2020年01月24日 17:33:54|来源:国际在线|编辑:网上网
Saber-tooth died out, but another big cat survived. 剑齿虎灭绝了,但是另一种大型猫科动物幸存了下来。The puma may have been more able to adapt because its diet is more varied and includes small prey. The grizzly bear also lived through the post Ice Age changes and now thrives in North America. Once again, a varied diet of meat and plants made it a versatile survivor. 美洲狮或许有更强的适应能力,这是因为他们的饮食多种多样,它们同样捕食一些小体型猎物。灰熊也在同样在冰河时代后期的巨变中幸存了下来,现在在北美洲代代繁衍。同样,不挑剔的饮食习惯使它们幸存了下来。The moose is now the largest browser on the continent. During the last Ice Age, moose were restricted to the far north, but after the ice melted, they sp south. They took the place of mastodons and the larger stag-moose, both of which became extinct. 目前,驼鹿是这片大陆体型最大的食草动物,在冰河时代后期,他们只能在遥远的北方生存,然而在冰雪融化后,他们开始向南方迁徙。他们取代了乳齿象和体型较大的牡鹿,这两种动物已经灭绝了。Bison, too, were to benefit from the post Ice Age changes. They managed to survive the draught, eventually expanding in number to replace the horse as dominant grazer. As ruminants with multi-chambered stomachs, bison can extract more nutrients from grass and this may help explain why they survived when other grazers such as the wild horses did not.美洲野牛也从冰河时代后期的巨变中获益。他们从干旱存活了下来,并最终在数量上超过了马,成为了最大的食草群体。正是由于野牛是反刍动物,它们由多个储存食物的消化器官,因此能够从草中吸收更多的营养,这也许能够解释为什么他们能够幸存下来,而像野马一样的食草动物却已经灭绝。While all these creatures were adapting to their changing landscape, another animal was just beginning to make North America its home. It’s thought the dog arrived with early people and its descendents are still with us today. The Carolina dog lives in the woods of South Carolina. 而正当这些生物正在适应变化的地貌时,另一种动物在北美大陆的生活则如家中舒适。被认为是随着早起的人类一同来到北美大陆的,他们的后代至今仍和我们同存。卡罗来纳犬就生存在卡罗莱纳州南部的森林里。Like most primitive dogs, it makes its den in the ground or in hollow tree trunks. The Carolina dog is often called the American dingo. It does look like its Australian relative, but links between the two may go deeper than that. Genetic analysis of the Carolina dogs suggests they are closely related to primitive wild dogs like the dingo. 和大多数的野犬一样,它们把洞穴建在地下或者树洞中,卡罗来纳犬经常被称做美国澳洲野犬,它们的相貌于澳洲野犬十分相似,但是两者之间的联系可能更加密切,卡罗莱纳犬的遗传基因表明,它们和澳洲野一样与原始野有着密切的联系。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/263558Indias Hindu nationalists:印度的印度教民族主义者:Men in shorts穿短裤的人们The election over, Narendra Modi may drop the Hindu right选举结束,纳伦德拉莫迪或许将限制印度教权力。Not physical jerks这可不是单纯的体操。POLITICAL pundits have spent much of the past week debating exit polls, released just after the final day of voting on May 12th. The polls pointed, more or less, to a single outcome: the Bharatiya Janata Party will wallop the incumbent party, Congress, and, led by Narendra Modi, will form the next government. Investors pushed the stockmarket to a record high. But details matter, such as whether Mr Modi can rely on a narrow coalition or will need a broad one. Here, the pollsters cannot be relied upon. The official results are due on May 16th, after The Economist goes to press.5月12日是印度大选投票的最后一天,投票结束后不久,政府即公布了一份票站民意调查。在过去的一周中,政治专家们纷纷就这一调查结果展开辩论。调查或多或少地指向了同一个结果:纳伦德拉.莫迪领导的印度人民党将在选举中击溃现任执政党—国大党,组建下届政府。投资者们借机推动股市达到了创纪录的新高。但是一些细节将对最后的结果产生重大影响,例如莫迪先生是否可以依赖这一狭隘的联盟或是去寻求一个更广泛的合作。民意调查并不可靠,官方的结果将会在5月16日即本刊付梓后公布。A second debate concerned the clout of the Hindu right. Since he was a boy, Mr Modi has been an activist member in the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, formed in 1925 as a pro-Hindu social movement. It began with charitable aims but always carried quasi-military overtones as men in brown shorts performed dawn callisthenics. These days the RSS is rebranding itself as a more youthful, right-leaning, nationalist organisation, with rugby and volleyball on offer as alternatives to physical jerks.第二个辩论则有关于印度教权力的影响。从童年起,莫迪先生就一直是印度国民志愿务团的活跃成员。印度国民志愿务团成立于1925年,持印度教社会化运动。它是为了慈善的目的而成立,但是成员们每天早晨穿着棕色短裤演练体操却使它染上了一丝准军事化的色。这些天来,国民志愿务团致力于重新标榜自己为一个更加年轻的,右倾的民族主义组织,并且提供橄榄球和排球作为一个替代体操活动的选择。Throughout the election campaign, the RSS supplied volunteers for the BJP. The organisations sway within the party remains strong. Mr Modi became party leader in 2013 when the RSS chose to back him. Observers see an effort to expand the RSSs “majoritarian” appeal, with less talk of Hindu identity and more about national strength. Smooth-tongued spokesmen downplay a once-core assertion of the RSS: that to be Indian was to be Hindu.在整个的竞选活动中,RSS一直为印度人民党提供志愿者。该组织在人民党内保持着巨大的影响力。2013年,在RSS的持下,莫迪先生成为了印度人民党的领袖。观察家们将其视作印度国民志愿务团扩大其“多数人统治”诉求的努力,只是现在他们更少地谈及印度教的身份,转而更多地从国家力量的出发。圆滑的发言人如今则对务团曾经核心的主张—“印度人就得是印度教徒”轻描淡写。Yet Mr Modis rise brings questions about the role of the RSS and the wider Sangh Parivar, or family of Hindu nationalist outfits. Some have high expectations. About 2,000 volunteers turned out to help Mr Modi in Varanasi alone. On May 12th members of the RSSs student wing cheered Mr Modi as “one of us ”, claiming he would bring relief on issues dear to them. These include calls for a temple to be built at the site of a demolished mosque in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh; for Muslim-majority Kashmir to lose its special status under the Indian constitution; and for the abolition of a separate marriage code for Muslims. Not for these people discussions about economic policies.然而,莫迪先生的就职带来了有关RSS与更广泛的“联合家庭”—印度教民族主义者组织联合间的角色问题。有些人抱着很高的期待。仅在瓦拉纳西市就有约2000名志愿者帮助莫迪先生的竞选。5月12日,加入国民志愿务团的学生们便欢呼莫迪先生是“我们的一员”,宣称他将会对有利于他们的事情(对那些穆斯林和无宗教主义者则充满忧虑)带来解决办法。这些就包括呼吁在北方邦阿约提亚市的一处废旧的清真寺旧址上修建一座寺庙;呼吁取消穆斯林人口占多数的克什米尔地区在印度宪法下的特殊地位;呼吁废除专为穆斯林制定的单独的婚姻法。以及不要为这些人讨论经济政策。A senior RSS organiser in Varanasi talks of Mr Modi restoring pride in “what the nation lost in the last 1,000 years, in the sons of the nation, the Hindus who originally belonged to this country”. Only once before, at the defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977, has the RSS thrown itself so heavily into party politics. Just as it is helping Mr Modis cause, so he is helping the RSS, according to one of its spokesmen in Delhi. With more effective recruiting, especially online, 10,000 new members are said to be signing up each month, including at universities and among employees at the countrys booming IT firms.RSS的一位高级官员在瓦拉纳西市谈及莫迪先生重建了印度人的骄傲,这份骄傲是“在过去的1000年中这个国家所丢失了的事物中,在这个国家的子孙间,在那些从最开始就属于这片土地的印度教徒身上”。之前只有在1977年英迪拉.甘地失败的那一次竞选中,RSS才如此激烈地参与到过党派政治中。据德里的一位发言人称,RSS在帮助莫迪先生的事业,他也在帮助RSS。得益于更有效率的招募行动,尤其是在网络上的,据说每个月都有10,000名新成员加入,而其中就包含着在校大学生和这个国家冉冉升起的IT行业的雇员们。If Mr Modi becomes prime minister, members of the broad Sangh Parivar family say they expect a more forceful approach to Pakistan and China. School textbooks could be reworked to show history “in the right way”, as one puts it, for example by telling how Maratha kings triumphed over Muslim armies.如果莫迪先生当选为总理,广大的“联合家庭”成员们期待着对巴基斯坦和中国采取更为强硬的措施。学校的教科书也会被重新编写,例如通过描述马拉地国王如何打败穆斯林军队这种所谓的“正确的方式”展现历史,。Yet Mr Modis iness for collaboration may prove passing. It is true that on May 10th he spent two hours with the RSSs leader, Mohan Bhagwat, reportedly to assess the national campaign and potential ruling coalitions. But with voting over, the BJP will not need its armies of street volunteers. And Hindu nationalists may recall how in Mr Modis early years of running the state of Gujarat, he mostly kept the RSS at arms length, worried that a rival power might arise. Widening his appeal to all Indians may mean turning his back on the more divisive outfits to which he has been close.然而莫迪先生的合作意愿可能只是短暂的。5月10日,他与RSS的领导人莫汉.巴格瓦特会谈了两个小时,据报道是在评估全国运动以及潜在的执政联盟。但是当投票结束后,印度人民党将不再需要街头的志愿者军队。那时印度教民族主义者或许会记起莫迪先生早年在古吉拉特邦执政时是如何做的——大多数时候他都会与RSS保持距离 ,以避免反对力量的出现。迎合更广大的印度人民意味着莫迪先生会背离这一引起纠纷的组织,尽管他一直同印度国民务团关系亲密。 201405/302140Yael: What are all those pills youre taking, Don? Don,你在吃的都是什么药?Don: Vitamins, Yael. Im really into my health these days. I take a pill for nearly every vitamin my body needs. Im insuring myself against vitamin deficiency. Yael, 是维他命。这些天我很关注自己的身体健康,所以我每种维他命都吃一片来补充各种身体所需的,确保不会出现维他命缺乏的情况。Y: I hope you know what youre doing. Just as vitamin deficiency can make you sick so can vitamin toxicity. Vitamins can be very dangerous if you take them in high quantities. 我希望你知道你现在在做什么。维他命是有毒性的,就像维他命缺乏一样会致你生病。如果你摄入过多维他命也是很危险的。D: Oh, you mean vitamins A and D. Ive heard about that. I dont understand, though, why its okay to take lots of one vitamin, but not another. 哦,你说的是维生素A和维生素D。我听说过。但是我仍然不明白为什么能大量吃一种维生素,但却不能吃另一种。Y: First off, vitamins A and D are the most likely to make you sick if you take too much of them, but they arent the only vitamins that can be dangerous. All vitamins have the potential to be toxic if you ingest too much of them. 首先,如果一次摄入过量的话,维生素A和D是最有可能威胁你的健康的,但并不是只有他们才是危险物质。如果你摄入量过多的话,任何维他命都是有毒性的。Part of the reason why A and D put you at higher risk than Vitamin C and others has to do with the way vitamins are dissolved. 维生素A和D比维生素C和其他的维生素具有更高毒性的部分原因是维生素有不同的溶解方式。Vitamin C dissolves in water. Thus, if you take in excess Vitamin C, your body flushes it out through urine. Vitamins A and D dissolve in oils and melted fat. 维生素C是水溶性的。因此,如果你用过多的维他命C的话,你的身体可以通过尿液将其排出。而维他命A和D是油溶性和脂溶性的。When you take too much of one of these vitamins, rather than flushing the excess out, the body stores the surplus in fat or in fatty tissues such as the liver and the brain. 当你用了过多的这种维他命的话,身体不能通过尿液将其排出,剩余部分只能储存至脂肪或者脂肪组织,例如肝和大脑。Accumulation of water in the brain, severe headaches, and birth defects are just three of the problems toxic levels of Vitamin A can cause. 脑积水,剧烈头痛,先天缺失正是维他命A的毒副作用能导致的三种疾病。If you keep a relatively well-balanced diet, youll most likely get the vitamins your body needs without the use of supplements. 如果你能保持一个相对均衡的饮食,你就能够保身体所需的维生素,而不需要额外的补充了。201308/252974

Don:The anatomy of fear, on this Moment of Science.唐:今天的科学一刻为您带来的是恐惧的。Yael:One nice day youre walking along a wooded path.雅艾尔:在一个天气不错的日子里,你正在林荫小道里漫步。You come around a corner and there, coiled in the path, is a huge rattlesnake, its rattles abuzz.但走到小道拐角一处时,你突然发现一条巨大的响尾蛇就在那里蜷缩着!还嘶嘶吐着蛇信。You are deathly afraid of snakes.你可是天生怕蛇怕得要死。Don: Various parts of the brain signal the nervous systems and organs to prepare to take action.唐:这时大脑中的各个部分给神经系统各个器官发出信号以对此作出反应:The pupils of the eyes dilate, the thyroid gland raises the resting metabolic rate, the bronchioles in the lungs dilate to admit more oxygen, hairs stand on end, heart rate and blood pressure rise to supply the body and brain with fuel.瞳孔放大,甲状腺加快新陈代谢,肺部的气管扩张吸进更多氧气,毛发竖起,心率加快,血压上升以便供给身体和大脑能量。Yael:The liver begins to break down sugars for quick energy, blood vessels in the skin contract causing chills and sweating, the spleen pumps out white blood cells in case there is an injury, stomach and intestine enzyme secretion and muscle activity needed for digestion stop, and blood vessels in the stomach and intestines contract to divert blood to the muscles.雅艾尔:肝脏加速分解糖分供能。皮下血管收缩,身体发冷出汗。脾脏产生更多白细胞抵抗受伤。肠胃酶的分泌及肌肉活动引起食欲不振。肠胃的血管收缩,血液传输到肌肉组织。Don:The bladder and colon prepare to empty, the central portion of the adrenal medulla floods the bloodstream with adrenaline and noradrenaline, constricting the blood vessels, breathing quickens.唐:膀胱和结肠有可能排空,血液随肾上腺素和去甲肾上腺素汇聚到肾上腺髓质的中部,血管收缩,呼吸加快。The entire body is in a state of high alert, y to stay and fight or say ;Feet dont fail me now.;整个人都处于高度戒备,要么呆在那不动,或者人蛇大战,再或者告诉自己“我可根本不怕哦”。Yael:Did you follow all that?雅艾尔:你会有上述所有反应吗?Of course not, but all that, and more, happens in your body within seconds of your sensing a threat.当然不是所有咯!但是,当你遭遇惊吓,身体会在仅仅几秒内产生更多反应。Don:It makes us tired just thinking about it唐:光想想就够累人的! 201311/264730

  • 养心大全襄阳男科医院激光包皮手术
  • 襄阳龟头疼痛发痒脱皮
  • 百姓对话襄阳慢性膀胱炎需要动手术吗
  • 襄阳刚结婚老公严重的性功能障碍怎么办
  • 百科生活襄阳中心医院男科妇科网上预约网上时讯
  • 襄阳襄城区人民中心医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱
  • 襄州医院看男科好吗咨询健康襄阳尿道炎症状原因
  • 咨询中文宜城市治疗前列腺炎哪家医院最好
  • 襄城区治疗阳痿哪家医院最好
  • ask中文襄阳人民医院哪个主任看前列腺比较好
  • 襄樊市铁路中心医院不孕不育预约
  • 襄阳死精是什么病QQ新闻襄阳阴茎勃起不硬
  • 安晚报襄阳龟头炎检查要多少钱
  • 襄阳早泄手术多少钱
  • 襄城区妇幼保健中医院男科医生养心问答枣阳市第二人民医院治疗阳痿多少钱
  • 百家媒体襄州区妇幼保健中医院男科医生
  • 百姓频道襄阳四院医院网上妙手知识
  • 襄阳中心医院男性专科
  • 百姓分享襄阳四院医院上班时间管乐园
  • 襄阳遗传生殖中心
  • 枣阳妇幼保健人民中心医院男科医院在那儿
  • 襄樊第四医院
  • 国际在线娱乐微信