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2019年12月07日 05:40:47
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WASHINGTON — A group of Washington investors with high-level political backing and a billion commitment from the Japanese government is pressing ahead with its vision of a high-speed train that could whisk passengers between New York and Washington in about an hour.华盛顿——一群拥有高层政治背景并已赢得日本政府出资50亿美元(约合300亿元人民币)保的华盛顿投资者正在着手推进他们心中构想的高速列车建设,力图将纽约和华盛顿之间的客运时长缩短到大约一小时。The train, which uses a technology called magnetic levitation, or maglev, to float above the track on magnets instead of wheels, would travel at twice the speed of Amtrak’s Acela. It is one of several high-speed rail projects proposed for the heavily trafficked Northeast Corridor, where chronic traffic congestion and flight delays are expected to get worse.这种列车使用一种名为“磁悬浮”的技术,借助磁力悬浮在轨道上,而非使用车轮。它的行驶速度将达到美铁(Amtrak)阿西乐列车(Acela)的两倍。为了给交通繁忙的东北走廊分担压力,目前出现了数个高速铁路项目的提议,而磁悬浮计划是其中之一。据预计,东北走廊长期的交通拥堵和航班延误现象将进一步恶化。At a total estimated cost of 0 billion, critics say a maglev train on the East Coast is little more than a pipe dream. But that has not stopped the investors from pushing the project.鉴于估算的总花费为1000亿美元,批评人士表示,在东海岸建造磁悬浮列车不过是痴人说梦。不过,这未能阻止投资者去推动这个项目。On a test track in Japan on Tuesday, a prototype train whooshed a group of visiting Americans through mountains at a top speed of 314 miles per hour — so fast, in fact, that Christie Todd Whitman, the former New Jersey governor and one of the Americans on the ride, said trips on Amtrak between Washington and New York were “embarrassing” by comparison.周二,一列原型车在日本的测试轨道上,以314英里(约合505公里)的最高时速载着一群美国客人飞速穿越群山——速度非常之快,以致于此次测试的美国乘客之一、新泽西州前州长克里斯蒂·托德·惠特曼(Christie Todd Whitman)禁不住感叹,相比之下,乘美铁列车往返华盛顿和纽约有些“令人难堪”。To Ms. Whitman, the train is a solution to transportation problems back home, where the Acela — the fastest train in the ed States — takes 2 hours 45 minutes to travel between New York and Washington.在惠特曼看来,这种火车可以解决美国国内的交通问题。在美国,乘坐阿西乐——美国最快的列车——往返纽约和华盛顿,单程需要2小时45分钟。Ms. Whitman is part of a high-powered advisory board for the Northeast Maglev, a private Washington-based company with a goal of building the Washington-to-New York line. The group, which regularly visits Japan to pursue the project and has taken at least three test rides on the train, is trying to convince skeptical American policy makers and investors that the maglev makes financial and political sense.惠特曼是东北磁悬浮公司(Northeast Maglev)一个充满权势人物的顾问委员会的成员。这是一家设在华盛顿的私营企业,其目标是修建华盛顿至纽约的磁悬浮铁路。这群顾问经常前往日本推进项目,而且已至少三次试坐这种火车。他们试图使持怀疑态度的美国决策者和投资人相信,磁悬浮列车在经济和政治上都行得通。The advisory board includes former Gov. George E. Pataki of New York; Tom Daschle, the former Senate majority leader, who also rode on the train in Japan on Tuesday; former Gov. Edward G. Rendell of Pennsylvania; and Mary Peters, who was a secretary of transportation in the George W. Bush administration. Since 2010, the group has spent .4 million lobbying Congress and meeting with state and local officials to build support for the project.该顾问委员会的成员包括纽约州前州长乔治·E·帕塔基(George E. Pataki)、周二也在日本乘坐了火车的前参议院多数党领袖汤姆·达施勒(Tom Daschle)、宾夕法尼亚州前州长爱德华·G·伦德尔(Edward G. Rendell),以及乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)政府的运输部长玛丽·彼得斯(Mary Peters)。从2010年开始,为了争取对该项目的持,他们已经斥资140万美元来游说国会并与州级和地方官员举行会晤。To try to win public support, the group has commitments from the Japanese government to invest about billion to pay part of the cost of construction of the first leg, an estimated billion route between Washington and Baltimore. The maglev would enable travelers to go between the two cities in as little as 15 minutes.为了尽力赢得公众持,他们获得了日本政府出资50亿美元的承诺。这笔钱将用来付第一段铁路线的部分建设费用。这段铁路将连接华盛顿与巴尔的,预计造价为100亿美元。在磁悬浮技术的帮助下,乘客只需最少15分钟就能在这两座城市之间穿梭。But large obstacles remain.不过,现实中还是存在一些巨大障碍。Given the project’s cost, the maglev company would need support from the federal government, but transportation advocates are skeptical that it will be forthcoming. And the U.S. High Speed Rail Association, which supports more conventional high-speed rail systems, has dismissed the maglev train as too expensive and experimental.由于项目开巨大,东北磁悬浮公司将需要联邦政府提供持,但交通行业的活跃人士对此表示怀疑。持更传统的高铁系统的美国高速铁路联合会(U.S. High-Speed Rail Association)认为,磁悬浮列车过于昂贵且处于试验阶段,不宜考虑。In addition, the maglev company would have to secure rights of way to build the specialized tracks, a serious financial undertaking on some of the most expensive real estate in the country. The company plans to build a large part of its route underground, which would add to the cost.此外,这家磁悬浮公司还必须获得在美国某些最昂贵的地段上修建专用轨道的通行权,而这是一项重大经济负担。公司计划把很大一部分路线建在地下,将令成本进一步增加。But Wayne Rogers, an investor in renewable energy and other projects and chairman and chief executive of Northeast Maglev, said the train makes more sense than current proposals to fix transportation problems in the Northeast, including building more roads and fixing tracks to make Amtrak trains go faster. Adding more highways in the region would increase congestion, he said.然而,东北磁悬浮公司的董事长兼首席执行官韦恩·罗杰斯(Wayne Rogers)表示,和当前为解决东北地区的运输问题而提出的其他建议相比,磁悬浮列车更合理。相关提议包括,修更多公路,以及升级轨道,以便让美铁列车行驶得更快。身为可再生能源等项目的投资人的罗杰斯说,在该地区多修公路会加剧拥堵。As for fixing existing tracks to speed up Amtrak trains, “It’s like putting a Ferrari on the crowded Beltway around Washington: It’s not going to make it go any faster,” Mr. Rogers said.至于升级现有轨道,以便让美铁列车提速,罗杰斯说,“就像把法拉利放在绕华盛顿的环形公路上一样:根本不会让它跑得更快。”(Amtrak has its own plans to provide high-speed rail on the corridor: a 1 billion proposal to upgrade its existing system to make it easier for trains to travel at 220 m.p.h., which would reduce the trip between New York and Washington to about 90 minutes. Congressional critics and some transportation experts have called the proposal too costly.)(在为东北走廊提供高速铁路方面,美铁有着自己的计划:一项耗资1510亿美元的提议要求升级现有系统,以便让列车更易于以220英里的时速运行。这将使纽约与华盛顿之间的交通时间减少到大约90分钟。国会的批评人士和部分运输专家称,该方案成本过高。)Another supporter of the maglev, James P. RePass, chairman of the National Corridors Initiative in Boston, which supports increased federal and private investment in rail projects, said he was previously skeptical of the train project, but has changed his mind.同样持磁悬浮的还有全美走廊倡议组织(National Corridors Initiative)主席詹姆斯·P·里帕斯(James P. RePass)。该组织位于波士顿,提倡联邦和私人增加对铁路项目投资。里帕斯表示,他以前对磁悬浮列车计划持怀疑态度,但现已改变主意。“If you had asked me two years ago, I would have said not a chance,” Mr. RePass said. “But this proposal, which seemed unlikely in the past, is gaining credibility. The reason is that unlike a lot of projects, this one actually has money.”“如果两年前问我,我会说根本不可能,”里帕斯说。“但过去看似不太可能的这个提议,现在越来越可信。原因在于,不同于许多项目,这一个实际上自带资金。”Mr. Daschle, who heads the advisory board for Northeast Maglev, dismisses concerns about the maglev technology.东北磁悬浮公司顾问委员会主席达施勒驳斥了对磁悬浮技术的担忧。“You can’t be a skeptic on the technological side anymore, because it’s been shown to work,” he said after his ride on the train.“你无法再在技术方面质疑了,因为它已经被明是可行的,”他在试坐完磁悬浮列车后说。Mr. Rogers said the company was moving ahead with its plans: It has filed an application with the Maryland Public Service Commission to transfer the franchise rights of the defunct Washington Baltimore amp; Annapolis railroad to Northeast Maglev, the first step in getting the project off the ground. The company will need additional approvals from the Surface Transportation Board and the Federal Railroad Administration. Without the transfer of the franchise rights, the company would have to ask the Maryland General Assembly to approve a new franchise agreement, a process that could take years.罗杰斯表示,公司正在推进自己的计划:它已向马里兰州公共务委员会(Maryland Public Service Commission)递交了申请,请求将现已停止务的华盛顿至巴尔的再到安纳波利斯铁路的特许经营权转让给东北磁悬浮公司。这是启动项目的第一步。公司另外还需获得地面运输委员会(Surface Transportation Board)和联邦铁路(Federal Railroad Administration)的批准。如果不能通过转让获得特许经营权,公司将不得不提请马里兰州议会批准一项新的特许经营协议。这一步可能需要花费数年时间。“We can’t wait around until political and financial conditions are perfect,” Mr. Rogers said. “The transportation infrastructure on the Northeast Corridor is in bad shape. We need to get moving.”“我们不能一直等到政治和财务状况都完备,”罗杰斯说。“目前东北走廊的运输基础设施状况很糟糕。我们需要行动起来。” /201410/337770郴州永兴县男科电话郴州东方医院有做包皮切割吗It’s as bold a statement on the future of global air travel as you could wish to see.关于全球航空业的未来,这大概是你能见到的最大胆直白的预测了。Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd, controlled by Asia’s richest man, Hong Kong-based billionaire Li Ka-Shing, is to pay around billion to build a fleet of some 60 airliners that it will lease to the continent’s up-and-coming airlines.亚洲首富、香港亿万富豪李嘉诚控股的长江实业集团有限公司(Cheung Kong Holdings Ltd)准备豪掷约20亿美元,打造一拥有60架客机的机队,以此为前景光明的亚洲航空公司提供飞机租赁务。In a filing to the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Cheung Kong said it will buy 45 aircraft outright and buy a 60% stake in joint venture with an arm of Japan’s Mitsubishi Corp.在向香港联合交易所(Hong Kong Stock Exchange)提交的文件中,长江实业表示将购买45架飞机,同时与日本的三菱商事株式会社(Mitsubishi Corp)组建合资企业,并持有60%的股份。The planes are being bought from a variety of sellers including General Electric Co’sGE 0.47% GE Capital Aviation Services Ltd.所购置的飞机将来自多个卖家,包括通用电气公司(General Electric Co)旗下的商用飞机租赁金融航空务公司GE Capital Aviation Services Ltd。The move is a play on the long-term outlook for Chinese air passenger growth. The International Air Traffic Association expects global air passenger numbers to double within 20 years to 7.3 billion, mainly due to China, where numbers will grow by an average rate of 5.6% a year.此举显然是押注中国航空客运业的长期发展前景。根据国际航空运输协会(International Air Traffic Association)估计,未来20年全球的航空客运量将翻一番,达到73亿人次,其中主要客流来自中国,预计中国的航空客运量年均增长率将达到5.6%。By the IATA’s estimate, China will overtake the U.S. as the world’s biggest air travel market by 2030, and have 1.3 billion passengers a year by 2034, ahead of the U.S.’s 1.2 billion.国际航空运输协会还预测,中国将在2030年之前超越美国,成为全球最大的航空市场;到2034年,中国每年的客流量将达到13亿人次,领先于美国的12亿人次。Reuters reported that Cheung Kong is also in talks to buy aircraft being sold by private equity firms including Terra Firma-owned lessor AWAS Aviation Capital Ltd, in an even bigger deal worth about billion.路透社(Reuters)报道,长江实业还在与私募股权基金公司洽谈飞机收购事宜,其中包括泰丰资本(Terra Firma)旗下的租赁公司AWAS Aviation Capital Ltd,该笔交易所涉金额甚至更高,达50亿美元左右。Both Boeing Corp. BA -0.71% and Airbus also expect rapid growth in demand from Asia over the medium term, seeing total sales over the next 20 years of between .4 trillion and .2 trillion.波音公司(Boeing Corp.)和空中客车(Airbus)同样认为,亚洲的需求将在中期范围内迎来快速增长,未来20年该市场的总销售额有望达到4.4万亿美元至5.2万亿美元。 /201411/341229The case for carbon taxes has long been compelling. With the recent steep fall in oil prices and associated declines in other energy prices it is overwhelming. There is room for debate about the size of the tax and about how the proceeds should be deployed. But there should be no doubt that starting from the current zero tax rate on carbon, increased taxation would be desirable.碳税问题长期以来一直备受关注。随着近期油价暴跌以及其他能源价格的相应下挫,征收碳税已是势在必行。我们有讨论碳税的规模以及税收如何运用的空间。但毫无疑问的是,以当前碳排放零税率为起点而增加的税收将是可行的。The core of the case for taxation is the recognition that those who use carbon-based fuels or products do not bear all the costs of their actions. Carbon emissions exacerbate the global climate change problem. In many cases they contribute to local pollution problems which immediately harm human health. Removing fossil fuels from the ground involves both accident risks and environmental challenges. And even with the substantial increases in US oil production we remain a net importer, so increases in consumption raise our dependence on Middle East producers.碳税问题的核心是承认那些使用碳基燃料或产品的消费者没有承担他们行为的所有费用。碳排放加剧了全球气候变化问题。在许多情况下,它们会造成当地的污染问题,这些问题又直接危害人类健康。将化石燃料从地下开采出来既包含事故隐患,也带来环境挑战。尽管美国石油产量大幅增加,我们仍是石油净进口国,所以石油消耗增加提升了我们对中东石油生产国的依赖程度。When we drive our cars, heat our homes or use fossil fuels in more indirect ways, all of us create these costs without paying for them. It follows that we overuse these fuels. This is not some kind of government planning argument — it is the logic of the market: that which is not paid for is overused. Even if the government had no need or use for revenue, it could make the economy function better by levying carbon taxes and rebating the revenues to society.当我们驾驶汽车,烘暖房间或通过更间接的方式使用化石燃料时,我们大家产生了这些费用,却没有付费。由此可见,我们过度使用了这些燃料。这不是某种政府策划的结论,而是市场逻辑:不用付费的资源必然被滥用。即使政府不需要或者用不着这部分收入,它也可以通过征收碳税、再返还社会的方式使经济运转得更良好。While the recent decline in energy prices is a good thing in that it has on balance raised the incomes of Americans, it does exacerbate the problem of energy overuse. The benefit of imposing carbon taxes is therefore enhanced.虽然,总的来说,近期能源价格下跌对提高美国民众收入是一件好事,但这的确加剧了能源过度使用的问题。征收碳税的裨益因此也大大增加。On the other side of the ledger, there has always been the concern that raising carbon taxes would place an unfair burden on some middle- and low-income consumers. Those who drive long distances to work, say, or who have homes that are expensive to heat would be disproportionately burdened. Now these groups have received a windfall from the drop in energy prices so it would be possible to impose substantial carbon taxes without them being burdened relative to where prices stood six months ago. As an example, the price of petrol has fallen by over per gallon. A a tonne tax on carbon that would raise over tn during the next decade would lift petrol prices by only about 25 cents.另一方面,一直以来人们就担心,提高碳税会对一些中低收入消费者造成不公平的负担。比如,那些远途开车的上班族、或者房屋供暖费用昂贵的人将承受过重的负担。现在,这些群体已从能源价格下跌中获得不少好处,所以征收相当程度的碳税而又不增加他们的负担(相对于6个月前的油价水平)是可行的。例如,汽油价格已下跌逾1美元/加仑。如果每吨二氧化碳排放征收25美元的碳税,未来10年的税收将超过1万亿美元,而汽油价格每加仑仅会提高约25美分。Some worry that taxing fossil fuels will hurt the competitiveness of US industry and encourage offshoring. In fact a well designed tax would be levied on the carbon content of all imports coming from countries that did not impose their own carbon levies. The US should insist that its tax is compatible with World Trade Organisation rules. It would have the virtue of encouraging countries who wished to avoid the US tax to impose carbon taxes of their own, thereby further supporting efforts to reduce global climate change.一些人担心对化石燃料征税将损害美国的工业竞争力,并鼓励产业外移。实际上,通过精心设计,美国将对所有进口商品的碳含量进行征税,如果这些产品的出口国没有对它们课征碳税的话。美国应坚持其所征之税不违背世界贸易组织(WTO)的规则。这样美国就可以有资格鼓励那些希望免受美国课税的国家征收本国的碳税,从而进一步持减缓全球气候变化的努力。A US carbon tax would contribute to efforts to combat climate change in other ways. It would be a hugely important symbolic step ahead of the global climate summit in Paris late this year. It would shift the debate towards harmonised measures to raise the price of carbon use and away from the complex cap-and-trade type systems that in the EU and elsewhere have proven more difficult to operate than expected.美国征收碳税在其他方面也将有助于应对气候变化的努力。今年底巴黎召开全球气候变化峰会之前,它将是非常重要的象征性一步。它将把讨论引向通过采取协调一致措施提高碳使用的价格,并使讨论避开复杂的“限额与交易”(cap-and-trade)型机制,欧盟及其他地方的经验已明这类机制比预期的更难操作。What size levy is appropriate? Here there is more danger of doing too little than too much. Once the principle of taxation is accepted its level can be adjusted. A tax of a tonne would raise well over 1 per cent of US gross domestic product, or 0bn, each year and seems a reasonable starting point.碳税多大规模合适呢?在这一点上,征得太少比太多反而危险更大。一旦征税原则被接受,其标准是可以调整的。如果每吨二氧化碳排放征税25美元,每年将带来大大超过美国国内生产总值(GDP) 1%的收入(1500亿美元),这看起来是一个合理的出发点。How should the proceeds be used? Here too it seems more important to reach consensus on the principle of taxation. My preference would be for the proceeds to be split between investments in infrastructure and pro-work tax credits. An additional bn a year in infrastructure spending would be a significant contribution to closing America’s investment gap in that area. The same sum devoted to pro-work tax credits could finance a huge increase in the earned income tax credit, a meaningful reduction in the payroll tax or some combination of the two.这些收入该如何使用呢?同样地,在税收原则上达成共识看起来更加重要。我倾向于将这些收入平分,用于基础设施投资和促进就业的税收减免。每年增加500亿美元的基础设施出将为美国弥补此领域的投资不足做出巨大贡献。将同样数额的碳税收入用于促进就业的税收减免,可以大幅增加所得税减免、显著降低工资税或两者相结合。Progressives who are concerned about climate change should rally to a carbon tax as the most important step for mobilising against it. Conservatives who believe in the power of markets should favour carbon taxes on market principles. And Americans who want to see their country lead on the energy and climate issues that are crucial to the world this century should want to be in the vanguard on carbon taxes. Now is the time.关注气候变化的进步人士应该共同持把征收碳税作为动员大家应对气候变化的最重要一步。相信市场力量的保守派人士也应该赞同符合市场规则的碳税。希望看到自己国家在对当今世界至关重要的能源和气候问题上发挥领导作用的美国人,应该希望在碳税问题上发挥先锋作用。现在正当其时。 /201501/353577郴州包皮过长手术去哪里

郴州人民医院男科电话安仁县泌尿外科Europeans are more pessimistic about how equal their societies actually are, while in the US people are wedded to the American dream and believe society is fairer than it really is.欧洲人对本国社会的实际平等程度更加悲观,而美国人则紧抱美国梦、他们眼中的美国社会比实际上更加平等。German research sheds new light on the political challenges involved in tax, income distribution and social fairness and raises questions in the equality debate revived by French economist Thomas Piketty.德国的一项研究为涉及税收、收入分配和社会公平的各项政治挑战带来了新的启发,在由法国经济学家托马斯#8226;皮凯蒂(Thomas Piketty)重新点燃的不公平辩论中提出了问题。The study, to be presented at Germany’s Lindau conference this week, “suggests that in the political debate on income distribution, it is often not the facts that count but [perceptions]”, said Professor Michael Hüther, director of the Cologne-based IW economic institute.德国科隆经济研究所(IW)负责人迈克尔#8226;许特(Michael Hüther)教授表示,本周将在德国林道(Lindau)会议上发表的这份研究报告“似乎表明在这场有关收入分配的政治辩论中,重要的往往不是事实,而是(印象)”。Author Judith Niehues compared actual and perceived income levels in the US and 23 EU countries, using economic data and polling of about 1,000 people in each country.研究报告的作者朱迪丝#8226;尼许斯(Judith Niehues)利用经济数据,并在每个国家对大约1000人进行调查,比较了美国和23个欧盟(EU)国家的实际收入水平和本国人认为的收入水平。She found that Europeans underestimate the proportion of middle-income earners and overestimate the proportion of the poor, commonly defined as people on incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median.她发现,欧洲人低估了中等收入者的比例,高估了穷人的比例,后者通常定义为收入达到或低于中值收入60%的人士。Only the US has a more unequal income distribution than its citizens imagined, with many more poor people.只有美国的实际收入分配情况比其国民想象的更为不平等,穷人的数量也大大超过他们认为的。In Europe, people on middle incomes are far more numerous than those at the bottom or the top of the pay ladder. So a European income-distribution chart resembles a barrel, with a bulge in the middle. But many see it as a tower standing on a broad plinth, with a small elite, a modest middle-class and a big base of low earners.在欧洲,中等收入者的数量远远超过位于收入阶梯最底端或最顶端者。因此,欧洲的收入分配呈桶形,中间部分比两头更鼓。但在许多人眼中,欧洲的收入分配为塔形,基座宽,塔尖小,中产阶层不多不少,底部有庞大的低收入人群。This is particularly true in Germany and France, where people see income distribution as far more unequal than it is. In the UK and Spain, where distribution is less equal, perceptions are more accurate.德国和法国尤其如此,这两国人眼中的本国收入分配不平等程度远远超过实际情况。在收入分配更不平等的英国和西班牙,人们的印象更为准确。More than 30 per cent of Americans have incomes of 60 per cent or less of the median. But most people think that only 24 per cent of their fellow citizens are at this level. “The middle class is truly smaller in the USA and the lower income group considerably more numerous than its citizens suppose,” says a summary of the study, which suggests this might be partly linked to social mobility in the US. People may be less focused on inequality if they think they are climbing the income ladder, explaining why pressure for redistributive taxation is lower in the US.逾30%美国人的收入刚刚达到或低于中值收入60%。但大多数美国人认为这个比例仅为24%。研究摘要称,“在美国,实际的中产阶层人数比其国民想象的更少,较低收入人群则庞大得多”。报告提出,部分原因可能是美国的社会流动性较大。如果人们认为自己在收入阶梯上的位置正在攀升,那么他们或许不会那么关注不平等,这解释了为何在美国通过征税对财富进行再分配的民意压力较低。In Europe, the gap between perception and reality is particularly wide in former communist states, with citizens convinced their countries are far less equal than they really are.在欧洲,国民的印象和实际情况差异格外大的是那些前共产党统治国家,这些国家的国民认为的不平等程度远远超过实际情况。The report adds that levels of concern about inequality tend to be greater in countries with higher levels of perceived inequality. More than half of Germans and 79 per cent of French think income differentials are too great, against about 30 per cent of Britons and Spaniards.报告补充称,在国民认为的不平等程度超过实际情况的国家,有关不平等的担忧往往更强烈。逾一半德国人、以及79%的法国人认为,本国的收入差距太大,而在英国和西班牙,持这种看法者的比例约为30%。 /201408/321905Chinese companies have been stepping up their global investment spree in the past 12 months. Mergers and acquisitions by private Chinese investors are becoming the key drivers of the country’s outbound direct investment.过去12个月里,中国企业的全球大举投资行动一直在加码。中国私营领域的投资者发起的并购开始成为中国对外直接投资(ODI)的主要推动力。In what has been called the ‘Third Wave’ of China outbound direct investment (ODI), the focus of investment has been on companies in the developed economies in high-tech and services. Previous ‘waves’ have focused on supporting developing economies and investing in commodities and extraction industries.在所谓“第三波”中国对外直接投资中,重点并购对象是发达经济体中的高科技与务行业企业。在前几波中国对外直接投资中,投资重心在于持发展中经济体,投资大宗商品和采矿业。The increase in China’s ODI is driven by the central government’s strong encouragement for domestic companies to invest overseas in a bid to boost theirinternational competitiveness. The added benefit to Beijing of ODI is it utilises surplus domestic capacity and helps to slow the rapid build-up of the country’s foreign exchange reserves, which reached a record .8tn at the end of 2014.中国对外直接投资增加的推动力,来自中央政府强烈鼓励国内企业通过到海外投资来提升自身国际竞争力。对外直接投资对北京方面的附加好处是,它能利用国内过剩产能,还有利于放缓外汇储备的积累速度。2014年底,中国的外汇储备余额达到创纪录的3.8万亿美元。Slow global economic recovery and depreciating foreign currencies has provided a decent tailwind to this endeavour.全球经济复苏缓慢以及外币贬值,为中国的这一努力提供了不小的便利。China’s ODI grew 19 per cent year-on-year on average between 2009 and 2014. This compared with foreign direct investment (FDI) into China growing on average 5 per cent year-on-year during the same period. Last year, China’s ODI reached 6 bn, almost the same reaching that of the FDI total of 0bn2009年至2014年,中国对外直接投资平均每年增长19%,同期流入中国的外国直接投资(FDI)的年均增速仅为5%。去年,中国的对外直接投资达1160亿美元,几乎接近2014年1200亿美元的FDI流入量。Some of the landmark and headline making deals we have seen include the .3bn acquisition by Lenovo of IBM’s x86 Server business. Another deal involved Anbang Insurance teaming up with Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc to purchase The Waldorf Astoria New York hotel for .95bn. Lastly but not least, in financial services, IC purchased a 60 per cent share of South African Standard Bank for 0m.我们看到了一些具有里程碑意义、登上媒体头条的并购交易,包括联想(Lenovo)以23亿美元收购IBM的x86 务器业务,还有安邦保险(Anbang Insurance)携手希尔顿全球控股有限公司(Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc)以19.5亿美元收购纽约的华尔道夫酒店(Waldorf Astoria)。还有一项重要交易发生在金融务业——中国工商(IC)以6.9亿美元收购南非标准(South African Standard Bank) 60%的股份。So, what is the outlook for China’s ODI and are there any new trends to watch out for?那么,中国对外直接投资的前景如何,有哪些新趋势值得关注?Firstly, in our view China’s ODI will to continue to grow by around 20 per cent a year, with China overtaking the US as the world’s largest outbound direct investor in the next few years. This year, the pace of investment to accelerate, pushed by massive infrastructure investments in Asia and Europe envisioned in the “One Belt, One Road” initiative.首先,我们认为,中国对外直接投资将继续以每年约20%的速度增长,中国在未来几年内会超过美国成为全球最大的对外直接投资国。今年,在“一带一路”战略构想的对亚洲和欧洲基础设施大举投资的推动下,对外投资速度将会加快。Secondly, Chinese companies will continue to shift their geographic and sector focus. The investment destination is changing away from Africa, Latin America and Asia. Chinese investors are now making strategic investment in developed markets, in particular the European Union and North America. Europe has recorded 14 per cent of China’s ODI in goods and services in the last five years.其次,中国企业在对外直接投资中关注的地域和行业也会继续改变。投资的主要目的地将不再是非洲、拉美和亚洲。眼下中国投资者正对发达市场、尤其是欧盟(EU)和北美进行战略投资。过去5年,欧洲占到了中国商品和务对外直接投资的14%。In addition, China’s ‘Third Wave’ ODI is shifting focus from acquiring natural resources in coal, oil and metals to infrastructure including rail, shipping and ports. They are now turning to agriculture, technologies, high-end manufacturing, consumer goods, real estate, services and brands. This is at an early stage, but growth rates are rapidly accelerating.此外,中国“第三波”对外直接投资的重心,开始从收购煤炭、石油和金属等自然资源转向铁路、航运和港口等基础设施。现在,中国企业转向了农业、科技、高端制造、消费品、房地产、务和品牌。这种转变仍处于早期阶段,但增速正显著加快。Finally, another important trend is that private investors are becoming the main driving force of ODI. State owned enterprises (SOEs) continue to do deals in the industrial, resources and energy sectors. Private owned enterprises (POEs) are investing in more value-added industry sectors such as agri-business, technology, high-end manufacturing and real estate in more countries and regions. They are looking for intellectual property and brands to bring back to the Chinese market.最后,另一个重要趋势是私营领域的投资者开始成为中国对外直接投资的主要推动力。国企(SOE)继续在工业、资源和能源行业发起并购。民营企业(POE)开始对更多国家和地区的农业经营、科技、高端制造和房地产等附加值更高的行业进行投资。它们希望把知识产权和品牌带回到中国市场。Mergers and acquisitions (Mamp;A) have become the fastest way for Chinese companies to tap foreign markets and move higher up the value chain. Foreign currency depreciation against the renminbi prices continue to provide a favourable environment for China’s Mamp;A activities.并购已成为中国企业打入外国市场、向价值链高端攀升的最快捷途径。外币对人民币贬值继续为中国企业的并购提供有利的环境。In the first quarter, transaction value of China’s outbound Mamp;A deals surged 36 per cent to a historical high of .2bn, according to PwC. The number of deals jumped by 33 per cent year on year to a record high of 77, with privately owned enterprises accounting for 68 per cent of the Mamp;As.普华永道(PwC)数据显示,今年第一季度,中国企业对外并购交易额大增36%,创下202亿美元的历史新高。交易数量同比增加33%,达到创纪录的77个,其中68%的并购交易是由民企完成的。Real Estate is the top targeted industry for over deals valued at more than bn, with .2bn via four deals in 2015 Year-to-date.交易额高于10亿美元的并购交易的头号目标行业是房地产,该行业今年迄今已通过4笔交易完成122亿美元的交易额。Fast moving consumer goods, brands and experiences such as tourism and leisure sectors are expected to feature prominently in the “third wave” of China outbound Mamp;A. This is driven by increased disposable income and wealth creation.在“第三波”中国对外并购中,快速消费品、品牌、以及旅游业与休闲行业等务业有望成为一个突出特色。这背后的推动力来自人们可配收入和财富的增加。We have seen also private equity make a meaningful contribution to the Mamp;A activates for the first time. The deals in technology and consumer-related sectors accounted for more than half the total investment plans intended to align with the strategic direction of China’s wider economy. A similar trend was seen in deal values last year. There were 15 PEs and financial buyer deals valued at more than bn, another record.我们也看到,私募股权基金第一次对并购活动做出重要的贡献。在旨在与中国宏观经济战略方向保持一致的所有投资计划中,科技与消费相关行业的交易占到了一半以上。去年的交易金额中也体现出了类似趋势。去年有15家私募股权基金和财务投资者进行了并购,交易金额总计逾10亿美元,也创下纪录。The opportunities, however, come with challenges. Acquiring value-added assets is likely to remain extremely difficult. Chinese companies are still not well understood overseas. Cultural integration can be a challenge. To adapt to these challenges we have seen private enterprises hiring local management, applying local operating models in a bid to retain talent and cut acquisition risk.然而,机遇总是伴随着挑战。收购附加值型资产可能仍然极端困难。中国企业在海外仍得不到充分理解。文化融合可能是一种挑战。我们看到,为了适应这些挑战,民营企业雇佣了当地人才担任管理层,采取当地运营模式,以便留住人才并降低收购风险。China’s new wave of ODI is underpinned by the Chinese government actively reforming and deregulating its regulation of overseas investment. We can expect more developments in the near and mid-term. For instance, with Chinese companies speeding up their pace of overseas expansion, renminbi-denominated deals could be promoted in overseas mergers and expansions.撑中国新一波对外直接投资的,是中国政府积极地改革和放松对海外投资的监管。我们可以期待,这方面近期和中期会有更多进展。比如说,随着中国企业加快海外扩张步伐,以人民币计价的交易可能会在海外并购和扩张中得到推广。In particular, the expansion of China’s trading and capital investment space in regional economic cooperation would greatly facilitate further the internationalisation of China’s renminbi through deepening the pool of renminbi liquidity globally, more renminbi cross-border investment along with associated cross-border renminbi loans and other derivatives.尤其是,随着在地区经济合作方面中国贸易与资本投资空间的扩大,全球范围内人民币流动性池子会加深,会产生更多跨境人民币投资,以及相关的跨境人民币贷款及其他衍生品,从而极大地推进人民币国际化。All in all, Chinese corporate overseas investment is supported by the central government and is helping to further open the economy at home and China’s participation in the global economy abroad.It is a new era of global cooperation and a clear win-win story.归根结底,中国企业海外投资得到了中央政府的持,有利于在国内进一步放开经济,在国外推动中国参与全球经济之中。这是一个全球合作的新时代,会谱写出明显的双赢故事。Spencer Lake is Global Head of Capital Financing at HS本文作者为汇丰(HS)环球资本融资主管 /201507/383901郴州资兴市人民医院妇幼保健看泌尿科怎么样Nelson Mandela, who rose from militant antiapartheid activist to become the unifying president of a democratic South Africa and a global symbol of racial reconciliation, died at his Johannesburg home following a lengthy stay at a Pretoria hospital, President Jacob Zuma said Thursday. He was 95.南非总统祖马(Jacob Zuma)周四宣布,纳尔逊?曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)在位于约翰内斯堡的家中去世,享年95岁。曼德拉曾是积极投身反种族隔离制度的活动人士,后来成为在实现了民主的南非使各方团结在一起的总统。同时他也是全球种族和解的一个象征。曼德拉去世前在比勒陀利亚的一家医院长期住院治疗。#39;He passed on peacefully,#39; Mr. Zuma said in a state television address. #39;This is a moment of our deepest sorrow. Our nation has lost its greatest son.#39;祖马在国有电视台发表讲话说,他平静地走了,此时此刻我们悲痛万分。我们的国家失去了它最伟大的儿子。Mr. Mandela spent nearly three months in the hospital through September, initially to treat a lung infection. It was the latest in a series of increasingly severe ailments South Africa#39;s first black president had battled since contracting tuberculosis during his nearly three decades in prison for opposing the former white-minority regime.在截至9月份的近三个月中,曼德拉一直在住院治疗,最初是因为肺部感染。这位南非首位黑人总统曾因反对少数白人执掌的前政府而入狱,在近30年的牢狱生涯中,曼德拉染上了肺结核,之后一直在与一系列不断加重的病痛作斗争。After he was discharged, South African officials had said that Mr. Mandela remained in #39;critical but stable#39; condition. But some members of his family acknowledged his precarious state in recent days, even as an admiring nation and well-wishers across the globe started to come to terms with his mortality.曼德拉出院后,南非官员曾说,曼德拉仍处于“危急但稳定”的状态。但对其充满敬仰的全国人民和全球持者开始不得不接受他病危的事实,同时他的一些家人近日承认他的病情危重。Though Mr. Mandela had stepped down from the presidency in 1999, he remained a father figure for a country going through wrenching economic and political change. South Africa#39;s economy has struggled to grow at a modest 2%, well below government targets of 7%, and unemployment among young people is close to 80%. In recent years, protests in predominantly black townships have erupted over poor public services and a dearth of job opportunities. Many young black South Africans, born after the dawn of democracy in 1994, are channeling their frustration toward the current government, led by Mr. Mandela#39;s African National Congress.尽管曼德拉1999年卸任总统之职,但在经历了艰难的经济和政治变革的南非,他仍是一个国父般的人物。南非的经济增速只有2%,远远低于政府提出的7%的目标,年轻人失业率接近80%。近年来,在居民主要为黑人的城镇,围绕糟糕的公共务和就业机会的缺乏爆发了抗议活动。南非很多在1994年实现民主制后出生的黑人年轻人开始将失望的情绪发泄到现政府头上。现政府由曼德拉的非洲人国民大会党(African National Congress, 简称:非国大)领导。It was as a prisoner that Mr. Mandela first became a rallying point for opponents of apartheid. After he was sentenced to life in prison in 1964, he spent more than a quarter-century behind bars, much of it in a maximum-security prison on Robben Island, off the coast of Cape Town.曼德拉在狱中开始成为反种族隔离人士的号召力人物。1964年他被判终身监禁后,在狱中度过了逾四分之一个世纪的岁月,其中大部分时间被关押在开普敦附近罗本岛(Robben Island)上一个戒备森严的监狱里。By the time he was released from a different prison in 1990, the tables had been turned. South Africa had become a pariah nation and Mr. Mandela would lead his country#39;s re-embrace of a world that had spurned its racist government.到1990年他在另外一个监狱被释放时,局势已经扭转。南非已经成为一个不受欢迎的国家,曼德拉将领导他的国家迎来一个推翻了种族主义政府的世界。With South African President F.W. de Klerk, whom he had met secretly with other apartheid officials in prison, Mr. Mandela would pick apart the machinery of white political domination through painstaking negotiations. Those negotiations laid the groundwork for the election in 1994 of the country#39;s first black president-Mr. Mandela himself.由于德克勒克(F.W. de Klerk)当时担任南非总统,曼德拉愿通过艰苦谈判来废除这部白人统治政坛的机器。德克勒克与其他反种族隔离官员曾在狱中秘密会见过曼德拉。那些谈判为1994年南非诞生第一位黑人总统──曼德拉本人,奠定了基础。Mr. Mandela inherited a fractured nation. He led it back from the brink of civil war, forming a government of national unity that demolished apartheid and established a constitution that is one of the most liberal in the world in terms of human rights-outlawing, for example, discrimination based on sexual orientation.South Africa later became the first country on the continent to legalize gay marriage.曼德拉接手的是一个四分五裂的国家。他将这个国家从内战的边缘拉了回来,建立了一个全国统一政府,废除了种族隔离制度,制定了新宪法。从人权角度而言,这是世界上最自由的宪法之一,例如禁止以性取向歧视他人。南非后来成为非洲大陆第一个将同性恋婚姻合法化的国家。The Truth and Reconciliation Commission he championed hastened the end of racial conflict by granting amnesty in return for testimony, and became a model for ending seemingly intractable conflicts elsewhere. East Timor, Liberia and Peru were among the countries that would follow South Africa#39;s example.曼德拉持的真相与和解委员会(Truth and Reconciliation Commission)以特赦换真相的方式加速了南非种族冲突的终结,这也成了世界其它国家结束看似棘手冲突的模式。东帝汶、利比里亚和秘鲁都是愿效仿南非的国家之一。At the time, Mr. Mandela#39;s tall task was, as he put it, to find the #39;middle ground between white fears and black hopes.#39; But he also needed to reconcile disparate factions within his party, the African National Congress. Some influential ANC leaders wanted to take a tougher line against whites after triumphing at the ballot box, and some argued for a wealth tax to speed the redistribution of the country#39;s resources, according to Verne Harris, a historian at the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, which houses the archives of the former president.那个时候,曼德拉的艰巨任务,用他自己的话来讲就是,要找到白色恐怖和黑色希望的中间地带。但同时他也需要调和非国大内部不同派系之间的矛盾。纳尔逊?曼德拉记忆中心(Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory)的历史学家哈里斯(Verne Harris)表示,当时一些有影响力的非国大领袖希望在选举获胜后对白人采取更为强硬的态度,另一些人则主张征收财产税以加速南非国民资源的再分配。该中心存放着这位前总统的档案资料。#39;There were many who argued the case for tough love-don#39;t make it easy for them,#39; says Mr. Harris. #39;Reconciliation was a beautiful fit for South Africa, but we forget that it wasn#39;t the only approach being discussed at the time.#39;哈里斯说,当时有很多人为“爱之深则应责之切”辩解,觉得不能便宜了他们。他说,和解的确是适合南非的良策,但我们忘了,这并不是当时探讨的唯一方法。During his six decades in the public arena, Mr. Mandela wasn#39;t above precipitous shifts in position. He initially put his faith in Gandhian nonviolence, but when strikes and protests began to seem futile, he founded a band of saboteurs. He believed in obedience to the party, but acted unilaterally at turning points in the struggle.He advocated nationalizing South Africa#39;s mines, but changed his mind when the stance threatened to deprive a struggling economy of much-needed capital.活跃在公众领域的60年时间里,曼德拉并不在乎其立场的急剧转变。他最开始相信甘地(Gandhian)的非暴力不合作运动,但当罢工和抗议看似徒劳之后,曼德拉组建了一破坏者小分队。他认为应该忠诚于非国大,但在斗争出现转折点时却采取了单方面行动。他主张将南非的矿山国有化,但当这个主张可能会使南非举步维艰的经济丧失亟需的资本时,他改变了态度。Even occasional critics would come to see Mr. Mandela as the political glue that held his party, and later the country, together.即使偶尔冒出来的一些曼德拉的批评者也开始把曼德拉看作是是凝聚非国大、甚至是后来凝聚整个南非的粘合剂。Apartheid-era President de Klerk, who would serve as Mr. Mandela#39;s deputy after the country#39;s first democratic vote, said his former adversary #39;could be brutal#39; in negotiations. But the pair, who shared the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for the country#39;s democratic transition, were able to sell compromises to supporters who differed radically in outlook.Mr. de Klerk said in a 2012 speech that the six-foot-four-inch former boxer #39;had the stature and the strength to hold his fractious alliance together-even at the most difficult junctures.#39;南非种族隔离时代的总统、将在南非第一次民主选举后就任曼德拉政府副总统的德克勒克说,他以前的这个劲敌在谈判时可能会很无情。但他俩却能让将那些对前景看法截然不同的持者接受和解方案。1993年,德克勒克与曼德拉因促成南非的民主转型共享了诺贝尔和平奖。德克勒克在2012年的一次演讲中说,这位身高六英尺四英寸(约1.83米)的前拳击手有名望和力量将那些倔强的持者团结在一起,哪怕是处于最困难的关头。Rolihlahla Mandela-#39;Nelson#39; was added when he started school-was born July 18, 1918, to a chief of the Thembu tribe of the Xhosa people in South Africa. He grew up in a village of mud huts and grass rooftops, the floors made of earth smeared with cow dung, in the land known as the Transkei. Women farmed corn, or mealies, pumpkins and beans; men left their families to work on white-owned farms or mines. Blacks at the time had few rights in the new country, founded by white European immigrants known as Afrikaners.罗利赫拉赫拉?曼德拉(Rolihlahla Mandela)出生于1918年7月18日,“纳尔逊”是他上学后添加的南非科萨人腾布王朝的一酋长的名字。他在特兰斯凯(Transkei)的一个小村子里长大,村房用泥巴制成,茅草覆顶,屋里的地板是抹着牛粪的土地。女人在家种玉米、南瓜和豆子,男人远在外面为白人拥有的农场或矿山打工。那时南非是个由布尔人(白人欧洲移民)新建立起来的一个国家,黑人几乎没有权利可言。Mr. Mandela was the first in his family to attend school and eventually began working toward a law degree in Johannesburg, a bustling commercial hub. He hoped for a civil-service job in the Native Affairs Department in the government, about as high as a black man could aspire at the time.曼德拉是他的家庭中第一个有机会上学的人,并最终在南非繁华的商业中心约翰内斯堡开始攻读法学学位。他曾希望在南非的本地事务部(Native Affairs Department)谋得一个公务员的工作,这在当时差不多是一个黑人可能怀有的最大梦想。His struggle for civil rights involved #39;a steady accumulation of one thousand slights, one thousand indignities, one thousand unremembered moments, [that] produced in me an anger, a rebelliousness, a desire to fight the system that impoverished my people,#39; he wrote in his autobiography.曼德拉在自传中写道,争取民权的过程包含了一次次轻蔑、一次次侮辱和无数个已被遗忘瞬间的不断积累,正是这些令我愤怒、反抗并渴望打破这个使我的人民陷入贫困的制度。He joined the African National Congress and helped found its Youth League.In his early years as an activist, Mr. Mandela viewed with deep suspicion the white Communists who he feared would take over the black liberation movement. In one defeated motion, he sought to expel Communist members from the ANC. Another time, Mr. Mandela recounted in his autobiography, he stormed the stage of a Communist Party meeting, tearing up signs and grabbing the microphone. He would mellow in his later years, and would even come to view South Africa#39;s Communists as critical allies and laud a socialist path for development. But unlike many of his fellow ANC leaders, Mr. Mandela distanced himself ideologically from the country#39;s Marxists.他参加了非国大并帮助成立了非国大的青年团(Youth League)。在作为政治活动家的初期,曼德拉对白人共产党员抱有深深的怀疑,担心他们会接管黑人的解放运动。他曾试图将共产党员从非国大中驱逐出去,但这一动议最终受挫。据曼德拉在自传中描述,还有一次,他曾冲上一个共产党会议的讲台,撕毁标语并抢夺麦克风。后来曼德拉变得更加成熟,甚至将南非共产党视为重要盟友,并赞同社会主义发展道路。但与非国大的其他许多领导人不同,曼德拉与国内的马克思主义者在思想上一直保持着距离。#39;I believed that it was an undiluted African nationalism, not Marxism or multiracialism, that would liberate us,#39; he wrote. The ANC became the center of resistance to apartheid, the South African system of racial segregation, introduced after the National Party came to power in 1948. The system made racial distinctions into law, forbidding interracial relationships, mandating that the races live apart, and requiring that all South Africans be registered by race.曼德拉写道,我相信纯粹的非洲民族主义才能解放我们,而不是马克思主义或多种族制度。非国大逐渐成为了抵制种族隔离的核心力量。南非的种族隔离制度是在1948年南非国家党(National Party)执政后推出的。这一制度将种族歧视列入法律,禁止异族通婚,规定种族分居,并要求所有南非人进行种族登记。 /201312/267762宜章县治疗阳痿早泄

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