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襄阳市四院妇科French defence sales法国国防交易Mistral blows兜售“西北风”Why France insists on going ahead with selling warships to Russia法国为何坚持对俄出售“西北风”级两栖攻击舰EVEN before France signed a deal in 2011 to build two Mistral-class assault ships for Russia, the idea prompted widesp unease. Had Russia possessed such warships in 2008, boasted its naval chief, Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky, it would have won its war against Georgia in “40 minutes instead of 26 hours”. Russias neighbours were accordingly troubled, but so were Frances closest allies. In Paris before the deal, Robert Gates, then Americas defence secretary, had what he called a “thorough exchange of views” with the French: code for a serious disagreement.早在2011年法国刚签订对俄出售“西北风”级两栖攻击舰时,各地就纷纷表示不安。俄罗斯海军主席Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky也吹嘘,若是2008年俄就拥有这些军舰,那么击败格鲁吉亚就不必26小时,而只需40分钟。俄罗斯的邻国们同样因法俄交易合同而心头慌慌,就连法国最亲的同盟也略感紧张。合同签订前, 后成为美国国防部长的Robert Gates于巴黎和法国负责人进行了一系列自称是“透彻详尽的意见交流”洽谈:就一个严重分歧的处理准则。Now, as the Ukraine crisis lurches on, the Mistral sale is creating fresh ructions. At a meeting in Washington with John Kerry, Americas secretary of state, this week, Laurent Fabius, Frances foreign minister, found himself forced to defend it. Earlier this month, Victoria Nuland, Mr Kerrys assistant secretary, said she had “regularly and consistently expressed our concerns” about the sale. But Mr Fabius was having none of it. France, he said on May 13th, would take firmness lessons from nobody: “the rule with contracts is that contracts which have been signed are honoured.”随着乌克兰危机事件的蔓延,“西北风”军售合同再引骚动。本周于华盛顿和美国国务卿John Kerry的会晤谈话上,法国外交部部长Laurent Fabius不得不为本国此举加以辩护。本月初,John Kerry的秘书助理Victoria Nuland就称自己“一直对此次交易忧心忡忡”。然而,法国外交部部长Laurent Fabius却一点也不担忧。5月13日,他还对外宣称法国向来自我立场坚定,不受外界所动摇:“于此合同有一准则,那就是已签订的合同必须兑现”。At a moment when Europe and America are trying to co-ordinate sanctions against Russia, the timing is nonetheless embarrassing. The mighty Mistral-class vessels, 199m long, are not gunships. But their capacity to carry and land hundreds of soldiers and over a dozen armoured tanks and amphibious craft, as well as to transport some 16 helicopters, greatly enhances power projection. The first of the two ships, named the Vladivostok, will be y for delivery to Russia in October this year; the second, more pointedly named the Sevastopol, in mid-2015. Next month 400 Russian naval staff will arrive for training in Saint-Nazaire, the French Atlantic port where the vessels are being built.时值欧美强强联手制裁俄罗斯,现今的状况无疑是令人尴尬的。威力强大的“西风级”舰船长达199米,却非炮艇。但是,它可容纳成千上百的士兵,承载几十架装甲坦克和两栖飞行器,并能置放16架直升飞机,这大大提高了俄罗斯的力量投送能力。第一艘“西风级”舰船名为Vladivostok,预计今年10月将抵达俄罗斯;第二艘名字更加霸气,叫Sevastopol,预计2015年中期竣工。下月,400名俄罗斯海军将抵达圣纳泽尔Saint-Nazaire开始接受训练。圣纳泽尔是法国西部大西洋的港口城市,这批军舰也正是在此处修建的。There are 400 jobs directly at stake at the Saint-Nazaire shipyard (which also built the Queen Mary 2 cruise liner), and over 1,000 that depend on the contract. The French state has a 33% stake in STX France, the shipyard owner, and orders from the French navy help keep it in work. At a time when unemployment is high, President Fran?ois Hollande can ill afford to put more jobs in peril. And breach of the 1.2 billion contract would entail a fat penalty payment to Russia, which has aly settled half the price. Hence Frances consistent refusal to contemplate anything other than completing construction as planned. The contract, Mr Hollande repeated on May 10th, “is not in doubt”.圣纳泽尔造船厂(也曾建造了玛丽女王2邮轮)如今过400份工作都直面危机,且过千种工作的命运都直接掌控在法俄协议手上。法国政府拥有船厂STX France33%的股份,厂长与法国海军的订单帮助巩固了政府的股份权。眼下法国就业陷入低迷状态,奥朗德总统当然不敢轻易让更多的工作遭遇危机。此次合同交易额高达120万英镑(170万美元),而若法国违约,那么它将向俄罗斯付巨额赔款,近乎一半交易额。因此,法国一而再再而三地拒绝深入考虑其它事宜,只想按原计划完成舰船建造工程。Hollande于5月10日多次强调,实施合同“势在必行”。Could this change? Officials in Paris suggest that the only circumstances in which France might reconsider delivery would be an agreement with its allies to move to deeper “third-stage” sanctions, in such sectors as energy, finance and defence. But, say the French, this would have to include equally tough measures by, for instance, Britain against Russian assets in London. “There is an enormous amount of French ill-will towards the way the British are seen as having lived off the fat of Russias oligarchs,” says Fran?ois Heisbourg, of the Foundation for Strategic Research. “The French will resist any idea that they take a unilateral hit.”合同的执行会否出现转机呢?巴黎官员认为,要想法国重新考虑武器交易一事,唯一的可能就是法国和同盟国就在能源、经济及国防等领域“三度”制裁俄罗斯事件上达成协议。不过,法国也表示这必伴随着同等苛刻的举措,例如英反对俄在伦敦的资产。“英国一直被视为寡头政治执政者俄罗斯的寄生虫,对此法国向来是嗤之以鼻的。” 战略研究基金会的Fran?ois Heisbourg如是说。“法国对外界任何称它在打单边战术的评点都一一加之反驳”。The French government will take a final decision in October, when the first vessel is y for delivery, says Jean-Yves Le Drian, the defence minister. America may disapprove, but there is little domestic pressure to cancel the order, despite the Ukraine crisis. Mr Hollande has not withdrawn his invitation to Russias Vladimir Putin to come to the 70th anniversary commemoration of the Normandy landings in June. There is almost no public or parliamentary debate in France over the warship sales, and both the political left and right are keeping quiet about any reservations they might have. Mr Hollandes Socialist government wants to avoid a fresh fiasco over jobs and industry. And the centre-right opposition party is keenly aware that the original contract was won by its own leader and former French president, Nicolas Sarkozy.国防部部长Jean-Yves Le Drian发言,等到10月第一艘军舰竣工待要运往俄时,法国政府会做出最后决策。美国或许会反对。然而法国境内,尽管受乌克兰危机影响,反对呼声并不高。Hollande也并未撤回对俄总统普金的邀请,届时欢迎普京参加诺曼底“6月登陆”70周年大庆盛宴。在法国,此次军事武器交易活动几乎毫无异议,无论是公众之间还是议会内部,无论是左翼党派,还是右翼党派,均守口如瓶,未发表任何个人意见。以Hollande为首的社会主义政府不想陷入就业和工业萧条的漩涡中。且中右翼反对党深刻意识到,最初的合同是由自己的领袖,即前法国总统Nicolas Sarkozy争取而来的。 翻译:徐珍 校对:张娣 译文属译生译世 /201508/394137襄阳妇幼保健中医院可以吗 襄阳市第四人民医院不孕不育医院排名

襄州医院有造影手术吗Lexington莱克星顿An army without generals无将之军If Barack Obama is not really the leader of the Democratic Party, who is?如果奥巴马不是民主党真正的领袖,那么谁是?THOUGH leading the Republican Party can be a trying task, many politicians want to have a go. Ambition swirls so thickly in the halls of the 114th Congress, which was sworn in on January 6th, that it can almost be touched. Republican leaders, whips and committee chairmen, even the bosses of rebellious factions: all yearn to use their partys newly won control of the Senate and House of Representatives to make Barack Obamas life miserable and promote voter-pleasing conservative policies. As for the 2016 presidential nomination, around a dozen Republican bigwigs are circling the starting-line of that contest, eyes agleam. The party is fractious, but it is filled with energy, and those who would lead.虽说领导共和党是个尝试性的任务,但许多政客都想要参与其中。114届国会于1月6日宣誓就职,在这届的国会大厅内,野心的漩涡异常浓厚,仿佛伸手可触。共和党领袖、政党纪律委员、委员会主席,甚至是反叛派的头,都渴望利用自己党派赢得新的竞选从而控制参众两院,好让奥巴马的日子难过并推进选民欢迎的保守性政策。至于2016总统候选人提名,约十几位共和党内的大人物已经站在了起跑线上跃跃欲试,眼睛里闪烁着光芒。共和党是急躁的,但它满是能量,也满是野心上位的人。The contrast with the Democratic Party is striking. The party remains a potent force in national politics, even after 2014s mid-term elections cost it control of the Senate and left it with fewer House members than at any time since 1946. But as Democrats head into the final two years of the Obama era, they resemble an army without a commander-in-chief, or even generals whom footsoldiers might follow into battle.民主党则与其形成了鲜明对比。即使在2014年中期选举后民主党失去了参议院控制权,且其众议院席位降至1946年以来最低,但民主党在国家政治中仍有强大力量。但随着民主党的领导进入了奥巴马时代的最后两年,它就像一没有司令的军队,甚至没有将军能带领补兵上战场。In Congress the Democratic leaders of the Senate and House are both in their 70s, as are many of their lieutenants. Both are crafty tacticians more than inspiring thinkers. Neither represents the future. Out in the country, Republicans can point to any number of governors who look like conservative champions, busy turning their states into laboratories for tax-cutting, government-shrinking experiments. Only a handful of Democratic governors similarly dominate their states politics—the most prominent, Jerry Brown of California, is 76 years old.国会中,参众两院的民主党领导人都已70多岁,身边助手成群。他们都是狡猾的战术家而非启蒙思想家。他们都无法代表未来。在国内,共和党可以找出许多看起来像保守党领袖的州长,他们忙着把自己的州变成减税及政府缩减试验的试验区。只有极少数民主党州长在州内做同样的事情—最突出的就是加利福尼亚州76岁的州长杰瑞·布朗。Hillary Clinton will dominate her partys presidential primary if and when she says she is running. At the moment, she is a spectral presence—freezing the 2016 contest without offering leadership. If she does not run, it is not obvious who could replace her. Some like to daydream about Senator Elizabeth Warren, a Wall Street-bashing populist who is to the left of centre in her home state, Massachusetts, which is in turn to the left of centre of America as a whole. Ms Warren says she is not running for president (she favours the present tense), which makes her more sensible than her supporters: as a matter of cold electoral maths, she cannot win a nationwide contest.如果希拉里·克林顿表明要参与党内总统初选,那么她将主宰竞选。目前,她是一种幽灵式的存在—没提供领导能力就定格了2016的竞选。如果她不参与竞选,没人知道谁能取代她。有人幻想会是参议员伊丽莎白·沃伦(Elizabeth Warren)。她是抨击华尔街的民粹主义者,立场属于中间偏左,她的家乡马萨诸塞州正整体向中间偏左转变。沃伦说她并未参加总统竞选(她喜欢用现在时时态),这使她比她的持者更加明智:根据糟糕的选举数据,她不可能赢得全国范围内的竞选。President Obamas relations with the Democratic Party are increasingly complicated. After a wretched 2014, during which he seemed buffeted by events, Republicans successfully made the mid-term elections a referendum on his competence, prompting Democrats in some conservative states to try to disown him (in vain—most such Democrats lost anyway). Since then, Mr Obama has defied predictions of his imminent irrelevance. He has used his executive powers to shield millions of migrants from deportation, and started to dismantle the (remarkably ineffective) embargo against Cuba. He has sketched out future policies that may define his legacy, from new rules to protect the environment to global trade pacts. Republicans will try to thwart many of his plans. Global events continue to menace him. But as much as his office permits, Mr Obama is setting the agenda.总统奥巴马与民主党的关系日益复杂。在他被事件冲击的悲惨的2014过去后,共和党成功地把中期选举办成了对他能力的公民投票,推动一些保守州内民主党人对他的否定(这不过是徒劳,因为多数民主党人已经失去了席位)。此后,奥巴马蔑视关于他即将下台的预言。他利用自己的行政权力保护了数百万移民免受驱逐,并废除了对古巴明显无效的禁运政策。他勾勒出未来的政策趋势,从新环境保护规定到全球贸易协定,这些政策有可能成为他史册留名的资本。共和党人试图阻止他的多项计划。全球大事件继续威胁着他。但奥巴马正在自己的权限范围内,力定大局。。Yet if Mr Obama is not quite the lame-duck president that critics foresaw, he is still a lame-duck leader of the Democratic Party. Partly, this is a question of differing incentives. Mr Obama wants a legacy. Democrats have future elections to win. As Mr Obama conceded to National Public Radio recently, such policies as unpicking the Cuban embargo are “frankly…easier” for a president at the end of his term. Mr Obama has a strong interest in achievements that can pass a Republican-held Congress. Two planned trade pacts, one with Asia-Pacific countries, the other with Europe, are a case in point. Republicans and some centrist Democrats want a deal. Left-wing Democrats and unions are appalled.然而,即使奥巴马没有像家预测的那样成为跛脚鸭,他在民主党内的情况也将如此。部分来说,这是一个关于不同动机的问题。奥巴马想实测留名。民主党人想要赢得未来的选举。正如奥巴马近来在国家公共广播电台上承认的那样:坦白的说,像“解除古巴禁运”这样的政策,对一个任职末期的总统来说要容易得多。奥巴马很希望这项政策能在共和党控制的国会上通过。与亚太国家和欧洲国家的两项计划中的贸易协定就是个很好的例子。共和党与部分中间派民主党想要达成协议。左翼民主党和工会对此大为震惊。In part, the end of the Obama era is a moment of political clarity, exposing the oddly transactional nature of his ties to his own party. Mr Obama did not become the Democrats champion by explaining what sort of party they needed to be. He won office in 2008 by offering a new, post-racial, post-partisan form of politics, buttressed by the promise of his own life-story and brilliant electoral technology. He kept office in 2012 by turning out an “Obama coalition” that united the young, the poor, non-whites, gays, urban hipsters, unmarried women and affluent liberals. Other Democratic politicians went along for the ride, while grumbling that their president was disappointingly aloof and risk-averse.在某种程度上,奥巴马时代的结束,是政治透明的标志时刻,也暴露出奥巴马与自己党派间古怪的交易本质。奥巴马不是通过解释他们需要成为什么类型的政党这一问题,而变成民主党领袖。2008年,他提出一个新的、超越种族的、超越党派的政治形式,以他个人人生经历和闪耀的选举技能为撑,赢得了竞选。2012年,他创建了“奥巴马联盟”,联合了青年、穷人、非白种人、同性恋者、城市嬉皮士、未婚女性以及富裕的自由主义者,他借此得以连任。其他的民主党政客当时只是去凑凑热闹,抱怨奥巴马的冷漠和对风险的规避令人失望。Breaches of decorum失礼Relations between Mr Obama and congressional Democrats are sourer than ever. In an unusual breach of decorum, the strains of the 2014 election prompted on-the-record grouching about the White House from a right-hand man to Harry Reid, the Democratic leader in the Senate. A December budget crunch saw Nancy Pelosi, the Democrats boss in the House, fulminate against her own presidents willingness to cut deals with Republicans.奥巴马与国会民主党人之间的关系比以往任何时候都糟糕。2014选举的负担,催生出对白宫从得力助手到参议院民主党领袖哈利·瑞德的明面上的抱怨,这是极不寻常的失礼。众议院民主党领袖南希·佩洛西经历了12月预算的缩减后,严厉谴责总统个人想要削减与共和党的交易的意愿。Greybeards counsel calm. Presidents inevitably see their clout ebb as successors elections near, says Tom Daschle, who led Senate Democrats from 1995 to 2005. If Mrs Clinton runs for the nomination, she will become an alternative centre of power which will grow in importance. If she does not run, “there is a list of people waiting in the wings”, Mr Daschle soothes, offering as examples two very different senators: Ms Warren and Kirsten Gillibrand (the junior senator from New York and a politician of Clinton-level pragmatism, without the Clintons experience).资深人士建议对此保持平静。1995至2005年参议院民主党领袖汤姆·达施勒说,随着继任选举的临近,总统不可避免的会看到自己影响力的衰弱。如果希拉里·克林顿参与提名,她将替代奥巴马成为愈发重要的权力中心。如果她不参与竞选,“还有一串名单上的人在伺机而动”。达施勒举了两个完全不同的参议员—沃伦和克尔斯滕·吉利布兰德—作为例子,如此的安慰道。Other Democrats are less sure, seeing a problem that goes beyond personnel issues. “It is a little confusing who is leading the Democratic Party right now,” says a member of Congress who hears nothing “galvanising” from Mr Obama, and “no energy, no excitement”, from congressional bosses. Put another way, Democrats feel leaderless because the party lacks big, compelling ideas. Someone may yet fill that void. It needs to happen soon.其他民主党人看到了超越人事范围的问题,并对此不太确定。一名国会议员说:“现在究竟是谁在领导民主党,这个问题让人有些困惑。”该议员表示,从奥巴马那里听不到任何激励,从国会领袖那里也听不到任何充满能量、让人兴奋的话语。另一方面,民主党人觉得没有领导者是因为民主党缺乏宏伟的、引人注目的计划。或许有人将要填补这个空白。需要尽快采取行动。译者:萧毛毛 校对:杨雪 译文属译生译世 /201501/354899 But it was hard for wolves.但对狼而言却是难事。Wolves that have been raised by people should have had the same success at finding the sealed container, but they didnt.被人类所抚养的狼应该和一样找到密封容器,但它们却未能成功。Even chimpanzees, which are very smart animals indeed, werent as fast at finding the food as dogs.甚至是黑猩猩这种非常聪明的动物也无法像那样能够迅速发现其中诀窍。What does this mean?这代表着什么呢? One interpretation is that dogs do, in fact, have a natural ability to understand forms of human communication.一种解释是们事实上有一种天然理解人类交流形式的能力。Even nine-week old puppies found the food, suggesting the skill is there before training.即使出生刚满9周的小也可以找到食物,这表明未经过训练就已经拥有天生技能。Wolves dont have the skill, suggesting that it has developed in dogs since the time they branched off from their evolutionary predecessors.而狼并不具备这种能力,这表明自从从先祖中分离时狼已经从类中得以进化。There is debate about this idea.关于这个想法存在着争论。But Tomasello thinks that in the past fifteen thousand years, as human beings and dogs have evolved together, the basis for fidos ability to understand what you mean may have become encoded in his genes.但是托马塞洛认为在过去的15000年里,随着人类和一同进化,理解人类意图的能力可能已经融入到自身基因当中。201502/358581襄阳市中心医院北区泌尿系统在线咨询襄樊哪个医院牛皮癣体检好



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