿的衣。 正如我爱紧身装,但它们和我的体型很不搭配。所以不管有多流行,多永恒,多便宜,多别致,我永远不会为自己买一套紧身衣。 /201110/157747常识:不管多么差劲的男人都会自认为自己能赢得美女的芳心。Why guys go for outta-their-league ladiesMen hit on hotties despite their own unattractiveness, study confirms"You're prettier than I am," Seth Rogen's character drunkenly slurs to Katherine Heigl at one point in the 2007 movie "Knocked Up." Now a new study confirms what most of us have known all along: Men, no matter how unattractive, think they’ve got a chance with beautiful women.It’s a rule, bartender Karen Brody says: The schlubbier the guy, the more likely he is to persistently pursue a pretty woman.Brody — a lithe, slender Woodstown, N.J., bartender who looks at least a decade younger than her 47 years — recalls the time she was being "entertained" by a paunchy trucker with several missing front teeth. As the night wore on, he slumped to one side and eventually toppled off his barstool. When she raced around to make sure he was OK, the plump patron immediately resumed his pick-up patter — from the floor.Apparently, the pudgy trucker isn't just an aberration, and the come-ons aren't just the after-effects of alcohol. A new study confirms what women say they've known all along: Men, no matter how unattractive, think they’ve got a chance with a runway model.The proof was in the matchmaking Web site HOTorNOT.com, a site where members rate each others' "hotness." The site offered a treasure trove of data: It contained information not only on dating habits of its members, but also on the members’ opinions of their own attractiveness and the "hotness" of potential dates, according to a study published in a recent issue of Psychological Science.Researchers studied ratings and dating information from 16,550 members during a 10-day period in 2005. All members studied were heterosexual, with 75 percent males and 25 percent female.Using this data, they determined that the physical attractiveness of a potential mate was more important to men than women. And men were less likely than women to think that their own lack of attractiveness — based both on a self assessment and the ratings of others — should stand in the way of a date with someone "hot."Maybe men think women have all "The Frog Prince" and taken it to heart, allowing us to look past an ugly exterior in the search for inner beauty. Or perhaps it’s that men have internalized the messages in the popular media: movies like "Knocked Up," where the slacker hero lands a beautiful babe, or TV shows like "According to Jim," in which a difficult, slobby guy is coupled with a gorgeous wife.The lead author of the study, Leonard Lee, an assistant professor at Columbia’s Graduate School of Business, thinks these far-fetched movie and TV couples might explain why unfortunate-looking men tend to hold out such high hopes. But he wonders whether the unattractive guys eventually learn that their chances are slim regardless of what they see on screen. There’s another important finding in the study, he says: The 10s among us, both male and female, want only to date other 10s.There are hints in the HOTorNOT.com data that suggest men do learn to accept their limitations: They apparently hedge their bets by asking for more dates. In fact, the men in the study requested a full 240 percent more dates than the women. Researchers didn't look at how many of these online come-ons were successful, but the number of dates most men asked for might be a sign that the less attractive among us — even the men — recognize that they may have to settle for dating someone who is closer to them on the "hotness" scale."Good looking people are always looking for other good looking people," says Helen Fisher, a professor at Rutgers University who studies mating behavior and romantic love."And ultimately, men figure their own good looks are not as important as a woman’s," says Fisher, who wasn't involved with the study. "They figure they’re selling a whole lot of things that women want that aren’t associated with being attractive."Besides, from an evolutionary perspective, men are simply looking for the woman most likely to produce a strong healthy baby — so that means they’re often focused on physical attractiveness."Men might as well reach for the stars," says William Pollack, a Harvard University psychologist and the director of the Center for Men and Young Men at McLean Hospital. "Women are the ones who are going to have the baby. They need to be a little more picky."In the end, there might be some signs that boorish boys know they’re overreaching — and that may be expressed in the level of their braggadocio.When a really attractive man is interested in a date, Brody says, he’s quieter and more cautious. "He’ll come back a bunch of times and try to get to know me before asking," she adds. 在《Knocked Up》的一幕场景中,Seth Rogen扮演的角色醉醺醺的对Katherine Heigl嘟哝:“你比我漂亮!”最新的一项研究实了人们的一个常识:不管多么差劲的男人都会自认为自己能赢得美女的芳心。“这是个规律”,酒保Karen Brody说,“越垃圾的家伙越不停的追求美女。”Brody——Woodstown, N.J.的一个瘦弱的酒保,外表比她的实际年龄47岁年轻许多——回忆了她被一个大腹便便的、缺门牙的卡车司机“款待”的经历。那天晚上,夜色渐深,那个卡车司机倒在一边,最终从椅子上摔了下来。正当她跑过去看他是否有事时,他突然对她展开了攻势——躺在地上。显然,那个胖司机没什么毛病,他对Brody的勾引也不是因为酒精的作用。最新的一项研究实了女人共知的一个常识:不管多么差劲的男人都会自认为自己能赢得美女的芳心。据就在婚介网站HOTorNOT.com上,在那里,会员可以彼此评价各自的“魅力”。这个网站提供了一组宝贵的数据:根据发表在最近一期《心理科学》上的一项研究的记载,它不仅包含了会员的约会习惯,还有会员对自己的吸引力以及对其潜在约会对象的“魅力”的评价。研究者研究了2005年10天内16550个会员的得分和约会情况。所有被试的性取向均为正常,其中75%为男性,25%为女性。通过这些数据,研究者认为,男性比女性更看重未来伴侣的外表。比起女性来,男性较少考虑这个问题:自身缺乏吸引力——不管是自认为的还是在别人看来——会阻碍自己与有“魅力”的人进行约会。也许男人以为女人都看过《青蛙王子》的故事并铭记在心,于是我们女人可以追寻男人的内在美而忽略男人的丑陋外表。或者,男人内化了大众传媒传递的信息:比如《Knocked Up》这样的电影,一个懒鬼赢得了美女的芳心;比如《According to Jim》这样的电视剧,一个麻烦、糟糕的男人娶到了漂亮的老婆。该研究的主要作者,哥伦比亚大学商学院副教授Leonard Lee认为,电影、电视剧中那些不般配的夫妻也许能够解释为什么那些貌似倒霉的男人会抱有如此高的期望。但他不知道那些缺乏魅力的男人最终是否会明白,在现实中,他们的机会渺茫。该研究还有一个重要的发现:不管男女,都想要跟别人约会。来自HOTorNOT.com的数据提示,男人须要学会接受自己的局限:他们显然应该邀请更多的约会,以增加成功的几率。事实上,研究中的男性提请约会的次数整整是女性的2.4倍。研究者并不关注这类在线的“勾引”有多少会成功,而是关注大多数男性发起的约会数量,这也许是个信号:缺乏吸引力的女性——甚至包括男性——满足于与自己“魅力”指数近似的异性约会。“漂亮的人总是追求漂亮的人”,该研究外的另一位学者、专门研究交配行为和浪漫爱情的罗格斯大学教授Helen Fisher说,“最终,男性发现他们自己的美貌并不像女性的美貌那样重要。他们发现,虽然他们兜售了一大堆女性希望的东西,但这不会使他们变得富有吸引力。”此外,从进化的角度来看,男人追求女人多半只是为了繁衍强壮、健康的后代——因此他们常常只关心女人的外表。“男人也可以伸手去摘星追梦,”哈佛大学心理学家、McLean 医院男性及青年男性中心主任William Pollack 说,“但只有女人能怀,所以她们需要多一些挑剔。最后,也许有一些粗俗的男人发现自己过了头的迹象——这表现在他们吹牛的程度中。“当一个真正有吸引力的男人想要约会时,” Brody说,“他会更加平静、小心。”“他会仔细思考,并且在约我之前试着了解我。”她补充道。 /200810/54036

While many people aren#39;t getting enough calcium, new research cautions that some people may have the opposite problem: They could be getting too much.尽管有很多人钙摄入量不足,但新的研究提醒我们,也有一些人面临的问题可能恰好相反:他们的摄入量太多了。Americans spend more than billion a year on calcium supplements in hopes of staving off osteoporosis, the brittle bone disease that cripples many elderly women and some men.美国人一年花费逾10亿美元购买各类钙补充剂,期望能推迟骨质疏松症的发生。骨质疏松症是一种让骨头变脆的疾病,许多老年女性和部分男性都会因骨质疏松致残。Yet recent studies link calcium supplements to a higher risk of heart attacks and kidney stones. Last month, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a draft recommendation against taking calcium and vitamin D, saying there wasn#39;t enough evidence of benefit to justify the risk.但近期的研究揭示,钙补充剂有可能导致心脏病和肾结石风险升高。美国预防医学工作组(U.S. Preventive Services Task Force)上月发布了一份建议书草案,不主张用钙和维生素D补充剂,称并没有充足的据显示这样做利大于弊。For generations of Americans who grew up exhorted to drink their milk to maintain strong bones, the reports raised troubling questions: Is calcium not so important after all? Are the supplements unsafe? And how much is too much?对从小就被劝说要多喝牛奶以维持强健骨骼的几代美国人来说,这些报告引发了一些麻烦的问题:钙是不是其实并不太重要?钙补充剂是不是不安全?摄入钙量多少算超量?;It#39;s gotten very confusing but it doesn#39;t need to be,; says Ethel Siris, director of the Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York.纽约哥伦比亚大学医学中心(Columbia University Medical Center)托尼#8226;斯塔比尔骨质疏松研究中心(Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center)主任西里斯(Ethel Siris)说,“问题变得令人非常费解,但其实不至于如此。”The links to heart attack and kidney stones involved calcium supplements, not calcium from food sources, Dr. Siris and other experts note. Many other studies have not found such health risks, so more research is needed to understand what levels, if any, might be hazardous.西里斯士和其他专家指出,可能引起心脏病和肾结石的是钙补充剂,而不是从食物中获取的钙。许多其他研究并未发现这类健康风险,因此,若要了解钙摄入量过多是否会有危险以及达到多少可能会有危险,还需要做更多研究。Meanwhile, experts say they are still more concerned that too many Americans aren#39;t getting enough calcium, since the body can#39;t make it on its own.专家们同时也说,他们更担心的仍然是有太多美国人钙摄入量不足,因为人体无法自己制造钙。;Unless you take in enough calcium, by mouth, every day, you have to keep borrowing it from your skeleton, so over your lifetime, you need to get enough,; says Dr. Siris. ;If you have low bone mass, or are at risk for fractures, you want to minimize any need to take calcium from the skeleton.;西里斯士说,“除非每天都能经口摄入充足的钙,否则你不得不一直向骨骼借用钙,所以人一生中必须摄取足够的钙。如果你骨密度低,也就是说有骨折风险的话,你就得尽量避免从骨骼中获取钙。”How much calcium people need varies by age and gender. Adults generally need 1,000 milligrams daily, rising to 1,200 mg for women over 50 and men over 70, according to guidelines issued in 2010 by the Institute of Medicine, an independent advisory group. Children need 1,300 mg daily during the peak growing years of 9 to 18.人体需要的钙量依年龄和性别而有不同。根据独立顾问组织药学研究所(Institute of Medicine)2010年发布的指导原则,成年人一般需要每天摄入1,000毫克钙,50岁以上的女性和70岁以上的男性每天需要摄入的钙量会增加到1,200毫克。孩子在九到18岁的生长高峰期每天需要1,300毫克钙。People also need sufficient levels of vitamin D to absorb the calcium. The IOM recommends 600 international units a day for most adults, and 800 daily after age 70, although many physicians recommend more. It is difficult to take in that much vitamin D from food sources, and prolonged sun exposure, the best source of vitamin D, can lead to skin cancer, so experts say many people should take vitamin D in supplement form.人体要吸收钙,还需要摄取充足的维生素D。药学研究所建议多数成年人每天摄入600国际单位的维生素D,并建议70岁以上的人每天摄入800国际单位,不过许多医生推荐的摄取量要大于这个数。从食物中摄入这么多的维生素D很难,而长时间阳光照射(维生素D的最佳来源)可能导致皮肤癌,因此专家称,许多人都应该用维生素D补充剂。Getting adequate calcium from food is easier. For example, 8 ounces of milk or 6 ounces of yogurt has 300 mg of calcium, and one cup of spinach has 270 mg. But studies show on average, Americans get only about 750 mg of calcium from their diets.从食物中获取充足的钙则比较简单。比方说,八盎司牛奶或六盎司酸奶中含有300毫克钙,半品脱菠菜中含有270毫克钙。但研究显示,美国人平均只能从食物中获得约750毫克钙。Many of the more than 30 million Americans who are lactose intolerant don#39;t get逾3,000万乳糖不耐受的美国人无法获得充足的钙,或者要依赖钙补充剂。;For people who can#39;t or won#39;t get more in their diet, it#39;s better to fill that gap with supplements than to stay on the low side,; says Bess Dawson-Hughes, director of the Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. 塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)美国农业部营养中心(USDA Nutrition Center)骨骼新陈代谢实验室(Bone Metabolism Laboratory)主任道森休斯(Bess Dawson-Hughes)说,“对无法或没能通过饮食摄取更多钙的人来说,用营养片剂来补钙比缺钙要好。”Consuming too little calcium can contribute to osteoporosis, a thinning of the bones that causes more than 2 million fractures a year. Once osteoporosis sets in, taking extra calcium and vitamin D won#39;t prevent fractures. But not getting enough of the nutrients can make bone loss worse.摄入钙量过少会引起骨质疏松,骨质疏松症导致每年逾200万例骨折事件发生。一旦得了骨质疏松症,即使摄入额外的钙和维生素D也无助于防范骨折。但如果这些营养物质摄入不足的话,骨耗损会加重。On the other hand, it is easy to consume more than the 2,000 mg a day that the IOM considers the safe upper limit for adults. ;A number of health-care providers say, ; Oh, the requirement is 1,200 mg daily, so take 1,200 mg in supplements,;regardless of what the patient is consuming in food,; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. ;If you have a bowl of Total in the morning and a yogurt and a glass of milk for lunch, you can get to 2,000 mg easily.; Multivitamins also contain calcium in widely varying amounts. Chewable chocolate, caramel and gummy-bear varieties have made calcium supplements as appealing as candy.从另一方面来说,人一天的钙摄入量很容易超出2,000毫克(被药学研究所视为成年人的安全上限)。道森休斯士说,“许多医疗务机构会说,‘哦,一天必须摄入1,200毫克钙,所以要用1,200毫克补充剂,#39;他们不管患者吃的是什么样的饮食。如果你早晨喝一碗Total牌谷物片,中餐喝一盒酸奶和一杯牛奶的话,很容易就能摄入2,000毫克钙。”复合维生素片中也或多或少地含有钙。钙补充剂能制成可以嚼着吃的巧克力、太妃糖和小熊糖等品种,像糖果一样吸引人。In general, any vitamins or minerals the body can#39;t absorb are simply excreted. But studies linking calcium supplements to heart attack and kidney stones have made experts more wary of excess calcium than before.总体而言,任何人体无法吸收的维生素或者矿物质都会被排泄出去。但由于研究发现钙补充剂与心脏病和肾结石存在关联,专家们对过量摄入钙这一问题比从前更加警惕。In a 2006 report from the Women#39;s Health Initiative, a large government study, women who took 1,000 mg of calcium daily had 17% more kidney stones than those who got a placebo. But subjects were allowed to eat their usual diet, and take calcium supplements on their own, no matter what group they were in, so their total calcium intake was unknown.大型政府研究项目“妇女健康倡议”(Women#39;s Health Initiative)2006年的一份报告显示,每日用1,000毫克钙补充剂的女性患肾结石的风险比用安慰剂的女性高17%。不过在此项研究中,两个组别的实验对象都被允许按照她们的日常饮食习惯来吃东西,钙补充剂也是自行用,因此她们摄入的钙的总量是未知的。In the 12-year Nurses#39; Health Study of 90,000 women, those who consumed a high level of calcium in food had fewer kidney stones than those who consumed less.为期12年的“护士健康研究”(Nurses#39; Health Study)对九万名女性进行了研究,研究发现,从饮食中摄取大量钙的女性患肾结石的风险要低于钙摄入量较少的女性。Studies linking calcium intake and heart-attack risk are similarly confusing. A study of 24,000 Germans published in the journal Heart last month, found that those who consumed about 820 mg of calcium a day had a 31% lower risk of heart attack than those who consumed much less. But those who got their calcium exclusively from supplements were more than twice as likely to have a heart attack as those who took no supplements.揭示钙摄入量与心脏病风险之间关联的研究也令人感到有些困惑。《心脏医学期刊》(Heart)上月刊登了一项针对24,000名德国人的研究,研究发现,每日摄入约820毫克钙的人患心脏病的风险比摄入量少得多的人低31%。但仅从补充剂中摄取钙的人患心脏病的风险则比不用任何补充剂的人高出一倍以上。In 2010, researchers in New Zealand analyzed 11 clinical trials involving 12,000 people, and found that those taking calcium supplements had a 30% higher risk of heart attack than those who didn#39;t. However, the studies didn#39;t include people taking vitamin D, which some researchers believe is protective for the heart.2010年,新西兰的研究人员对涉及12,000名试验对象的11项临床试验进行了分析,发现用钙补充剂的人患心脏病的风险比不用钙补充剂的人高30%。然而,相关研究未将用维生素D的人包括在内,一些研究人员认为,维生素D可保护心脏。Exactly how calcium supplements might contribute to heart attacks baffles cardiologists. ;Nobody has associated the calcium in your bloodstream with calcification in your arteries,; says Nieca Goldberg, medical director of the Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health at New York University Langone Medical Center. Still, she says she now urges patients get their recommended calcium from food than from supplements to avoid possible problems.钙补充剂究竟是怎么导致心脏病呢?这个问题令心脏病学家疑惑不解。纽约大学朗格尼医学中心(New York University Langone Medical Center)琼#8226;H#8226;蒂施女性健康中心(Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health)的医学主任戈德堡(Nieca Goldberg)说,“没有人发现血液中的钙与动脉血管钙化有什么联系。”不过,她说她现在会敦促患者通过膳食而非补充剂来摄取推荐量的钙,以避免潜在风险。Osteoporosis experts also urge patients not to take more than the recommended amount of calcium. ;Women should definitely stop taking two big calcium supplements a day,; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. Even if the risks remain unclear, taking more than the body can absorb doesn#39;t benefit bones, ;so it#39;s not worth any risk - real, imaginary, uncertain, possible or probably,; she adds.骨质疏松症专家也敦促患者不要摄取超过推荐量的钙。道森休斯士说,“女性肯定不应该再一天用两大片钙补充剂了。”即使相关风险我们还不清楚,但摄入超过身体吸收能力的钙对骨骼没有好处,她还说,“所以不值得去冒险──不管是真正的、想象的、不确定的、有一定可能的还是可能性很大的风险。” /201207/191276

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