西湖区中医医院产妇做检查好吗挂号健康

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月17日 06:15:18
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生命每个人来说只有一次,童贞对于每个人来说也只有一次,不止男人有处女情结,女人也有处女情结。女人该不该在婚前守贞?作为女人,假如你还没有失去童贞,你应该知道下面的十件事,有人说女人最珍贵的是;第二次贞操;,假如你的第一次是因为年少懵懂而犯下的错,至少应该不要再稀里糊涂的情况下丢了你的第二次,尽管守身如玉的年代一去不复返,但是女人更好学会爱惜自己。1.If you don#39;t trust your partner to respect your wishes if youchange your mind about anything, you should not be havingsex.1.如果你不信任你的伴侣会在你一旦改变任何主意时尊重你的意愿的话,你不应该发生性行为。2.You can#39;t get your virginity back once it#39;s gone, so makesure that you are having sex for the right reasons. Emotionalblackmail, such as ;you would if you loved me;, or peer pressure,such as ;everyone else is doing it;, are not appropriatemotivations for becoming sexually active.2.一旦童贞失去你就不可能恢复到原来,所以请确保你有合适的理由发生性行为。来自他的情感勒索,比如他抱怨道;如果你爱我的话你会愿意的;,或来自同伴的压力,比如;其他人都在做的;,这些都不是恰当的开始性活跃的动机。3.A recent study of sexual attitudes among 14 to 16-year-olds,carried out by researchers from Sheffield University, found thatteenage boys thought it was acceptable to pressure girls intohaving sex and to use alcohol to get them into bed.3.最近谢菲尔德大学的研究人员在一项对14至16岁少年性态度的研究发现,十几岁的男孩认为迫使女孩发生性行为,以及借酒醉之际诱女孩上床,这些都是可以接受。4.No surprise then that girls are twice as likely as young mento regret their first sexual experience, and they are three timesas likely to report being pressured into unwanted sex.4.难怪后悔自己首次性经历的女孩比男孩多一倍,而且报告违背本人意愿被强迫发生性行为的女孩比男孩多二倍。5.And worryingly, a study from the Centre for Sexual HealthResearch, at the University of Southampton, which surveyed morethan 1,300 young people aged between 16 and 18, found that only 37per cent of sexually active young people used condoms whenever theyhad sex.5.令人担忧的是,南安普敦大学性健康研究中心对年龄介于16岁到18岁的1300多名年轻人做了一项调查研究,发现在性生活活跃的年轻人当中只有37%的人性交时使用避套。6.If you don#39;t feel comfortable discussing protection andcontraception with your partner, you should not be havingsex.6.如果与你的伴侣讨论保护措施和避让你觉得不舒的话,你就不应该发生性行为。7.While not perfect, condoms are the most effective way ofpreventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV,gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Condoms also provide someprotection against herpes, syphilis and chancroid, but genitalulcer STIs can also be transmitted by contact with exposed infectedskin.7.虽然不是十全十美,但避套仍然是最有效的措施防止性传染疾病(性病),如艾滋病、淋病、衣原体以及滴虫病。避套也提供了一些保护以防止疱疹、梅毒和软下疳,但是生殖器溃疡的性病也能通过与受感染的皮肤接触而传染到。8.Condoms are not a particularly reliable method of preventingpregnancy either. The pregnancy rate among condom users is 12 per100 women compared with three for oral contraceptives. However, youneed to have been on the Pill for at least a month for it to beeffective.8.安全套也不是防止怀特别可靠的方法。使用避套避的女孩,怀率是每100名中有12名怀,而使用口避药的话每100名中才3名会怀。然而,你需要连续用口避药至少一个月之后它才会有效。9.In the UK it is illegal to have consensual sex if you areunder 16, even though nearly a third of teenagers engage in sexualintercourse before this age. A 16-year-old boy who has sex with his15-year-old girlfriend could, theoretically, be prosecuted.9.在英国如果你是16岁以下,发生合意性行为是非法的,尽管有将近三分之一的青少年在16岁之前就有性行为了。一名16岁的男孩和他15岁的女朋友发生性行为的话,从理论上说他可能被起诉。10.You should know what to expect but notexpect too much. Sex is a bit like learning to play the piano. Youtend to be pretty rubbish at the beginning, but practice,eventually, makes perfect.10.你应该知道会发生什么事情,但不能期望太高。性就有点像是学习弹钢琴。你往往开始阶段非常糟糕,但最终通过实践就能熟能生巧。 /201208/195578Sagittarius射手座 (11月23日~12月21日)Sagittarius is Fire energy. This is a very active, extroverted sign.射手座是火相星座。射手非常主动、外向。TIPS: You definitely have talent. But you still have to concentrate more.学习相 你确有天赋,但是你应该更加专心。 /201210/205021

From television revealing that spaghetti grows on trees to advertisements for the left-handed burger, the tradition of April Fool#39;s Day stories in the media has a weird and wonderful history.从种植意大利面的电视新闻到左撇子汉堡的广告,媒体在愚人节制造的各种稀奇古怪的恶搞新闻也有一段“光辉”历史了。Here are several of the top ten April Fool#39;s Day pranks ever pulled off, as judged by the US website of Museum of Hoaxes for their notoriety, absurdity, and number of people duped.日前,美国“恶作剧物馆”网站根据恶作剧的知名度、荒诞性及被愚弄的人数,评选出了媒体所制造的愚人节“十大经典恶搞新闻”。其中的几个如下:Swiss spaghetti harvest tops the hoax list. In 1957, a B television show announced that thanks to a mild winter and the virtual elimination of the spaghetti weevil, Swiss farmers were enjoying a bumper spaghetti crop.Footageof Swiss farmers pulling strands of spaghetti from trees prompted a barrage of calls from people wanting to know how to grow their own spaghetti at home.第一大恶搞新闻是1957年愚人节的瑞士意大利面大丰收。当天,英国广播公司在一个新闻节目中报道,由于受暖冬影响,再加上危害意大利面“种植”的象鼻虫已被彻底消灭,瑞士的农民们获得意大利面大丰收,电视台还特别配上了瑞士农民从树上摘下一缕缕意大利面的镜头。节目播出后,很多人打电话去电台询问如何在家种植意大利面。Instant color TV sets in Sweden comes as the third. Sweden in 1962 had only one television channel, which broadcast in black and white. The station#39;s technical expert appeared on the news to announce that thanks to a newly developed technology, viewers could convert their existing sets to receive color pictures by pulling a nylon stocking over the screen.第三大恶搞新闻是1962年的瑞典“瞬变色电视机;。当时,瑞典只有一个电视频道,而且是黑白的。愚人节那天,电视台技术人员在新闻中宣布,由于最新技术的开发成功,观众们只需将一只尼龙长统袜撑开盖在电视屏幕上,就能使黑白画面立刻变成色。US ex-president Nixon#39;s comeback is placed at sixth. In 1992, US National Public Radio announced that Richard Nixon was running for president again. His new campaign slogan was, ;I didn#39;t do anything wrong, and I won#39;t do it again.; They even had clips of Nixon announcing his candidacy. Listeners flooded the show with calls expressing their outrage. Nixon#39;s voice actually turned out to be that of impersonator Rich Little.美国前总统尼克森的复出被评为第六大经典假新闻。1992年,美国国家公共广播电台宣布,理查德·尼克森将再度竞选总统。他的最新竞选口号是,”我没做错什么,我不会重蹈覆辙。“新闻中还配有尼克松宣布竞选的录音剪辑。这一消息发布之后,听众们纷纷打电话去电台表示愤怒。实际上,尼克森的声音是由一位名叫里奇·利特尔的演员模仿的。In 1998, a newsletter titled New Mexicans for Science and Reason carried an article that the state of Alabama had voted to change the value of pi from 3.14159 to the ;Biblical value; of 3.0.1998年愚人节,新墨西哥人科学与推理组织的通讯上刊登的一篇文章中称,美国阿拉巴马州已投票决定,将圆周率值3.14159改为;圣经值;3.0。Burger King, an American fast-food chain, published a full-page advertisement in USA Today in 1998 announcing the introduction of the ;Left-Handed Whopper,; specially designed for the 32 million left-handed Americans. According to the advertisement, the new burger included the same ingredients as the original, but the condiments were rotated 180 degrees. The chain said it received thousands of requests for the new burger, as well as orders for the original ;right-handed; version.1998年愚人节当天,美国汉堡王快餐连锁店在《今日美国》上发布了一则长达一页的广告,介绍一款专为美国3200万个“左撇子”设计的“左撇子汉堡”。该广告中称,新汉堡的配料和普通汉堡没什么区别,但其中所夹的调味品都被旋转了180度放置。连锁店称,广告登出后,他们接到数千份订单,还收到了很多老式(;右撇子;)汉堡的订单。Discover Magazine announced in 1995 that a highly respected biologist, Aprile Pazzo (Italian for April Fool), had discovered a new species in Antarctica: the hotheaded naked ice borer. The creatures were described as having bony plates on their heads that became burning hot, allowing the animals to bore through ice at high speed.1995年愚人节,《发现》杂志公布,一位德高望重的、名叫Aprile Pazzo(意大利语:愚人节)的生物学家在南极洲发现了一种名叫热裸体钻冰虫的新物种。据介绍,这种生物头部的骨头能变得滚烫,所以可以高速的钻冰。Noted British astronomer Patrick Moore announced on the radio in 1976 that at 9:47 am, a once-in-a-lifetime astronomical event, in which Pluto would pass behind Jupiter, would cause a gravitational alignment that would reduce the Earth#39;s gravity. Moore told listeners that if they jumped in the air at the exact moment of the planetary alignment, they would experience a floating sensation. Hundreds of people called in to report feeling the sensation.1976年愚人节,英国著名天文学家帕特里克·尔通过电台宣布,当天早上9时47分会出现一个百年一遇的天文现象,冥王星将从木星后面经过,由此而形成的引力组合将使地球的引力减弱。尔告诉听众,如果他们在经过的那一时刻跳起来,会有一种飘浮感。当时,数百人打电话去电台,称他们确实感到了那种“飘浮感”。 /201304/233122

  

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  As baby photos go, this collection has got to be one of the most adorable. And certainly the most magical.宝宝影集大家都在拍,但这组肯定是最可爱也最神奇的照片之一。A mother who admits being completely obsessed with fairy tales commissioned a professional photographer to take a series of beautiful images of her baby daughter, and in all of them her little girl adopts the starring role in all her favourite stories, including Alice in Wonderland, Little Red Riding Hood, Sleeping Beauty and Snow White.一位承认自己对童话故事着迷的母亲,找了一位专业的摄影师为自己的宝贝女儿拍了一组非常可爱的照片,小姑娘扮演成妈妈喜欢的故事中的角色,包括梦游幻境的爱丽丝、小红帽、睡美人和白雪公主。The pictures of baby girl Maddie, daughter of Nicole Lepper of Monmouth, Illinois, were taken by American photographer Wendi Riggins in Iowa.这位名叫妮可的母亲来自美国伊利诺斯州蒙茅斯,照片中她的小宝贝名叫曼迪,照片由来自爱荷华州的摄影师文迪-瑞金斯拍摄。Wendi, 30, said: #39;Nicole, loves fairy tales, and her entire family are fans of the TV show Once Upon a Time. It was from this love that the concept of baby fairy tales came about.30岁的摄影师文迪表示:“妮可非常喜欢童话故事,他们一家人都是电视剧《童话镇》的粉丝,正是因为这么热爱童话,所以才有了这个拍摄宝宝童话的想法。”#39;Nicole planned and shopped for the perfect outfits and pieces. We talked multiple times a week, throwing around ideas, picking out props and brainstorming on ways to make each and every set perfect.#39;“妮可自己计划并采购了完美的装和配饰,我们讨论过很多次,想出了很多不同的点子集思广益,挑选了合适的道具让每个场景都看起来非常完美。”Little Red Riding Hood meets a big white #39;wolf#39; in the woods (but even he couldn#39;t eat something as cute as Maddie), left, and Peter Pan floats overhead as Maddie pouts into the camera as Wendy Darling, accompanied by Nana the dog, right.左边的图片:小红帽在森林里遇到了一直大白“狼”(不过这么可爱的曼迪它肯定舍不得吃);右边的图片中,曼迪扮成了童话故事《彼得·潘》中的小姑娘温蒂,小飞侠彼得·潘从她的头顶飞过,旁边正是她的娜娜。Maddie takes a seat and prepares to settle down with a good book of her favourite fairy tales.曼迪坐好准备专心阅读她最喜欢的童话故事。Maddie dresses up as the dinkiest Cinderella ever, left, and plays the prettiest Snow White there ever was, right.左边的图片中,曼迪打扮成最小的灰姑娘;右边的图片中又变身最可爱的白雪公主。Time for tea? Baby Maddie dressed up as Alice in Wonderland, playing with cards and #39;eat me#39; cakes at the Mad Hatter#39;s Tea Party.喝下午茶时间到了?宝宝曼迪扮成无意间闯入幻境的爱丽丝,在疯帽子先生的茶话会上玩着扑克和写着“吃掉我” 的蛋糕。After an exhausting dressing-up extravaganza, baby Maddie takes a well-deserved nap, and dreams of all the magical adventures she#39;s been having.在一场华丽的化装游戏结束后,小宝宝曼迪也累了,好好地睡了一觉,也许会梦到她刚刚经历的那些魔幻冒险。 /201301/222642

  当一段感情走到尽头的时候,也许最终的结局就是分手。怎样提出分手,是个十分棘手的问题。各大星座的;筒子;们面对这种情况,会使出怎样的绝招呢?当12星座铁定了心想要分手的时候,TA第一句话会跟你说……白羊座 AriesLet#39;s break up since it is meaningless to continue.再这样很没意思,分手吧。(太直接了……)金牛座 TaurusWe should never see each other again.以后不要再见了。(太坚决了……)双子座 GeminiYou#39;re not the cup of my tea.你不是我的那杯茶。(有外遇了……吧)巨蟹座 CancerSince it#39;s so heartbreaking to be together, why don#39;t we just break up?一起也只有辛苦,不如早点放手。(太经典了)狮子座 LeoFrom now on, I can#39;t love you anymore. Who do you think you are?从这秒开始,我不爱你了。你算啥呀!(太过分了……)处女座 VirgoYou#39;ve changed.你变了。(你也变了……)天枰座 LibraI don#39;t think we#39;re right for each other, maybe we#39;re a bad match?你不觉得我们不合适吗?(太随便了……)天蝎座 ScorpioI don#39;t have feelings for you anymore. Don#39;t contact me again.我对你已经没有感觉,别再烦我。(太狠了……)射手座 Sagittarius(He moved out yesterday.)他昨天就搬走了……(太突然了)羯座 CapricornYou will find someone better for you.你会找到更好的。(烂好人了……)水瓶座 AquariusI think Bachelordom might be what you need right now.我觉得还是一个人生活比较开心。(你有种就不要找下个……)双鱼座 PiscesMy goldfish said she dislikes you, so let#39;s break up.我家金鱼说不喜欢你,所以我们就分手吧。(太无厘头了) 内容来自: /201208/197316

  Once a beautiful and dissolute British actress wrote to propose marriage to Bernard Shaw. She said she did not mind Bernard Shaw’s old age and ugliness because he was a genius. And if they could combine the beauty of the woman with the talents of the great man,that would be greatly harmonious. “With your wisdom and my appearance,our children must be perfect.”英国有位美貌风流的女演员,曾写信向肖伯纳求婚。她说,因为他是个天才,她不嫌肖伯纳年迈丑陋。假如能使女郎的美貌和超人的天才结合,那该是多么协调啊。“咱们的后代有你的智慧和我的美貌,那一定是十全十美了。”Bernard Shaw answered,in a letter,that her imagination was splendid,“But,what if the children take my appearance and your wisdom?”肖伯纳给她回了一封信说,她的想象很是美妙,“可是,假如生下的孩子外貌象我,而智慧又象你,那又该怎么办呢?” /201301/220971So I want to start by offering you a free no-tech life hack, and all it requires of you is this: that you change your posture for two minutes. But before I give it away, I want to ask you to right now do a little audit of your body and what you#39;re doing with your body. So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller? Maybe you#39;re hunching, crossing your legs, maybe wrapping your ankles. Sometimes we hold onto our arms like this. Sometimes we sp out. I see you. So I want you to pay attention to what you#39;re doing right now. We#39;re going to come back to that in a few minutes, and I#39;m hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit, it could significantly change the way your life unfolds.首先我想要提供给你们一个免费的、非科技的人生窍门。你只需这样做:改变你的姿势两分钟。但在我要把它告诉你们之前,我想要请你们,就你们的身体和你们身体的行为做一下自我审查,那么你们之中有多少人正蜷缩着自己?或许你现在弓着背,还翘着二郎腿?或者双臂交叉,有时候我们像这样抱住自己,有时候展开双臂,我看到你了,现在请大家专心在自己的身上,我们等一下就会回溯刚刚的事,希望你们可以稍微改变一下,这会让你的生活变得很不一样。So, we#39;re really fascinated with body language, and we#39;re particularly interested in other people#39;s body language. You know, we#39;re interested in, like, you know — an awkward interaction, or a smile, or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink, or maybe even something like a handshake.所以,我们真的很执着于肢体语言,特别是对别人的肢体语言感兴趣。你看,我们对尴尬的互动,或一个微笑,或轻蔑的一瞥,或奇怪的眨眼,甚至是握手之类的事情感兴趣。Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10, and look at this lucky policeman gets to shake hands with the President of the ed States. Oh, and here comes the Prime Minister of the — ? No. (Laughter) (Applause) (Laughter) (Applause)解说员:他们来到了唐宁街10号,看看这个,这位幸运的警员可以和美国总统握手。噢,还有,来自……的总理?不(笑声) (掌声) (笑声) (掌声)Amy Cuddy: So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake, can have us talking for weeks and weeks and weeks. Even the B and The New York Times. So obviously when we think about nonverbal behavior, or body language -- but we call it nonverbals as social scientists -- it#39;s language, so we think about communication. When we think about communication, we think about interactions. So what is your body language communicating to me? What#39;s mine communicating to you?Amy Cuddy:所以一个握手,或没有握手,我们都可以大聊特聊一番。即使B和纽约时报也不例外。我们说到肢体行为或肢体语言时,我们将之归纳为社会科学,它就是一种语言,所以我们会想到沟通,当我们想到沟通,我们就想到互动,所以你现在的身体语言正在告诉我什么?我的身体又是在向你传达什么?And there#39;s a lot of reason to believe that this is a valid way to look at this. So social scientists have spent a lot of time looking at the effects of our body language, or other people#39;s body language, on judgments. And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language. And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomes like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date. For example, Nalini Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University, shows that when people watch 30-second soundless clips of real physician-patient interactions, their judgments of the physician#39;s niceness predict whether or not that physician will be sued. So it doesn#39;t have to do so much with whether or not that physician was incompetent, but do we like that person and how they interacted? Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton has shown us that judgments of political candidates#39; faces in just one second predict 70 percent of U.S. Senate and gubernatorial race outcomes, and even, let#39;s go digital, emoticons used well in online negotiations can lead to you claim more value from that negotiation. If you use them poorly, bad idea. Right? So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge others, how they judge us and what the outcomes are. We tend to forget, though, the other audience that#39;s influenced by our nonverbals, and that#39;s ourselves.有很多理由让我们相信这些是有效的。社会科学家花了很多时间,求肢体语言的效果,或其它人的身体语言在判断方面的效应。而我们环视身体语言中的讯息做决定和推论,这些结论可以预测生活中很有意义的结果,像是我们雇用谁或给谁升职,邀请谁出去约会。举例而言,Tufts大学的研究员,Nalini Ambady表示,人们观赏一部医生和患者互动的30秒无声影片,他们对该医生的和善观感,可用来预测该复健师是否会被告上法庭,跟这个医生能否胜任工作没有太大关系,重点是我们喜不喜欢他,和他们是如何与人互动的? 进一步来说,普林斯顿的Alex Todorov表示,我们对政治人物脸部的喜好判断,大概可用来对美国参议院和美国州长的,竞选结果做70%的预测,甚至就网络上在线聊天时使用的表情符号,可以帮助你从交谈中得到更多信息。所以你千万别弄巧成拙,对吧?当我们提起肢体语言,我们就想到自己如何判断别人,别人如何判断我们以及后果会是什么,我们往往忘记这点,受到肢体动作所影响的那群观众,就是我们自己。We are also influenced by our nonverbals, our thoughts and our feelings and our physiology. So what nonverbals am I talking about? I#39;m a social psychologist. I study prejudice, and I teach at a competitive business school, so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics. I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions of power and dominance.我们也往往受自己的肢体动作、想法、感觉和心理所影响,所以究竟我的非语言表达到底说的是什么?我是一位社会心理学家,我研究偏见。我在一所极具竞争力的商业学院上课,因此无可避免地对权力动力学感到着迷,特别是在非语言表达,对权力和配的领域。And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance? Well, this is what they are. So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding. So you make yourself big, you stretch out, you take up space, you#39;re basically opening up. It#39;s about opening up. And this is true across the animal kingdom. It#39;s not just limited to primates. And humans do the same thing. (Laughter) So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically, and also when they#39;re feeling powerful in the moment. And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us how universal and old these expressions of power are. This expression, which is known as pride, Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that people who are born with sight and people who are congenitally blind do this when they win at a physical competition. So when they cross the finish line and they#39;ve won, it doesn#39;t matter if they#39;ve never seen anyone do it. They do this. So the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted. What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly the opposite. We close up. We wrap ourselves up. We make ourselves small. We don#39;t want to bump into the person next to us. So again, both animals and humans do the same thing. And this is what happens when you put together high and low power. So what we tend to do when it comes to power is that we complement the other#39;s nonverbals. So if someone is being really powerful with us, we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don#39;t mirror them. We do the opposite of them.权力和配的非语言表达究竟是什么?嗯,让我细细道来。在动物王国里,它们和扩张有关。所以你尽可能得让自己变大,你向外伸展占满空间,基本上就是展开。关于展开,我说真的,透视动物世界,这不仅局限于灵长类,人类也干同样的事(笑声)。不论是他们长期掌权或是在某个时间点感到权力高涨,他们都这么做,特别有趣的原因是,它让我们明白权力的展现从来是如此地一致,不管古今世界。这种展现,被认为是一种荣耀。 Jessica Tracy研究表示,视力良好无碍和先天视障的人在赢得比赛时都做了同样的事。当他们跨过终点线赢得比赛之际,无论能否看的见,他们都做这样的动作,双臂呈V字型朝上,下巴微微抬起,那我们感到无助的时候呢?我们的行为正相反,我们封闭起来。我们把自己蜷起来,让自己变得小一点,最好别碰到别人。这再一次明,人类和动物都做同样的事,这就是当你有力量和没力量时的行为,所以当力量来临时,我们会迎合别人的非语言表达,当别人的权势比我们大很多时,我们倾向把自己变得较小,不会模仿他们,我们做和他们正相反的事情。So I#39;m watching this behavior in the classroom, and what do I notice? I notice that MBA students really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals. So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas, really coming into the room, they get right into the middle of the room before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space. When they sit down, they#39;re sort of sp out. They raise their hands like this. You have other people who are virtually collapsing when they come in. As soon they come in, you see it. You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit in their chair and they make themselves tiny, and they go like this when they raise their hand. I notice a couple of things about this. One, you#39;re not going to be surprised. It seems to be related to gender. So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men. Women feel chronically less powerful than men, so this is not surprising. But the other thing I noticed is that it also seemed to be related to the extent to which the students were participating, and how well they were participating. And this is really important in the MBA classroom, because participation counts for half the grade.当我在课堂上观察这种现象时,你猜我发现什么?我发现MBA的学生真的很会充分利用肢体语言,你会看到有些人像是统治者。走进房间,课程开始之前一屁股坐在正中间,好像他们真的很想占据整个教室似的,当他们坐下的时候,身体会展开,像这样举手。有些人则不然,他们一走进来你就会发现,从他们的脸和身体你会发现,他们坐在椅子上的时候把自己变得很萎靡,然后举手的时候是这种姿势。我观察到很多事情,其中一件,不令人惊讶,就是跟性别差异有关,女人比男人更容易出现这种状况,女人一般比较容易比男人感到无力,这并不太令人意外。然而我发现的另一件事是,这似乎也跟学生参与的程度高低有关,就MBA的课来说这真的非常重要。因为课堂参与程度要占成绩的一半。So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap. You get these equally qualified women and men coming in and then you get these differences in grades, and it seems to be partly attributable to participation. So I started to wonder, you know, okay, so you have these people coming in like this, and they#39;re participating. Is it possible that we could get people to fake it and would it lead them to participate more?所以商学院一直以来都为此伤脑筋,入学的时候男生女生都是一样优秀的,可是成绩出来却有这些性别差异,而看起来却有一部分原因和参与度有关。所以我开始思索,好吧,这群人一开始进来是这样,他们参与其中,那有没有可能让大家来假装,让他们更加参与进来?So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who#39;s at Berkeley, and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it? Like, can you do this just for a little while and actually experience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful? So we know that our nonverbals govern how other people think and feel about us. There#39;s a lot of evidence. But our question really was, do our nonverbals govern how we think and feel about ourselves?我在Berkeley的主要合作研究伙伴,Dana Carney。我很想知道,你能假装直到你成功吗?譬如说,只做一下下然后就体验到一个,让你感到更加充满力量的结果,所以得知非语言表达如何掌控他人对我们的想法和感受。有很多据可以明。但我们的问题是,我们非语言的部分是否真的掌控我们对自己的想法和感受?There#39;s some evidence that they do. So, for example, we smile when we feel happy, but also, when we#39;re forced to smile by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes us feel happy. So it goes both ways. When it comes to power, it also goes both ways. So when you feel powerful, you#39;re more likely to do this, but it#39;s also possible that when you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely to actually feel powerful.这里确实有些据可以表明。举例来说,当我们高兴的时候我们会笑,但同样地,当我们含着一只笔练习笑容的时候,我们也会感到开心。这说明这是相互的。说到力量的时候亦是如此。所以当我们感到充满力量的时候,你更加可能会这样做,但你也可能假装自己很有力量,然后真的感到力量强大。So the second question really was, you know, so we know that our minds change our bodies, but is it also true that our bodies change our minds? And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, what am I talking about? So I#39;m talking about thoughts and feelings and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, and in my case, that#39;s hormones. I look at hormones. So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless look like? So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly, more assertive and more confident, more optimistic. They actually feel that they#39;re going to win even at games of chance. They also tend to be able to think more abstractly. So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks. There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people. Physiologically, there also are differences on two key hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone, and cortisol, which is the stress hormone. So what we find is that high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies have high testosterone and low cortisol, and powerful and effective leaders also have high testosterone and low cortisol. So what does that mean? When you think about power, people tended to think only about testosterone, because that was about dominance. But really, power is also about how you react to stress. So do you want the high-power leader that#39;s dominant, high on testosterone, but really stress reactive? Probably not, right? You want the person who#39;s powerful and assertive and dominant, but not very stress reactive, the person who#39;s laid back.那第二个问题就是,你看,我们知道心理状态会影响我们的身体 那身体是否能影响心理呢?这里所说的心理充满力量究竟指的是什么?我指的是想法和感觉。和可以组成我们想法和感受的实际事物,我这里是指荷尔蒙。我指的是这个。充满力量和没有力量的心智是什么样的呢? 毫不令人意外,心理坚强的人往往比较果断,自信,且乐观,就连在赌注里也觉得他们会赢,他们也倾向于能够抽象地思考,所以这其中有很大区别。他们更敢于冒险。充满力量与否的心智二者存有许多不同,生理上两个关键的贺尔蒙,睾丸酮,是一种配荷尔蒙;可的松,是一种压力荷尔蒙。我们发现灵长类的雄性首领有高浓度的睪丸酮和低浓度的可的松,相同情形也在强而有力的领导人身上可见。这表示什么?当你想到力量,人们往往只想到睪丸酮,因为它代表配统治,但力量其实是在于你如何应对压力,所以你会想要一个有着很高浓度的睪丸酮但同时又高度紧张的领导吗?大概不会是吧?你会希望那个人是充满力量,肯定果断且知道如何配,但不是非常紧张,或是懒洋洋的。So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha needs to take over, if an individual needs to take over an alpha role sort of suddenly, within a few days, that individual#39;s testosterone has gone up significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly. So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape the mind, at least at the facial level, and also that role changes can shape the mind. So what happens, okay, you take a role change, what happens if you do that at a really minimal level, like this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention? ;For two minutes,; you say, ;I want you to stand like this, and it#39;s going to make you feel more powerful.;灵长类动物的金字塔里,如果一个首领想要掌控这个种群,或取代原先的首领,几天之内,那一方体内的睪丸酮会大大地上升,而其可的松会剧烈地下降,身体影响心理之例,由此可见一斑。至少就表面而言是如此。同时角色的转换也会影响心智。所以,如果你改变角色,就一个小改变,像这样一个小小的操作,这样一个小小的干预?“持续两分钟”你说,“我要你们这样站着, 它会让你感到更加充满力量。”So this is what we did. We decided to bring people into the lab and run a little experiment, and these people adopted, for two minutes, either high-power poses or low-power poses, and I#39;m just going to show you five of the poses, although they took on only two. So here#39;s one. A couple more. This one has been dubbed the ;Wonder Woman; by the media. Here are a couple more. So you can be standing or you can be sitting. And here are the low-power poses. So you#39;re folding up, you#39;re making yourself small. This one is very low-power. When you#39;re touching your neck, you#39;re really protecting yourself. So this is what happens. They come in, they spit into a vial, we for two minutes say, ;You need to do this or this.; They don#39;t look at pictures of the poses. We don#39;t want to prime them with a concept of power. We want them to be feeling power, right? So two minutes they do this. We then ask them, ;How powerful do you feel?; on a series of items, and then we give them an opportunity to gamble, and then we take another saliva sample. That#39;s it. That#39;s the whole experiment.我们是这样做的。我们决定将人们带进实验室,做一个小实验。这些人将维持有力或无力的姿势两分钟,然后我就会告诉你。这五种姿势,虽然他们只做了两种,这是其一,看看这些,这个被媒体取名为 ;神力女超人; 还有这些,或站或坐,这些是无力的姿势,你双手交叉,试着让自己变小一点,这是非常无力的一张,当你在摸你的脖子,你其实在保护自己。实际的状况是,他们进来取出唾液,维持一个姿势达两分钟,他们不会看到姿势的照片,因为我们不想要影响他们,我们希望他们自己感觉到力量不是吗?所以他们做了整整两分钟,我们关于一些事物问:“现在你觉得自己多有力量?”受试者接着会有一个奕的机会,接着再取得唾液范本,这就是整个实验。So this is what we find. Risk tolerance, which is the gambling, what we find is that when you#39;re in the high-power pose condition, 86 percent of you will gamble. When you#39;re in the low-power pose condition, only 60 percent, and that#39;s a pretty whopping significant difference. Here#39;s what we find on testosterone. From their baseline when they come in, high-power people experience about a 20-percent increase, and low-power people experience about a 10-percent decrease. So again, two minutes, and you get these changes. Here#39;s what you get on cortisol. High-power people experience about a 25-percent decrease, and the low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase. So two minutes lead to these hormonal changes that configure your brain to basically be either assertive, confident and comfortable, or really stress-reactive, and, you know, feeling sort of shut down. And we#39;ve all had the feeling, right? So it seems that our nonverbals do govern how we think and feel about ourselves, so it#39;s not just others, but it#39;s also ourselves. Also, our bodies change our minds.我们发现到风险承担能力,也就是在时,当处于强有力的姿势的时,86%的人会选择,相对处于一个较无力的姿势时,只有60%的人,这真是很令人惊讶的差异。就睪丸酮而言我们发现,这些人进来的那一刻起,有力量的那些人会有20%的提高,无力的人则下降10%。所以,再次地,当你有这些改变,有力的人可的松下降25%, 而无力的人可的松则上升15%。两分钟可以让这些荷尔蒙改变使你的脑袋变得果断、自信和自在,或高度紧张以及感到与世隔绝,我们都曾有过这些体验对吗?看来非语言确实掌控我们对自己的想法和感受,不只是别人,更是我们自己。同时,我们的身体可以改变我们的心理。But the next question, of course, is can power posing for a few minutes really change your life in meaningful ways? So this is in the lab. It#39;s this little task, you know, it#39;s just a couple of minutes. Where can you actually apply this? Which we cared about, of course. And so we think it#39;s really, what matters, I mean, where you want to use this is evaluative situations like social threat situations. Where are you being evaluated, either by your friends? Like for teenagers it#39;s at the lunchroom table. It could be, you know, for some people it#39;s speaking at a school board meeting. It might be giving a pitch or giving a talk like this or doing a job interview. We decided that the one that most people could relate to because most people had been through was the job interview.但下一个问题,当然,就是维持数分钟的姿势,是否真能引导一个更有意义的人生呢?刚刚都只是在实验室里,一个小实验,你知道的只有几分钟。你要怎么实现这一切呢?落实在我们关心的地方呢?我们关心的其实是,我是说,你在那里可以用这些技巧去评估时势,像是社交威胁的情形。譬如说你被人打量时?或者是青少年吃午餐的时候,你知道,对有些人来说就好像在开学校的董事会。有时候是一个小演讲,有时是像这种讲演,或是工作面试时,我们后来决定用一个最多人能做比较的,因为大部分人都曾经面试工作过。So we published these findings, and the media are all over it, and they say, Okay, so this is what you do when you go in for the job interview, right? (Laughter) You know, so we were of course horrified, and said, Oh my God, no, no, no, that#39;s not what we meant at all. For numerous reasons, no, no, no, don#39;t do that. Again, this is not about you talking to other people. It#39;s you talking to yourself. What do you do before you go into a job interview? You do this. Right? You#39;re sitting down. You#39;re looking at your iPhone -- or your Android, not trying to leave anyone out. You are, you know, you#39;re looking at your notes, you#39;re hunching up, making yourself small, when really what you should be doing maybe is this, like, in the bathroom, right? Do that. Find two minutes. So that#39;s what we want to test. Okay? So we bring people into a lab, and they do either high- or low-power poses again, they go through a very stressful job interview. It#39;s five minutes long. They are being recorded. They#39;re being judged also, and the judges are trained to give no nonverbal feedback, so they look like this. Like, imagine this is the person interviewing you. So for five minutes, nothing, and this is worse than being heckled. People hate this. It#39;s what Marianne LaFrance calls ;standing in social quicksand.; So this really spikes your cortisol. So this is the job interview we put them through, because we really wanted to see what happened. We then have these coders look at these tapes, four of them. They#39;re blind to the hypothesis. They#39;re blind to the conditions. They have no idea who#39;s been posing in what pose, and they end up looking at these sets of tapes, and they say, ;Oh, we want to hire these people,; -- all the high-power posers -- ;we don#39;t want to hire these people. We also evaluate these people much more positively overall.; But what#39;s driving it? It#39;s not about the content of the speech. It#39;s about the presence that they#39;re bringing to the speech. We also, because we rate them on all these variables related to competence, like, how well-structured is the speech? How good is it? What are their qualifications? No effect on those things. This is what#39;s affected. These kinds of things. People are bringing their true selves, basically. They#39;re bringing themselves. They bring their ideas, but as themselves, with no, you know, residue over them. So this is what#39;s driving the effect, or mediating the effect.我们将这些发现发表出来,接着媒体就大量曝光说,好,所以你去面试时,你得这样做,对吧?(笑声) 我们当然大吃一惊,表示我的天啊,不不不,我们不是这个意思。不管什么原因,不不,千万别这么做,这和你跟别人交谈无关,这是你在和你自己交谈,你在面试工作之前会怎么做?你会这样,对吧?你会做下来,你盯着自己的iphone或者安卓,转移自己的视线,你看着自己的笔记,你把自己蜷缩起来,试着让自己变得小一点,你真正需要做的应该是找个浴室,然后这样,花个两分钟,所以我们想做的是这个,把人带进实验室,他们再次保持有力或无力姿势,接着进行一个高度压力的面试,为时五分钟。所有都会被记录下来,同时也会被,而这些考官都接受过训练,不会给予任何非语言的反馈,所以他们看起来就像这样,像图上所示,想象一下,这个人正在面试你,整整五分钟,什么都没有,这比刁难诘问更难受,大家都不喜欢这种方式。这就是Marianne LaFrance所谓的 ;陷入社交流沙中; 这可以大大激发你的可的松,我们给予受试者这样的面试,因为我们真的想看看会有什么样的结果,接着我们得出下列四种结果,受试者不知假设前提和状况下,没有人知道谁摆什么样的姿势,接着他们观看这些带子,然后他们说,“噢,我们想要录用这些人”——那些摆强有力姿势的人——“这些人我们不想录用”,我们也评量这群人整体而言更正面,但背后的原因是什么?这跟演讲的内容无关,而是他们在演讲中带出来的存在感,同时,我们也就这些关于能力的变动因素评价他们,像是演讲的整体架构怎样?它有多棒?演讲者的照学历?这些全都无关。有影响的是这些事。基本上人们表达真实的自己,就他们自己,他们的想法,当他们心里没有芥蒂,这就是背后真实的力量,或者可以说是计划的结果。So when I tell people about this, that our bodies change our minds and our minds can change our behavior, and our behavior can change our outcomes, they say to me, ;I don#39;t -- It feels fake.; Right? So I said, fake it till you make it. I don#39;t -- It#39;s not me. I don#39;t want to get there and then still feel like a fraud. I don#39;t want to feel like an impostor. I don#39;t want to get there only to feel like I#39;m not supposed to be here. And that really resonated with me, because I want to tell you a little story about being an impostor and feeling like I#39;m not supposed to be here.所以当我告诉人们,我们的身体会改变心理,心理会改变行为,而行为会改变结果,他们跟我说“我不这么觉得——听起来好像是假的”对吗?我就说,你就假装一直到你达成目的为止。不是我啦,我不想要到达到那个目标后仍然感觉像是一个骗局,我不想要成为一个骗子,我一点也不想达到那个目标才发觉我不应该如此,我真是有感而发的。这里跟大家分享一个小故事,关于成为一个骗子然后感到不应该在这里的故事。When I was 19, I was in a really bad car accident. I was thrown out of a car, rolled several times. I was thrown from the car. And I woke up in a head injury rehab ward, and I had been withdrawn from college, and I learned that my I.Q. had dropped by two standard deviations, which was very traumatic. I knew my I.Q. because I had identified with being smart, and I had been called gifted as a child. So I#39;m taken out of college, I keep trying to go back. They say, ;You#39;re not going to finish college. Just, you know, there are other things for you to do, but that#39;s not going to work out for you.; So I really struggled with this, and I have to say, having your identity taken from you, your core identity, and for me it was being smart, having that taken from you, there#39;s nothing that leaves you feeling more powerless than that. So I felt entirely powerless. I worked and worked and worked, and I got lucky, and worked, and got lucky, and worked.在我19岁的时候,发生了一场很严重的车祸。我整个人飞出车外,滚了好几翻,我是弹出车外的,之后在休息室醒来以后发现头部重伤,我从大学里休学,别人告知我智商下降了2个标准差,情况非常非常糟糕,我知道我的智商应该是多少,因为我以前被人家认为是很聪明的那种,小时候大家都觉得我很有才华。当我离开大学时,我试着回去,他们都告诉我说,“你没有办法毕业的。你知道,你还可以做很多其它的事啊,别往死胡同里钻了。”我死命挣扎,我必须承认,当你的认同感被剥夺的时候,那个主要的身分认同,就我而言是我的智力被夺走了,再没有比这个更加无助的时候了,我感到完全的无助,我拼命地疯狂地努力,幸运眷顾,努力,幸运眷顾,再努力。Eventually I graduated from college. It took me four years longer than my peers, and I convinced someone, my angel advisor, Susan Fiske, to take me on, and so I ended up at Princeton, and I was like, I am not supposed to be here. I am an impostor. And the night before my first-year talk, and the first-year talk at Princeton is a 20-minute talk to 20 people. That#39;s it. I was so afraid of being found out the next day that I called her and said, ;I#39;m quitting.; She was like, ;You are not quitting, because I took a gamble on you, and you#39;re staying. You#39;re going to stay, and this is what you#39;re going to do. You are going to fake it. You#39;re going to do every talk that you ever get asked to do. You#39;re just going to do it and do it and do it, even if you#39;re terrified and just paralyzed and having an out-of-body experience, until you have this moment where you say, #39;Oh my gosh, I#39;m doing it. Like, I have become this. I am actually doing this.#39;; So that#39;s what I did. Five years in grad school, a few years, you know, I#39;m at Northwestern, I moved to Harvard, I#39;m at Harvard, I#39;m not really thinking about it anymore, but for a long time I had been thinking, ;Not supposed to be here. Not supposed to be here.;最终我从学校毕业了。我比同学多花了四年的时间,然后说我的恩师,Susan Fiske让我进去,所以我最后进入了普林斯顿。我当时觉得,我不应该在这里,我是个骗子,在我第一年演讲的那个晚上,普林斯顿第一年的演讲,大约是对20个人做20分钟的演讲。就这样,我当时如此害怕隔天被拆穿,所以我打给她说,“我不干了。”她说:“你不可以不干,因为我赌在你身上了,你得留下。你会留下,你将会留下来了。你要骗过所有人。你被要求的每个演讲你都得照办。你得一直讲一直讲,即使你怕死了,脚瘫了,灵魂出窍了,直到你发现你在说,噢,我的天啊,我正在做这件事,我已经成为它的一部分了,我正在做它。”这就是说所做的,硕士的五年,这些年,我在Northwestern,我后来去了哈佛,我在哈佛,我没有在想到它,但之前有很长一段时间我都在想这件事“不应该在这。不应该在这。”So at the end of my first year at Harvard, a student who had not talked in class the entire semester, who I had said, ;Look, you#39;ve gotta participate or else you#39;re going to fail,; came into my office. I really didn#39;t know her at all. And she said, she came in totally defeated, and she said, ;I#39;m not supposed to be here.; And that was the moment for me. Because two things happened. One was that I realized, oh my gosh, I don#39;t feel like that anymore. You know. I don#39;t feel that anymore, but she does, and I get that feeling. And the second was, she is supposed to be here! Like, she can fake it, she can become it. So I was like, ;Yes, you are! You are supposed to be here! And tomorrow you#39;re going to fake it, you#39;re going to make yourself powerful, and, you know, you#39;re gonna — ; (Applause) (Applause) ;And you#39;re going to go into the classroom, and you are going to give the best comment ever.; You know? And she gave the best comment ever, and people turned around and they were like, oh my God, I didn#39;t even notice her sitting there, you know? (Laughter)所以哈佛第一年结束,我对整个学期在课堂上都没有说话的一个学生说:你得参与融入否则你不会过这一科的,来我的办公室吧。其实我压根就不认识她。她说:她很挫败地进来了,她说“我不应该在这里的。”就在此刻,两件事发生了,我突然明白,天啊,我再也没有这种感觉了。你知道吗。我再也不会有那种感觉,但她有,我能体会到她的感受。第二个想法是,她应该在这里!她可以假装,一直到她成功为止。所以我跟她说,“你当然应该!你应该在这里!”明天起你就假装,你要让自己充满力量,你要知道你将会——”(掌声) (掌声)“你要走进教室,你会发表最棒的。”你知道吗?她就真的发表了最成功的,大家都回过神来,他们就好像:喔我的天啊,我竟没有注意到她坐在那里,你知道吗?(笑声)She comes back to me months later, and I realized that she had not just faked it till she made it, she had actually faked it till she became it. So she had changed. And so I want to say to you, don#39;t fake it till you make it. Fake it till you become it. You know? It#39;s not — Do it enough until you actually become it and internalize.几个月后她来找我,我才明白,她不仅只是假装到她成功为止,她已经融会贯通了,整个人脱胎换骨。我想对大家说,不要仅为了成功而假装,要把它溶到你骨子里去。知道吗?持续地做直到它内化到你的骨髓里。The last thing I#39;m going to leave you with is this. Tiny tweaks can lead to big changes. So this is two minutes. Two minutes, two minutes, two minutes. Before you go into the next stressful evaluative situation, for two minutes, try doing this, in the elevator, in a bathroom stall, at your desk behind closed doors. That#39;s what you want to do. Configure your brain to cope the best in that situation. Get your testosterone up. Get your cortisol down. Don#39;t leave that situation feeling like, oh, I didn#39;t show them who I am. Leave that situation feeling like, oh, I really feel like I got to say who I am and show who I am.最后与大家分享的是,小小的调整可以有大大的改变。就两分钟,两分钟,两分钟,两分钟。在你进行下一场紧张的评估之前,拿出两分钟,尝试做这个,电梯里、浴室间,房门关起在你的桌子前面,你就这么做,设置你的脑袋,以发挥最大效益,提升你的睪丸铜,降低你的可的松,千万别留下“噢,我没把最好的表现出来”的那种遗憾,而是留下“噢,我真想让他们知道,让他们看见,我是个怎样的人”的印象。So I want to ask you first, you know, both to try power posing, and also I want to ask you to share the science, because this is simple. I don#39;t have ego involved in this. (Laughter) Give it away. Share it with people, because the people who can use it the most are the ones with no resources and no technology and no status and no power. Give it to them because they can do it in private. They need their bodies, privacy and two minutes, and it can significantly change the outcomes of their life. Thank you. (Applause) (Applause)在这里我想要求大家,你知道的,尝试这有力的姿势,同时也想请求各位把这项科学分享出去,因为它很简单,我可不是自尊心的问题喔(笑声)。放开它。和人分享,因为最经常可以使用它的人会是那些没有资源和技术的一群人,没有社会地位和权势。把这个传达给他们,好让他们可以私下这样做,他们会需要他们的身体、隐私和那两分钟,然后这会大大地改变他们生活的结果。谢谢(掌声) (掌声) /201302/224550

  Video games, long maligned for promoting violence, may also have a good side: improving eyesight. Gory ;first-person shooter; games, in which players must act quickly to kill their virtual opponents, seem to have lasting effects on a key aspect of vision, a new study shows.长期以来,视频游戏由于助长暴力而声名狼藉。然而,或许视频游戏也有其积极的一面:可以提高视力。一项新研究显示:在血淋淋的“第一人称射击”类游戏中,玩家必须反应迅速才能杀死他们的虚拟对手,这似乎对于视力的一个主要方面有着持续的积极影响。In 2002, Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive neuroscientist at the University of Rochester in New York state, found that playing action games improved visual attention skills (ScienceNOW, 18 April 2002). This time she compared avid gamers with nongamers on a type of visual perception called contrast sensitivity. It allows people to make out objects in dim lighting and to distinguish objects from a busy background.2002年,纽约州罗彻斯特大学的认知神经科学专家达芙妮·贝弗利尔发现,玩视频战斗游戏可以提高视觉注意力。这次她将贪玩游戏的人和不玩游戏的人进行了对比,比较了一种被称为“对比敏感度”的视觉指标。对比敏感度可以使人们辨认出暗淡光线中的物体,还可以使人们能够从忙乱的背景中区分物体。Male gamers in their late teens and 20s, Bavelier found in a pilot study, performed significantly better than nongamers in the same demographic. To determine whether games explained this difference, she and colleagues designed a game boot camp in which 50 adult volunteers each played 50 hours of games over a 9-week period. Half of the participants played two first-person-shooter action games, Unreal Tournament and Call of Duty 2, in which players must quickly detect and kill enemies to avoid being killed themselves. Meanwhile, the control group played The Sims 2, a ;casual; simulation game that requires a great deal of observation and strategy but at a very leisurely pace. The subjects were tested for contrast sensitivity before and after the training.在一项初步研究中,贝弗利尔发现:十大几岁和20多岁的男性玩家比同一年龄段不玩游戏的男性在对比敏感度方面的表现要好得多。为了确定是否视频游戏造成了这种差别,贝弗利尔和同事设计了一个“视频游戏集中训练营”,训练营里的50个成年志愿者在9周的时间里每人玩50个小时的视频游戏。其中一半参与者玩两种“第一人称射击”类战斗游戏——“虚幻竞技场”和“使命召唤2”,在这两种游戏中,玩家必须迅速地侦查出敌人并将其杀掉,才能避免自己遭到杀害;同时另外一半参与者玩一种叫做“模拟人生2”的游戏,该游戏是一种“随意的”模拟游戏,玩时需要大量的观察,并且需要讲究策略,但是可以以缓慢的速度进行。在训练之前和之后,为参与者测试了对比敏感度。Those who played the action games showed a roughly 50% improvement in performance on the contrast-sensitivity test, whereas the control group showed no significant improvement, the team reports this week in Nature Neuroscience. Later testing of 18 of the subjects showed that the improvement had not disappeared after several months--even though these subjects said they had not changed their game habits. Bavelier chalks up the change to ;neural plasticity ;--the ability of our brains to rewire themselves to more efficiently visually process the life-or-death scenes in action games.研究小组在本周出版的《自然-神经学》(Nature Neuroscience)杂志上报道:在对比敏感度测试中,那些玩视频战斗游戏的人成绩提高了大约50%,而对照组则根本没有明显的提高。后来,对其中18个受试者的进一步测试显示:即使他们声称并没有改变自己的视频游戏习惯,但是对比敏感度的提高在几个月之后仍未消失。贝弗利尔将这种提高归因于“神经可塑性”——大脑神经本身一种重新连接的能力,这种能力可以使人们在视觉上更为高效地处理视频战斗游戏中那些生死攸关的场面。;The results are convincing, ; says Dennis Levi, dean of the School of Optometry at the University of California, Berkeley. ;While we don#39;t yet understand how playing action games enhances visual processing, the very promising aspect of this is that it may provide a new method for treating patients.; People with amblyopia --or ;lazy eye;--suffer a severe loss of contrast sensitivity, and a regimen of action games could complement other treatments, Levi says. The next step will be to test action games that do not involve guns and mayhem.“这些研究结果很令人信,”加州大学伯克利分校视光学院院长丹尼斯·利瓦伊说,“虽说我们还不明白视频战斗游戏是如何提高视觉处理能力的,但该研究非常有前途的一个方面是它可以为病人提供新的治疗方法。”利瓦伊指出:患有弱视的人们,其对比敏感度严重缺失,接受正规的视频战斗游戏训练可以作为其他治疗方案的补充。下一步将要对不涉及和严重伤害的视频打斗游戏进行测试。 /201304/236115

  There#39;s no question that cilantro is a polarizing herb. Some of us heap it onto salsas and soups with gusto while others avoid cilantro because it smells like soap and tastes like crushed bugs.毋庸置疑,香菜受到了两种最为极端的对待:喜欢它的人会把成堆的香菜放到沙拉和汤里,而讨厌它的人却觉得香菜闻着像肥皂,尝起来像是在嚼臭虫。A large chunk of the US population—including the likes of culinary goddess Julia Child—have claimed that it tastes offensive. Kinda like soap, in fact. It sps further than these shores, too: a recent survey suggested that 21 percent of east Asians, 17 percent of Europeans, and 14 percent of people of African descent all claim to be repulsed by the stuff.包括著名厨师朱莉娅·查尔德在内的许多美国人都不喜爱香菜散发出的肥皂一样的味道。但实际上并非只有美国人这样认为,最近一项调查显示,21%的东亚人、17%的欧洲人和14%的非洲人都说他们讨厌这种蔬菜。But what separates the cilantro lovers from the haters? Is it hard-wired in our genes, as Harold McGee suggested a few years ago in the New York Times? It#39;s probably not so simple.但为什么有人对香菜爱得要死,有人却避之不及呢?是像食物专家哈洛德·麦基几年前在《纽约时报》上撰文说的那样,我们体内的基因决定对香菜的喜好吗?也许并没有那么简单。Geneticists at 23andMe in California asked about 25,000 people whether they like cilantro or think it smells soapy. When they searched the people#39;s DNA for regions that correlate with a distaste for the herb, a single spot jumped out. And, it sits right next to a cluster of odor-detecting genes, including one that is known to specifically recognize the soapy aromas in cilantro#39;s bouquet.位于加州的个人基因信息网站23andMe曾调查过25000人,问他们是否认为香菜闻着像肥皂。当网站的基因学家研究DNA,看是否有专门控制排斥香菜的基因位点时,他们找到了一个点,而且这个位点就在嗅觉检验基因簇的旁边,将香菜的味道归入肥皂味的基因也位于这个基因簇中。The strongest variant lies within a cluster of olfactory-receptor genes—part of the genome which influences our sense of smell. Buried within that cluster is a gene called OR6A2, which encodes a receptor that makes people sensitive to the aldehyde chemicals contributing to cilantro#39;s characteristic flavor.在这簇嗅觉受体基因中,有一称作OR6A2的最强变体,它负责编码一种受体基因,能使人们对香菜特殊气味的醛类物质异常敏感。But, ;it didn#39;t make a huge a difference in cilantro preference from person to person,; Nicholas Eriksson, the lead author on the study says. In fact, their results suggest that a hatred for cilantro has only a small underlying genetic component. He and his team just published their findings on the arXiv.org.不过该研究的主要作者尼古拉斯·埃里克森告诉记者:“个人对香菜的喜好和这个基因的关系并不大。”实际上,这个研究表明,基因组成只是某些人反感香菜的一小部分原因。埃里克森和他团队的这一研究已经发表在arXiv.org网站上。The scientists pinpointed three more genes that influence our perception of cilantro: Two of the genes are involved with tasting bitter foods and one gene detects pungent compounds, like those in wasabi.通过研究,这些科学家又指出三个影响我们对香菜接受度的基因。其中有两个和品尝苦味有关,第三个和探测类似芥末的刺激性气味有关。Overall, Eriksson says these studies demonstrate that DNA does shape our opinion of cilantro, but probably not enough that we can#39;t overcome it. ;It isn#39;t like your height, that you#39;re stuck with. People can change it,; he says.总之,埃里克森认为,虽然DNA的确会影响人们对香菜的好恶,但却还在可控范围内。他说:“这并不像你的身高一样,一旦定型就不可改变。我们还是可以改变对香菜的看法的。”As Nature reports, McGee offers a strategy for building up an appreciation for the herb: Try a cilantro pesto. Crushing the leaves, he says, releases enzymes that convert the soapy, stinky compounds into more mild aromas.根据《自然杂志》的报道,麦基为我们提供了一个接受香菜的食谱:香菜蒜香酱。把香菜的叶子捣碎,这样香菜就能释放出多种酶,把刺鼻的肥皂味变成更轻微的香气。But Julia Child, an avowed cilantro hater, said she would just pick it out and throw it on the floor, Nature reports.不过《自然杂志》也报道,查尔德依然坚定地站在反对香菜的阵营里,她说她更愿意把香菜挑出来扔到地上。 /201305/240212。

  

  

  

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