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The Swiss have voted decisively against state-provided unconditional “basic incomes” in a setback for a growing international lobby that argues such radical schemes are needed to overhaul inefficient welfare systems.瑞士人在全民公投中高票否决由国家提供无条件“基本收入”的建议,这对一个声音越来越响亮的国际游说阵营是一个挫折;这个阵营主张,当今社会需要用这样的激进计划来改革效率低下的福利制度。Just 23 per cent in a referendum on Sunday favoured the idea of minimum incomes, regardless of the recipients’ wealth or whether they worked.在周日举行的全民公投中,仅23%的瑞士人赞成这种保障最低收入(不论接收者的财富多少,也不论他们是否工作)的想法。Supporters said the vote was stronger than they had expected, however. “This is a beginning,” said Che Wagner, campaign spokesman. Winning the backing of nearly one in four voters was “absolutely great#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Especially, young voters want the discussion to continue”.不过,持者们表示,投票结果仍超过他们的预期。“这是一个开端,”提倡基本收入运动的发言人切#8226;瓦格纳(Che Wagner)表示。获得近四分之一选民的持“绝对很棒……尤其是年轻选民希望相关讨论继续进行”。The goal of the campaign had been to “educate” people in Switzerland and elsewhere about basic incomes, said Karl Widerquist, co-chairman of the Basic Income Earth Network. “In terms of getting it on the agenda, it is a great success.”基本收入地球网络(Basic Income Earth Network)的联合主席卡尔#8226;怀德克斯特(Karl Widerquist)表示,这个宣传活动的目标是“教育”瑞士乃至其他国家的人们关于基本收入的理念。“就把这件事提上议事日程而言,这是一个巨大的成功。”Sunday’s referendum was closely watched internationally. As one of the world’s most affluent economies, Switzerland could arguably have afforded unconditional basic incomes more easily than other countries. The country requires just 100,000 signatures for an idea to be put to a referendum.周日的瑞士公投在国际间受到密切关注。作为世界上最富裕的经济体之一,瑞士可以说比其他国家更有能力提供无条件基本收入。在这个国家,只需要获得10万签名就能让一个想法付诸全民公投。However, Swiss employment rates are high — and the strong franc rather than technological change is seen as the bigger threat to local jobs. “People didn’t see a need for such a radical, dramatic experiment,” said Daniel Kalt, chief economist in Switzerland at UBS.然而,瑞士的就业率很高,而且,比起技术变革,强劲的瑞郎被视为当地就业面临的更大威胁。“人们看不出这样一个激进的、剧烈的实验有什么必要,”瑞银(UBS)的瑞士首席经济学家丹尼尔#8226;卡尔特(Daniel Kalt)表示。The Swiss government strongly opposed the idea — on cost as well as practical grounds. It estimated a basic income of SFr2,500 (,560) per adult a month would have cost three times as much as current annual federal government spending of SFr67bn a year.瑞士政府强烈反对这个想法——基于成本以及现实理由。其估计,向每个成年人每月发放2500瑞郎(合2560美元)的基本收入,成本将是目前联邦政府年度出(670亿瑞郎)的三倍。Even then, it would not have replaced all existing social services, such as healthcare for the elderly.即便如此,基本收入也不会取代所有现有的社会务,如面向老年人的医疗保障。Once the preserve of radical economists, the idea of governments providing basic incomes has moved into the political mainstream in recent years. Backers argue it could help manage the social disruption caused by rapid technological change, allow people to pursue what they really want to do, and get rid of the complexity of existing benefit systems.由政府提供基本收入的想法一度仅限于激进经济学家的理论范畴,但近年已进入政治主流。持者提出,它可能有助于管理快速技术变革所引起的社会混乱,让人们去追求他们真正想做的事,同时一举扫除现有福利制度的复杂性。In Brazil, Canada, Finland, the Netherlands and India, local and national governments are experimenting with the idea of introducing some form of basic income.在巴西、加拿大、芬兰、荷兰和印度,地方和中央政府都在试验某种形式的基本收入。However, the idea also attracts criticism, with opponents arguing recipients would lose the motivation to work.然而,这个想法也招致批评,反对者辩称,基本收入将让接收者失去工作动力。 /201606/448018The China Railway Corporation (CRC) announced last Monday that its ;China Standard; bullet trains, also known as electric multiple units (EMUs), have started operation in Liaoning.中国铁路总公司上周一宣布,中国标准动车组已开始在辽宁运行,动车组又称多编组电力列车。The China Railway Corporation announced that Train No G8041 departed from Dalian for Shenyang, capital of northeast China#39;s Liaoning.中国铁路总公司宣布G8041班列车从大连开往中国东北部辽宁省的省会沈阳市。It is the first passenger service using China Standard EMU trains, said Zhou Li, head of technological management at the CRC.中国铁总科技管理部主任周黎表示,这是中国标准动车组列车首次进行客运务。;China independently owns the design of the EMU, and it will be a leading model for China to export to the world,; Zhou said.周黎主任说道:“该动车组由中国自主设计,将成为中国向世界出口的先进车型。”China has developed its high-speed technology in recent years modelled on Japan and Germany bullet train technologies and rapidly expanded their network to improve connectivity.最近几年,中国通过效仿日德子弹头列车技术开发了自己的高速技术,并大力扩展高铁网络以提高各地区的联系。The China Standard EMU uses the latest exterior design, reduces energy consumption, and adopts a standard parts design. It has reinforced safety features compared with old models.中国标准动车组采用最新外观设计,降低能耗,并采用统一零部件设计,与旧型相比安全功能有所加强。The trains can touch a speed of 350 kilometers per hour, state-run Xinhua news agency reported. Currently, China#39;s high-speed trains clocks around 280 kmph.据新华社报道,这种列车时速可达350公里。目前中国高铁时速在280公里左右。 /201608/462563

The UK arm of Russia’s state-owned international broadcaster RT has had its British bank accounts shut down, prompting accusations from Moscow that London is attacking free speech.俄罗斯国有国际广播机构“今日俄罗斯”(RT)的英国分在英国开立的账户被关闭,此举促使莫斯科指责伦敦攻击言论自由。Margarita Simonyan, editor-in-chief of RT — which broadcasts a pro-Kremlin alternative to “mainstream” media in the UK and other countries — said NatWest Bank had frozen all the channel’s British accounts.播出有别于英国和其他国家“主流”媒体的亲克里姆林宫内容的RT的主编玛加丽塔#8226;西蒙尼扬(Margarita Simonyan)表示,英国国民西敏寺(NatWest Bank)冻结了该频道的所有英国账户。“It’s completely obvious that this is a political decision and a result of the wild pressure on RT in Europe and Britain recently,” she said in a statement. “There are open calls to boycott our channel, to close it and to prevent its work in every way.”“完全显而易见的是,这是一个政治决定,是RT最近在在欧洲和英国承受的野蛮压力的结果,”她在一份声明中表示,“有人公开呼吁抵制我们的频道,关闭它,以一切方式阻止它的工作。”Ms Simonyan said the freeze would not affect RT’s UK broadcasting operations. But the suspension of the accounts could worsen aly acrimonious relations between Moscow and London, with some analysts warning that Russia could retaliate against UK media offices there.西蒙尼扬说,账户被冻结不会影响RT的英国广播业务。但是,此举可能会使莫斯科和伦敦之间本已不好的关系进一步恶化。一些分析人士警告称,俄罗斯可能对英国媒体驻该国的办事处报复。News of the freeze came after Washington and London indicated at the weekend that they were looking at possible new sanctions against Moscow over its actions in Syria.冻结账户的消息传出之前,华盛顿和伦敦在刚刚过去的周末表示,他们正在研究针对莫斯科在叙利亚的行动实施新制裁的可能性。Boris Johnson, UK foreign secretary, suggested Russia’s bombing of rebel-held eastern Aleppo was a war crime. He enraged Moscow last week when he called for antiwar demonstrations outside the Russian embassy in London.英国外交大臣鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)提出,俄罗斯轰炸叛军控制的阿勒颇(Aleppo)东部是一宗战争罪。上周他呼吁反战示威者到俄罗斯驻伦敦大使馆外面去示威,此举激怒了莫斯科。Within hours of the RT news, WikiLeaks claimed that its, founder Julian Assange — a frequent RT contributor now living in Ecuador’s embassy in London — had had his internet connection severed by a “state party”.在RT新闻传出的几小时后,维基解密(WikiLeaks)声称,其创始人朱利安#8226;阿桑奇(Julian Assange)的互联网连接被某个“国家机构”掐断。经常在RT上现身的阿桑奇近年一直躲藏在厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆。“We have activated the appropriate contingency plans,” WikiLeaks tweeted.“我们已经启用了适当的应急计划,”维基解密在Twitter上表示。Last week, RT’s US channel published a story about a WikiLeaks leak of further emails from John Podesta, Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign director, before WikiLeaks posted them to its site and publicised them. RT said it was trawling the WikiLeaks database and found new emails there.上周,RT的美国频道报道称,维基解密将泄露希拉里#8226;克林顿(Hillary Clinton)竞选团队负责人约翰#8226;波德斯塔(John Podesta)的更多电子邮件。随后维基解密将这些邮件发布到网站上,将其公诸于众。RT解释称,它是在查询维基解密数据库时发现新的电子邮件的。RT yesterday released a letter from NatWest informing the broadcaster it had “recently undertaken a review of your banking arrangements with us and reached the conclusion that we will no longer provide these facilities”.RT昨天公开了英国国民西敏寺的一封信,通知该广播机构,该行“最近对贵方在我行的务安排进行了审查,并得出结论,我行将不再提供这些务”。NatWest declined to comment. A source at the UK Treasury said the bank’s move to freeze RT’s accounts did not relate to new sanctions against Russian-owned entities or businesses.英国国民西敏寺拒绝发表。英国财政部的一位消息人士表示,该行冻结RT账户的行动与针对俄罗斯国有实体或企业的新制裁无关。With Russian state-owned entities subject to tight restrictions in the UK, banks have been severing ties with their clients to limit the risk of being hit by huge fines from the authorities.鉴于俄罗斯国有实体在英国受到严格限制,英国各纷纷切断与客户的关系,以控制自己受到当局巨额罚款的风险。But a former senior US intelligence operative said the move to shut down RT’s UK bank account, coupled with the apparent severing of Mr Assange’s internet access, would “certainly be consistent with something that western governments at large would be interested in doing”.但是,美国一位前高级情报特工表示,关闭RT的英国账户,加上阿桑奇的互联网接入显然被切断,“肯定与西方政府有兴趣做出的动作相符”。“It certainly sends a strong message to the Russians,” he said.“这肯定会向俄方发出强有力的信息,”他说。Maria Zakharova, a spokeswoman for the Russian foreign ministry, wrote on Facebook: “It appears that when leaving the EU, London left behind in Europe all its freedom of speech obligations. As they say, start a new life without harmful habits.”俄罗斯外交部发言人玛丽亚#8226;扎哈罗娃(Maria Zakharova)在Facebook上写道:“看起来,在退出欧盟时,伦敦方面把所有言论自由义务留在了欧洲。就像有句话所说的,抛开有害的习惯,开始新的人生。” /201610/472538

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