缅甸星龟喂养养殖指南中医优惠

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原标题: 缅甸星龟喂养养殖指南88分类
But Michael had no consciousness of guilt at all.但迈克尔一点没有内疚感。I saw the original documentary that Mr. B. produced.我看过原来制作的纪录片。I didnt know Michael Jackson at the time,当时我不认识迈克尔·杰克逊,but something seemed very, very manipulative and very sinister about the way he approached Michael Jackson.但他接近迈克尔·杰克逊的方式有些东西看起来非常邪恶,似乎有点手段。And what was proof of that was the naivete Michael displayed in continuing to talk to this man, who clearly,最好的明是天真的迈克尔继续跟这个人聊天,很明显,in my opinion, was bent on destroying his reputation.在我看来,这个人是下定决心要毁掉他的名誉。Tonight, 12-year-old Gavin reveals he spends nights at Neverland, sometimes in Jacksons bed, the star on the floor.今晚,12岁的加文透露他晚上在那弗兰过夜,有时在杰克逊的床上,在地板上画着星星。Next thing, you know, Children Protective Services became involved and different lawyers began asking questions.下一件事是你知道的,儿童保护务涉身其中,不同的律师开始问问题。Tom S. is back in the picture again and the Arvizo family suddenly have decided that Michael had molested Gavin.汤姆再次回忆而阿维左家族突然决定迈克尔已经骚扰加文。Gavin came to Michael and said, Michael, could we sleep in your room tonight? and Michael looked at me and says,加文对迈克尔说:迈克尔,我们今晚可以睡在你的房间吗?而迈克尔看着我说道:I dont know, you know, I think youd better ask your mother.我不知道,你知道,我认为你最好问你的母亲。Oh we aly asked our mother; she says sure, no problem.哦,我们已经问过我们的母亲,她说没问题,没问题。Im like, no, this is…somethings odd.我感觉,不,这有些奇怪。This is not right.这是不对的。And then as I was about to go tell Gavin that he cannot sleep in Michaels room,然后,我要去告诉加文,他不能睡在迈克尔的房间,Michael says, Ok, I have a solution for this. You have to sleep in the room with me. 迈克尔说,好吧,我有一个办法来解决这个。你要和我睡在这个房间。The two children slept on the bed and Michael and I slept on the floor.这两个孩子睡在床上,而迈克尔和我睡在地板上。 201307/248643Books and arts文艺Bookreview书评Civil liberties公民自由Robocops机械战警Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarisation of Americas Police Forces. By Radley Balko.《战警的崛起:美国警力军事化》RADLEY BALKOS writing has long been by people who care about civil liberties.Radley Balko长期以来撰写公民自由类的文章,对这方面感兴趣的读者一定有所耳闻。First for the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank, then for his own blog, “The Agitator”, now part of the Huffington Post, he has written about criminal-justice policy, with a focus on police abuses: not corruption so much as the excesses that have become inherent in ordinary policing.他先供职于有美国自由者智囊团称号的卡托研究所,然后专心撰写自己的客“煽动者”。现在,他是赫芬顿邮报的一名记者,撰写罪犯公正政策类的文章,主要切入点为警察的虐待问题,相对于腐败来说,这个问题是一般执法中固有的问题,而且十分普遍。Mr Balko manages to avoid the clichés of both right and left, and provokes genuine outrage at the misuse of state power in its most brutal and unaccountable form.Balko成功地绕过了左派或右派的陈词滥调,激起民众对公共权力滥用的深刻愤慨。这种渎职行为是极为残酷且无法量化的。Heavily armed police raiding the homes of unarmed, non-violent suspects on the flimsiest of pretexts, and behaving more like an occupying army in hostile territory than guardians of public safety.全副武装的警察闯进手嫌疑犯的家里,这些人无缚鸡之力,仅仅是因为警方臆想的罪责就被当做凶残的恐怖分子一样。这些警察全然没有公共卫士的形象。“Rise of the Warrior Cop”, Mr Balkos interesting first book, explains what policies led to the militarisation of Americas police.Balko第一本有意思的书名为“战警的崛起”,书中介绍了什么样的政策导致了美国警察的军事化。To his credit, he focuses his outrage not on the police themselves, but on politicians and the phoney, wasteful drug war they created.他在书中表示,他并不对警察本身感到愤怒,而是对政治家和制造了无用的毒品战的骗子们感到愤怒。After the obligatory backward glances to the colonial era—in which the sort of social shaming possible only in small, homogeneous communities obviated the need for standing police forces—and the American civil war, Mr Balkos story really begins with the Supreme Courts 1963 ruling in Ker v California, which allowed the police to enter someones home without a warrant and without knocking or announcing themselves.作者必要地回顾了一下殖民地时期,在当时,战警的现象还只是存在于小而均匀的社区中,为的是消除常规警力的必要。同时,书中还回顾了美国的内战时期。而Balko真正要记叙的则是从1963年最高法院的建立开始的。当时的最高法院坐落于加州,法院允许警察不经批准进入居民家中,他们甚至不需要敲门或提前通知。That was the first in a long series of rulings that gutted the Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.这是漫长统治时期中第一个破坏第四修正案中保护无正当理由搜查和逮捕条款的做法。The social upheaval of the 1960s caught the attention of ambitious politicians and led them to focus on crime.1960年的社会动荡使得雄心勃勃的政治家们开始关心并关注犯罪。Daryl Gates, then a rising star in the Los Angeles Police Department, created Americas first SWAT team in 1965.达瑞尔盖兹,当时为洛杉矶警察局轰动一时的新星,他于1965年首创了美国第一特警队。Richard Nixon ran successfully for president on a law-and-order ticket in 1968, bolstered by a “Silent Majority” which, in Mr Balkos view, “began to see a link between drugs, crime, the counter-culture and race”.理查德?尼克松因宣扬严肃法纪,在“沉默的大多数”的持下,于1968年成功当选总统,在Balko看来,也正是那时,当权者看到了“毒品、犯罪、反文化、种族和犯罪的联系”。Ronald Reagan made Nixons drug policies tougher.罗纳德?里根上台后,继续强化尼克松的毒品政策。He dramatically increased both federal involvement in combating drugs and asset forfeiture, which allows law enforcement to seize goods and property believed to be used in crime or, more controversially, purchased with the proceeds of crime.他在抗击毒品和财产没收中大大增加了联邦的干涉权,这就允许执法能够掌握牵涉到犯罪的商品和财产,更乃至犯罪过程中获得的财物。This gave the police an incentive to find connections between property and drug activity, often at the expense of more serious crimes.这更加激励警察们去寻找财产和毒品活动之间的联系,而这样的寻找往往伴随着更多的恶性犯罪。As Mr Balko notes, “Closing a rape or murder case didnt come with a potential kickback to the police department. Knocking off a mid- or low-level drug dealer did.”正如Balko 说的,对警局来说,结束一宗强奸案或谋杀案并没有潜在利益可图,打击一起中低等的毒品交易商才是利益之源。Financial incentives also came through drug-war grants and, after the attacks of September 11th 2001, homeland-security grants that allowed police departments to buy surplus military hardware of dubious utility.资金激励的来源也正是这些毒品案,2001年9月11日的毒品案告破后,警局用获得的本土安全的奖金购买了一大堆不知道什么用的军事硬件。Fargo, North Dakota, has received m in grants to buy goodies such as an armoured truck with a rotating turret—used “mostly for show, including at the annual city picnic, where police parked it near the childrens bouncy castle”.法戈,北达科他州获得了800万美元的奖励,购买了设有旋转炮的装甲车等物品。多数被用来显摆,无论是一年一度的城市野餐还是其他地方,他们一定会停在孩子的充气城堡边。Mr Balko is adept, in “Rise of the Warrior Cop”, at finding outrageous examples of SWAT-team misuse, such as deploying heavily armed police to break up small-stakes poker games, raid fraternity parties suspected of serving alcohol to underage patrons and arrest barbers for operating without licences.Balko是个内行,在“战警的崛起”一书中找到了大量特警队滥用职权的案例。例如,他们调用全副武装的警察来取缔小赌注的扑克赛,因为怀疑慈善晚会向未成年人提供酒类而突袭晚会,以无照经营的名义逮捕理发店员。But he is too dismissive of arguments that stricter policing may have helped produce the remarkable drop in Americas crime rate.但是他严重忽视了一点,就是在这样严苛的政策下,美国的犯罪率确实有了显著下降。Thanks to his book, Americans will be more aware of the costs of those methods.也正是因为他的这本书,美国人更加注意到了这些方法带来的副作用。But they—and he—should also consider possible benefits.但是他和这些人都应该考虑到这些政策也是有所裨益的。 /201404/285513

Buttonwood梧桐树On their own自力更生What explains the surge in self-employment?是什么样的因素导致了自我雇佣现象激增呢?PERHAPS the future belongs to the self-employed. Steady jobs, after all, are hard to find. The idea that a young graduate should expect to work for 40 years with the same employer until retirement seems quaintly dated.或许,未来就是自我雇佣者的天地。毕竟,稳定的工作是很难找的。寄希望于一名年轻的毕业生只为一个雇主工作四十年直到退休,这样的想法是真的过时了。There has been a structural shift towards self-employment on both sides of the Atlantic as well as a cyclical one. In the fourth quarter of 2013, 90% of the new jobs created in Britain were classed as self-employment. Is the shift a sign of a thriving entrepreneurial spirit or an indicator of desperation? Are we talking Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook or Walter White and “Breaking Bad”?在大西洋的东西两岸,自我雇佣的情况均发生了结构性的转变,并且这种变化是周期性的。2013年的第四季度中,英国90%的新工作岗位是被归为自我雇佣类。这样的转变到底意味着一次创业精神的繁荣成长,还是预示着社会绝望感的产生呢?我们现在所面临的情况到底是马克·扎克伯格与他的网络帝国Facebook,还是沃尔特·怀特与“绝命毒师”呢?Answering the question is made harder by the limitations of the data, drawn as they are from a combination of surveys, tax records and registers of company creation. Some people may incorporate as a business in order to reduce their tax bill; others may fail to report their self-employment income as a way of avoiding taxes. Some may play dual roles, having a full-time job but earning money on the side. Still others may be working for their old employer as contractors, rather than for a salary.基于数据的局限性,我们更加难以回答上述问题。前者通常是由问卷调查、缴税记录和公司注册资料所构成的。一些人或许只是为了减少应交税费而联合成立公司;另一些人或许没有报告登记自己的自我雇佣业务收入以逃避税负。部分人或许同时扮演着两种角色,既是一位有全职工作的人,同时也在其他方面赚取外快。还有其他一些人正在为自己的老雇主做事,但并不是以雇员的形式,而是以合约承包商的身份来工作。Desperation must play a part. A paper by Robert Fairlie of the University of California, Santa Cruz found a close link between the unemployment rate in a given American locality and the rate of new business startups. A survey by the Kauffman Foundation found that the rate of new-business creation in America declined last year, even as the economy turned up; as the report comments, there was “less pressure on individuals to start businesses out of necessity”.绝望感肯定是其中一个原因。来自加州大学圣克鲁兹分校的罗伯特·费尔利的论文发现了在给定美国的地点关于失业率和新公司成立的比率的密切联系。一份来自考夫曼基金会的调查结果显示,就算在经济复苏的环境下,去年美国新公司成立的比率出现下降的情况。正如报告里所的一样,“人们不太会觉得有创业的必要性”。Self-employment may be more socially acceptable than it used to be. Middle-class people can call themselves consultants or freelancers, rather than unemployed. The businesses they create are unlikely to be the growth engines of the future. In Britain, by far the fastest growth in recent years has been in businesses that are one-man bands.目前自我雇佣要比从前更容易被社会所接纳。中产阶级的人们能够称自己为咨询顾问或者自由工作者而不是失业者。这样的事业不太可能成为未来经济增长的引擎。在英国,近几年来增长最快的部门是在一人独立公司。The numbers also show self-employed Britons tend to be male, work longer hours than salaried employees and earn less. Indeed, the real wages of the self-employed fell faster than those in contractual employment between 2007 and 2012. This may help to explain why British productivity has grown only sluggishly in recent years. Setting up a new business involves a lot of time tracking down new clients or handling a host of issues that were previously dealt with by a company.数字还显示出自我雇佣的英国人大多为男性,工作的时间比全职工作的员工长而且赚得少。确实,2007年至2012年间,自我雇佣人的真实薪水要比合同制员工下降得更快。这或许能解释为何英国近几年的生产率只提高了一丁点。开创一个新的事业需要花费大量的时间去构建新的客户网以及处理一堆事务,而这些事务本来是由公司去处理的。The new self-employed are also older. British people aged 50 and above comprised five-sixths of the increase in the category between 2008 and 2012. And there has been a rise of 160,000 in the number of self-employed people aged 65 and over since 2007. Some of that may reflect the need to replace shortfalls in pension income.此外,新晋自我雇佣的人们通常是年龄比较大的。英国50岁及以上的人在2008年至2012年间,构成了六分之五新增的自我雇佣人口。与此同时,自2007年起有160000位年龄在65及以上的人进入到自我雇佣的领域。上述的情况也许反映了退休金短缺所带来的工作需求。But these changes are not all negative. The rise of the service economy means it is easier for people aged 65 and over to find jobs that suit them; retirees are fitter than they would have been 40 years ago, when many had been through a long career in manual labour. Getting people to work for longer is the best way of dealing with the costs of an ageing population. In addition, a survey by the Royal Society of Arts suggests that the self-employed are happier than those in paid employment—independence counts for a lot, as does the feeling that ones work has meaning.但这些转变带来的并不全是负面影响。务业经济的增长意味着年龄在65及以上的人更容易找到一份适合的工作;当退休人员已经进行了很长时间的体力劳动工作,他们现在要比40年前更适合从事务业工作。让人们工作的时间延长,是应对人口老龄化所带来的社会福利成本问题的最好方法。除此之外,一份由皇家艺术学会所进行的调查显示,自我雇佣人员要比全职上班的人更加开心-独立所带来的影响是深远的,正如一个人认为工作是有意义时所带来的感受一样。In the long run, this rise in self-employment will raise some interesting macroeconomic and political questions. Does it mean, as Morgan Stanley suggests in a research note, that the labour market is not as robust as it appears; that many people have been forced into self-employment and will happily take a paid job if offered one? That would imply there is still plenty of slack in the labour market and monetary policy can stay looser for longer.长远来看,在自我雇佣领域的增长会引起一些有趣的宏观经济和政治问题。正如根士丹利的一份研究报告所提到的,上述的增长是否意味着劳动力市场并不像其显示出的一样强健;如果被迫进入自我雇佣境地的人们得到一份全职工作,是否会很开心地选择后者呢?这些问题的肯定将会显示出劳动力市场依旧处于一个低迷时期,并且货币政策可以继续在更长的时间里保持更为宽松的状态。But perhaps the structural trend means those paid jobs will not become available. If so, the economy may have created a vast reserve labour force, akin to the “spinsters” of early 19th-century Britain—single women who were paid piece rates for spinning textiles at home—or the dockers who used to mass outside port gates in the hope of being selected for a days work. That would suggest an economy where wages are permanently kept under pressure and where profit margins remain high. Good news for the stockmarket perhaps, but not so good for the self-employed.但也许这一结构性的趋势意味着全职工作岗位不会出现空缺。如果真的如此,那经济体或许已经制造了大量的劳动力储备,类似于19世纪早期英国的“老姑娘”—单身女人在家进行纺织品制造而获得计件工资---或者是码头工人们拥堵在港口大门处等待被挑选进入工作。这表示经济体当中工资水平长期保持在高度压榨的水平,同时利润空间依然巨大。这对股市来说或许是好消息,但对自我雇佣者来说可就不是那么回事了。 /201404/289237

Its an ordinary day.这是平常的一天。You may be entirely relaxed, settling down to watch some TV.你放松身心,专心地看着电视。Suddenly you begin to feel scared.突然你感到恐惧。Everything around you is becoming unreal.身边的所有事物都变得不真实。Your heart isracing, your head spinning, your hands tingling.你的心跳加速,天旋地转,手臂发麻。An overwhelming sense of despair and anguish hits you like a wave.一种歇斯底里的绝望和痛苦像海浪一样侵袭着你。What on earth is going on?这到底是怎么回事?If you have had an experience like this, its possible you were having a “panic attack.”如果你有类似的经历,很可能你患有“惊恐发作”症。Some peopleexperience panic attacks in tense situations, such as before giving a speech.一些人在紧张的情况下会经历惊恐发作,例如在演讲之前。For others it comescompletely out of the blue.有些则会在完全意外的情况下经历。But panic attack is a very real condition, and not at all the samething as just “getting flustered.”但是惊恐发作是一种真实存在的健康问题,与所说的心慌完全不同。What causes it?那么这是什么引起的呢?Panic attack begins in the oldest parts of our brain.惊恐发作始于我们大脑里最古老的部分。Before we had evolved rational thought, we still needed to be able to survive in the world.在我们形成理性思维之前,我们仍然需要在在世界上生存。The ability to either fight or flee from a dangeroussituation is perhaps the most basic behavior required of any animal.战斗和逃离危险或许是人和动物都必备的最基本的能力。Panic attacks occur when the bodily systems responsible for dealing with dangerous situations kick in at the wrong time.当身体系统对在不适当的时间里发生的危险情况作出反应时就会产生惊恐发作。There is no danger in relaxing on your couch, and no real danger ingiving a speech.在沙发上休息并不危险,演讲也并不是真的危险。But in some people, the “fight or flight” responses can be triggered accidentally.但是对于一些人来说,会意外地触发他们“战斗还是逃走”的心理反应。Heart rate increases, breathing becomes shallow, adrenaline shoots to your arms.心跳加速,呼吸困难,肾上腺素直冲手臂。These areuseful responses to have, if you really are in danger.如果你真的处于危险情况之下,这些都是很有利的反应。For people with panic attack, though, theycan be both confusing and terrifying.然而对于有惊恐发作的人来说,他们会感到混乱和恐惧。Several different therapies now exist for panic attack, from anti-anxiety medications to behaviormodification.针对惊恐发作,有好几种不同的治疗方法。从抗焦虑药到行为矫正。So take heart-theres no need to panic.所以,鼓起勇气-没必要恐慌。 201408/319099

Science and technology科学技术Reptilian micturition爬行动物的排尿Thats a relief可算是方便了Softshell turtles urinate through their mouths鳖类通过其嘴部小便WHY did the turtle stick its head in a bucket?为什么乌龟会把它的脑袋扎到桶里呢?sounds like the sort of riddle asked by ten-year-olds in school playgrounds.这听起来像十岁小孩子在学校操场上问的那种谜题。But it was also asked recently by Yuen Ip of the National University of Singapore.但是新加坡国立大学的元艾坡最近也问了这个问题。And his answer, it has to be said, is precisely the sort that would appeal to a ten-year-old.不得不说,他的恰恰是能吸引十岁小孩子的那种。It is that turtles pee through their mouths.是乌龟在用嘴巴撒尿。The turtles in question are a species known as the Chinese softshell.问题中的乌龟是一种被称为中华鳖的龟种。By preference, they live in brackish swamps.它们偏爱生活在微咸水湿地中。But such swamps are liable to dry up, and then the turtles often do something which has puzzled zoologists for centuries:但是这类湿地容易干涸,然后中华鳖经常会做出下面的动作,这让动物学家们困惑了几个世纪:they put their heads into those small pools of water which remain and hold them there for as long as two hours.鳖将它们的头部扎入余留的小水坑里,一待就是2个钟头。In 1886 a pair of American biologists called Gage, who were investigating this curious behaviour, dissected several turtles and found something strange in the animals mouths, namely a set of structures that look like gills.1886年,两名叫盖奇的美国生物学家研究了这一古怪的行为。他们解剖了数只鳖,在鳖的嘴巴里发现了些奇异之处,即一付长得像腮的结构。That, they felt, explained how turtles were able to perform their head-in-a-pool trick, but not why. Softshells are not compelled to breathe through their gills; they have a perfectly adequate pair of lungs to do the job.他们觉得这解释了鳖为何能做出把头扎入水坑的把戏,但无法解释为什么要这么做。鳖类并非必须要通过腮来呼吸,用它们的两个肺就完全足够了。Nor did zoologists take seriously the hypothesis that the reptiles were pining for their aquatic homes and putting their heads in puddles to keep their spirits up.还有一个动物学家不会当真的假设:这些爬行动物离不开它们的水之家,它们将头伸入水坑里是为了提提神。So, with the aid of a dozen turtles purchased from a local market, Dr Ip decided he would try to solve the mystery once and for all.所以艾坡士从本地市场中买了十二只鳖,决定借助它们设法彻底的解开这个迷。To do so, he strapped the animals down, to stop them moving, and provided each with a container of water into which it could dip its head if it chose.他将这些鳖绑住,使它们无法移动,每一只前面都放了一个装有水的容器,以便鳖可以将头扎进去。He also fitted each turtle with a plastic box that collected its urine, for he had a suspicion that therein lay the key to the mystery.他还给每只鳖配了一个塑料桶来收集它们的尿液,他怀疑解开这个谜的钥匙就藏于其中。This done, he monitored the animals for six days, paying particular attention to the chemistry of the water in the container.准备好后,他对这些鳖监测了六天,并特别关注了容器中水的化学成分。As expected, the turtles periodically submerged their heads in the water for between 20 and 100 minutes at a time.正如所料,这些鳖定期将它们的头扎入水中,每次的时长在20到100分钟之间。During these periods, Dr Ip noted that oxygen was being extracted from it.在此期间,艾坡士注意到水中的氧气在被提取。This confirmed that turtles can, indeed, breathe underwater through their mouths.这肯定了鳖确实可以在水下通过嘴部呼吸。As the oxygen level fell, though, something else rose: the level of urea.可是,随着氧含量下降,其他物质的含量上升了-尿素。Clearly, the animals were disposing of this waste product by secreting it from their mouths into the water.显然,鳖通过它们的嘴部悄悄的将这种废物排入了水中。Indeed, a calculation Dr Ip performed, based on the volume and composition of the urine he collected in the plastic buckets, and of the head-dunking water at the end of each day, suggested that only 6% of the urea excreted by the turtles was leaving them in the traditional manner, via urine. The question was, why?的确如此,艾坡士根据每天结束后其在塑料桶中所收集尿液以及头部所扎入水的成分和体积进行了计算,表明鳖排泄的尿素中只有6%是以尿液这一传统方式排出的。问题是,为什么?The most likely answer, as he explains in a paper in the Journal of Experimental Biology, is that urine, though cheap to produce when water is plentiful, is a physiologically costly product when water is scarce.最可能的是,正如他在《实验生物学》上发表的论文中解释的:虽然在水量丰沛时,产生尿液很便宜,但当水稀缺之时,这就成了一种生理上很昂贵的产品了。Turtle kidneys have difficulty processing salt water, so for an animal that lives in a brackish environment potable water is always scarce.鳖的肾无法处理咸水,所以对于一个生活在微咸水环境中的动物来说,食水一直弥足珍贵。One way round this for a swimming animal is to develop an outlet which allows urea to dissolve directly in the water as it swims, which is what the turtles seem to have done.对游泳动物来讲,规避此点的一种方式是进化出一个可以在其游水时将尿素直接排到水中排泄器官,就像鳖类似乎已经做到的那样。Dr Ip looked at which genes were active in the gill-like structures of the mouth and found one that appears, from its similarity to genes of known function from other species, to encode a urea transporter.艾坡士检查了嘴部这一类腮结构中有哪些基因在起作用,他发现一个基因,根据其和其他物种中已知功能基因的相似程度,会转译出一种尿素通道蛋白。The turtles gills, then, not only take in oxygen, they also excrete urea.这样,鳖的腮不仅能吸取氧气,也能排出尿素。If there is insufficient water to swim in, however, the turtles have to resort to desperate measures. The reason they stick their heads in puddles is in order to relieve themselves.然而如果水量不足以供鳖游水时,它们会采取极端手段-将头扎入水坑是为了方便一下。 /201401/274372

Finance and Economics;Japanese banks in Asia; Lending a hand;财经;亚洲日本;伸出援手;Japans biggest banks help pick up the slack from retreating Europeans;日本大型捡起了欧洲人撂下的担子;There are two, potentially overlapping, ways in which Asias export-driven economies could suffer from the euro crisis. One is from the slowdown in trade to Europe. The other is the drying up of finance, from trade credit to syndicated loans, extended by euro-zone banks. On neither score is Asia as vulnerable as it was after the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008, argued Iwan Azis of the Asian Development Bank, at The Economists Bellwether conference in Tokyo on May 16th. One of the reasons is that Japans mega-banks have lumbered off their home territory to pick up some of the slack left by the departing Europeans (see chart).欧元危机可能给亚洲的出口导向型经济带来两方面的影响(有可能是相互交叉的):一方面是对欧贸易额减少,另一方面是资金不足,这是欧元区延长了贸易信贷和银团贷款的期限导致的。5月16日,在东京举办的经济学家领导人会谈中,亚洲发展的lwan Azis认为,尽管如此,亚洲经济却再也不会像2008年雷曼兄弟垮台之后那般脆弱。其中一个原因是,日本的大型逐渐跨越本国领域,捡起了打退堂鼓的欧洲人撂下的一些担子。This is good news not just for Asias exporters. It also shows a rare stroke of boldness by Japans big three, Mitsubishi UFJ Group (MUFG), Sumitomo Mitsui, and Mizuho. After pulling back from lending to Asia following the 1998 financial crisis, and then suffering more than a decade of deleveraging by their deflation-sapped customers at home, they can almost smell the predicament of their European peers. Ken Takamiya of Nomura Securities says that in Australia, for instance, the mega-banks lending has recently overtaken that of BNP Paribas and Société Générale, two retreating French banks. It is the same story elsewhere in Asia, he thinks.这不仅仅对亚洲输出国来说是好事,同时,也是日本业三巨头——三菱日联金融集团(MUFG)、三井住友、瑞穗少有的一次大胆出击。自1998年金融危机之时三巨头停止像亚洲放贷,之后又连续遭受十几年通货紧缩国民减债的困境,他们几乎可以嗅到如今的欧洲同行的窘迫。野村券的Ken takamiya表示,譬如在澳大利亚,日本大型的贷款近期已经超过了呈下滑趋势的两家法国——法国巴黎和法国兴业。他认为,在亚洲其他地区也是如此。Some of the banks trumpeted their ability to buy discarded European assets abroad, as well as making fresh loans in Asia, when they released reports on May 15th showing a sharp increase in profits last fiscal year. These profits largely reflected the sale of big helpings of Japanese government bonds, but foreign activities help. Mr Takamiya says returns on overseas assets at MUFGs biggest bank generate about 2.5%, versus less than 1.5% at home.这些大型中,有些在5月15日的报告中展示其在上一财政年度收益剧增,并吹嘘自己购买废弃欧洲资产及在亚洲发放新鲜贷款的能力。这些收益极大地反映出日本政府公债的重要作用,但外事活动也的确有所帮助。Takamiya先生指出,三菱集团最大的拥有的海外资产产生的收益占总收益的2.5%,相比之下,国内资产的收益只有1.5%。There are, however, some impediments to growing further in Asia, and especially to catching up with Western competitors such as HS and Citigroup. Firstly, although the mega-banks have huge deposits—MUFG has the second-biggest stash in the world—they lack matching-currency funding to make non-yen loans, and are thinking only gingerly about sping branch networks across Asia, analysts say.然而,日本大型在亚洲的发展道路会遭遇一些阻碍,尤其是想要赶上其西方竞争对手(如汇丰和花旗集团)。首先,据有关人士分析,虽然这些大型有巨额的存款——MUFG储蓄量为世界第二,但他们缺少货币配对基金来提供非日元贷款;而且对于在亚洲扩展分网络一事,他们表现得小心翼翼。Secondly, their ambitions to be more innovative are modest for now. Rival bankers snort that Japans lending is “pure balance-sheet”, meaning they make large syndicated and project-finance loans that are often long-term and low-margin. They lack the more sophisticated and lucrative cash-management, foreign-exchange and other services of Western peers.其次,他们革新的雄心壮志仍旧是不温不火。作为其对手的业人士嗤之以鼻地表示,日本贷款是“纯粹的资产负债表”,即他们虽然提供大量银团贷款和项目融资贷款,却经常是长期性且低利润的。他们缺少了西方同行拥有的那些更为复杂、更能赢利的现金管理、外汇交易及其他务。Business at home is so lacklustre, however, that they may have little choice but to place bigger bets abroad. And even if prospects for growth in Japan did improve—GDP rose by 1% in the first quarter, beating expectations—the banks would still benefit from diversifying. So exposed are they to Japanese government bonds that Masaaki Shirakawa, the governor of the Bank of Japan, has said the big banks could suffer losses of up to ¥3.5 trillion (.5 billion) if yields rose by an admittedly lofty one percentage point. That would more than wipe out their combined profit last year.但是,国内市场太过乏味,日本大型不得不向国外市场押下更大的赌注。尽管日本国内经济增长前景的确有所改善——第一季度的GDP上涨1%,超出预期;但多元化经营仍旧会给他们带来诸多利益。日本政府公债对这些的影响过大,日本理事Masaaki Shirakawa表示,如果利率真的上涨了1%,这些大型将会遭受价值3.5亿日元的巨额损失。这比他们去年利润的总和还要多。 /201304/236755

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