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2019年12月15日 19:46:59来源:妙手助手

  • Tu Youyou, a Chinese pharmacologist and winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, is getting an asteroid named after her.近日,一颗小行星以中国药理学家、2015年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖得主屠呦呦的名字而命名The No.31230 asteroid was named ;Tuyouyou;, according to a statement issued by International Astronomical Union.国际天文学联合会近日发布公报,将第31230号小行星永久命名为;屠呦呦星;。The asteroid was discovered on Jan 18, 1998 by Beijing Schmidt CCD Asteroid Program.;屠呦呦星;由北京天文台施密特CCD小行星项目组于1998年1月18日发现。Tu Youyou discovered the antimalarial drug artemisinin, which has saved millions of lives, especially in developing countries.屠呦呦发现了抗疟药物青蒿素,在全球范围内特别是发展中国家挽救了数百万人的生命。 /201601/419617。
  • Children love to play with new toys but hate disruption to their routines. These traits persist in adult life: innovation is ily adopted when it is incorporated in new gadgets but innovation that involves doing things differently is resisted.儿童喜欢玩新玩具,但讨厌习惯被打断。这些特性在成年后会一直保持下去:如果把创新融入新玩意中,人们很乐意接受,但涉及改变做事方式的创新,人们就会抵触。Look around a university. At a super#173;ficial level, modern information technology has changed everything. Most activities — communication, scheduling and presentations — are conducted electronically. At a deeper level, nothing at all has changed. The course structures, materials and the methods of pedagogy remain essentially the same.到一所大学四处转转。从表面看,现代信息技术已改变了一切。大多数活动——沟通、排课表和做报告——都是以电子方式完成的。但在更深层次上,一切都没有改变。课程结构、教材和教学法本质上还是老样子。As Richard Nelson, the economist of innovation, has pointed out while American children are much healthier than they once were they are not much better at learning to . Innovation that comes in a pill or injection is easily adopted: innovation that manages a process better is not.正如创新经济学家理查德#8226;纳尔逊(Richard Nelson)所指出的那样,当今的美国儿童比过去的儿童健康得多,但他们学习阅读的能力并不比过去强太多。以药丸或注射形式出现的创新很容易被接受,优化流程的创新则不然。It has always been so. Anaesthetics were developed in the mid-19th century and soon all surgeons were using them. However, when a Viennese physician discovered that the most important thing surgeons could do to keep their patients alive, especially those who were newborn infants, was to wash their hands, the profession resisted the innovation for half a century.情况一直是如此。麻醉剂是19世纪中期开发出来的,不久之后所有外科医生都开始使用麻醉剂。然而,当一位维也纳内科医生发现,要保住病人、尤其是新生儿的性命,外科医生所能做的最重要的事是洗手时,医疗界抵制这项创新的时间长达半个世纪。While doctors would ily experiment with new chemicals, they fought any acknowledgment that their procedures were defective.尽管医生们愿意试验新的化学制剂,但他们竭力拒绝承认自己的治疗程序存在瑕疵。Authors and editors use computers and software to write and compile, and eers are everywhere. Yet any suggestion that these developments imply a different and diminished role for publishers and booksellers is fiercely resisted, both by these businesses and by authors and ers.如今,写手和编辑使用电脑和软件进行写作和编辑,电子阅览器已无处不在。不过,任何人只要提及这些进展意味着出版商和书商的角色被改变和削弱,都会受到这两者以及作者和读者的强烈抵制。Airlines place orders for the latest models but established carriers find it hard to adapt to the market challenges set by low-cost carriers. Their response has been to set up distinct subsidiaries to implement[APE?] the new business model. Yet Delta’s Song was sung only briefly and British Airways’ Go went.航空公司会订购最新型的飞机,但老牌航空公司发现很难针对低价航空公司引发的市场竞争做出调整。它们的对策是设立完全不同的子公司,来执行新的业务模式。不过,达美航空(Delta)的Song只维持了很短时间,而英国航空(British Airways)的Go也已成过去式。Since even babies are more suspicious of new ways of doing things than of new toys, we might seek evolutionary explanations. But why would our ancestors have been more y to hunt new prey, or adopt new tools, than to adapt routines? Perhaps innovations incorporated in physical items are more plainly beneficial than process innovations. It is hard to argue that a smartphone is not an improvement on an instrument with a large rotary dial tethered to a desk.[DO WE FULLY ANSWER THIS QUESTION?]既然就连婴儿对新的做事方式也比对新玩具更怀疑,我们或许可以去寻找进化上的解释。但是,为何相对于调整习惯,我们的祖先更乐于捕捉新猎物或使用新工具呢?或许是,相对于流程创新,融入实物中的创新带来的好处更加一目了然。我们很难主张,相对于被电线固定在桌上、带着很大拨号盘的旧式电话,智能手机不是一种改进。Some gadgets that look like improvements are not: three-dimensional cameras meet a need we do not seem to have, and airships and supersonic passenger jets turned out to be a bust. These blind alleys in product innovation are sufficiently rare that they stand out in business and technological history.有些玩意儿看上去有改进,实际上并无改进:3D立体相机满足的是一项我们似乎并不存在的需求,飞艇和超音速客机后来被明是个失败。这些走进死胡同的产品创新罕见到了能在商业与科技史上占据突出地位。A low-cost airline, however, is not superior to a full-service one but rather the provider of a product better adapted to the needs of modern passengers. Establishing a new routine requires time and practice, and many new routines do not represent improvements; witness the fate of the majority of business re-engineering exercises. While transformational chief executives and management consultants chafe at the resistance they encounter, the problem is not just the lethargy of subordinates and the scale of their personal investment in established processes. It is often well-founded doubt as to whether the “change agents” actually know what they are doing. Political leaders, who seek office by claiming that everything their predecessors are doing is wrong, are even more frequently the advocates of useless process reorganisation.然而,不是说低价航空公司优于全业务航空公司,而是说它们提供了一种更符合现代乘客需求的产品。形成新习惯需要时间和实践,而许多新习惯不代表改进;看一看大多数业务流程改造的命运吧。尽管心向革新的首席执行官和管理顾问对遭遇的抵制感到恼火,但问题不仅仅在于下属们的慵懒懈怠以及他们对既定流程已投入个人努力的大小。人们常常有充分理由怀疑“改革推动者”是否真了解自己在做什么。有些政治领导人宣称前任所做一切都是错的,希望借此上台,他们倡导的流程改革甚至更可能是毫无用处的。So we are right to view such novelties with suspicion. And the behaviour of our children suggests this well-founded scepticism towards those who would re-engineer our routines has become hard wired in human responses.所以,我们以怀疑眼光看待此类奇思异想是正确的。我们的孩子的行为表明,对于那些想要改造我们习惯的人报以正当的怀疑,已经深深地植入了人类的反应心理中了。 /201503/365375。
  • Imagine being talked about behind your back. Now picture that conversation taking place covertly in your own sitting room, with you unable to hear it.想象一下有人在你背后谈论你。现在设想一下,这样的谈话就悄悄发生在你家客厅里,而你却无法听到。That is the modus operandi of SilverPush, an Indian start-up that embeds inaudible sounds in television advertisements. As the advert plays, a high-frequency signal is emitted that can be picked up by a mobile or other device installed with an app containing SilverPush software. This “pairing” — currently targeted at Indian consumers — also identifies users’ other nearby devices and allows the company to monitor what they do across those. All without consumers hearing a thing.这就是印度创业企业SilverPush的做法,该公司在电视广告里嵌入听不到的声音。广告播放时,会发出一种高频信号,安装有内置SilverPush软件的应用的手机或其他设备可接收到这种信号。这种“配对”——目前是针对印度消费者的——也会识别出用户附近的其他设备,让该公司得以监控他们在这些设备上做些什么。这一切都在消费者无知无觉的情况下发生。This “cross-device tracking technology”, being explored by other companies including Adobe, is an emblem of a new era with which all of us — governments, companies, charities and consumers — will have to contend.这种“跨设备跟踪技术”——包括Adobe在内的其他公司也在探索此技术——标志着一个新时代的来临。这个新时代是所有人——政府、公司、慈善机构和消费者——将不得不应对的。Last month, the Royal Statistical Society hosted a conference at Windsor castle to ponder the challenges of Big Data — an overused, underexplained term for both the flood of information churned out by our devices and the potential for this flood to be organised into revelatory and predictive rivers of knowledge.不久前,英国皇家统计学会(Royal Statistical Society)在温莎(Windsor)城堡召开了一次大会,思考大数据带来的挑战。大数据是一个被滥用、内涵解释欠清楚的术语,既指我们的设备产生的海量信息流,也指把这些信息整理为分门别类的一股股具有揭示性和预见性的信息流的潜力。The setting was apt: the ethics and governance surrounding the growing use of data are a right royal mess. Public discussion about how these vast quantities of information should be collected, stored, cross-referenced and exploited is urgently needed. There is excitement about how it might revolutionise healthcare — during outbreaks of disease, for example, search data can be mined for the greater good. Today, however, public engagement largely amounts to public outcry when things go wrong.这次大会召开得正是时候:围绕日益增加的数据使用的伦理和治理可谓一团糟。目前迫切需要就这些海量数据应当如何收集、存储、相互参照和利用展开公众讨论。有人对大数据可能催生医疗革命感到兴奋:比如说,在疾病爆发时,可以为了更高的利益挖掘搜索数据。然而,如今,当出现糟糕情况时,公众讨论很大程度上变成公众的强烈声讨。The extent to which tech shapes our lives — the average British adult spends more than 20 hours a week online, according to a report by UK media regulator Ofcom — means our behaviour, habits, desires and aspirations can be revealed by our swipes and keystrokes.英国媒体监管机构英国通信办公室(Ofcom)的一份报告显示,英国成年人平均每周在线时间超过20小时。科技对我们生活的巨大影响,意味着我们的行为、习惯、欲望和抱负都可以通过触摸屏和键盘操作显露出来。This has made analysis of online be a new Klondike. Personal data are like gold dust, and we surrender them every time we casually click “OK” to a website’s terms and conditions.这使得对在线行为的分析成为一座新的金矿。个人数据就像金砂,每次我们随意对一家网站的条款与条件点击“确定”时,就把我们的个人数据交了出去。And here is our first problem: most of us click unthinkingly (it is usually impenetrable legalese, anyhow). It is thus questionable whether we have given informed consent to all the ways in which our personal data are subsequently used. To demonstrate this, a security company set up a public WiFi spot in the City of London and inserted a “Herod clause” committing users to hand over their firstborn for eternity. Within a short period of time, several people unwittingly bartered away their offspring in return for a free connection.这是我们面临的第一个问题:我们中大多数人都是不假思索地点击的(不过,条款与条件通常是难懂的法律措辞)。那么,我们对自己的个人数据随后被使用的各种情形是否行使了知情同意权,就成了疑问。为了明这一点,一家安全公司在伦敦金融城(City of London)设立了一个公共WiFi热点,并嵌入一个“希律条款”(Herod Clause),要求用户承诺永远放弃他们的第一个孩子。在很短时间内,就有不少人为了免费上会儿网稀里糊涂地放弃了自己的孩子。Legal challenges aside, there is rarely independent scrutiny of what is a fair and reasonable relationship between an online company and its consumers. Facebookfell foul of this when it manipulated the news feeds of nearly 700,000 users for a psychology experiment. Users claimed they had been duped by the study, which found that those exposed to fewer positive news stories were more likely to write negative posts. The company retorted that consent had aly been given. Approval last week of EU data protection rules permitting hefty fines for privacy breaches may prevent a repetition; consent will no longer be the elastic commodity it was.除了法律挑战,关于网络公司及其消费者之间公平与恰当的关系应该是怎样的,我们也很少进行过独立的审视。Facebook在这一点上便曾引起众怒,因为它为了做一个心理实验,对近70万用户的动态消息动了手脚。用户们声称,他们被那项研究给耍了,研究结果显示,那些接收到更少积极消息的人更可能写出消极的内容。Facebook反驳称,他们已获得了用户的同意。不久前,欧盟通过了数据保护规则,新规允许对侵犯隐私的行为处以高额罚款,这或许能阻止类似情况再次发生;用户不再像以往那样无论代价如何都只能被动同意了。A second challenge arises from the so-called internet of things, when devices bypass humans and talk directly to one another. So my depleted smart fridge could automatically email the supermarket requesting replenishment. But it could also mean my gossiping gadgets become a network of electronic spies that can paint a richly detailed picture of my prandial and other proclivities, raising privacy concerns. Indeed, at a robotics conference last month, technologists identified the ability of robots to collect data, especially in private homes, as the single biggest ethical issue in that field.第二个挑战源自各种设备绕过人类、直接彼此对话的所谓物联网。所以,我的智能冰箱在储存消耗光了的时候可以自动给超市发电邮,要求补货。但这也可以意味着,我的那些“八卦”的设备构成了一张电子间谍网,它可以绘制出一幅有关我的饮食与其他癖性的极其详尽的图画,令人担心隐私暴露。实际上,在不久前的一个机器人学大会上,技术专家们把机器人收集数据(尤其是在私人住所里)的能力认定为大数据领域最大的单个伦理问题。Alongside the new EU rules on data protection, we need something softer: a body of experts and laypeople that can bring knowledge, wisdom and judgment to this fast-moving field. There is aly a Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society in the US, comprising lawyers, philosophers and anthropologists.除了欧盟新的数据保护规则外,我们也需要更软性的方式:一个由专家和非专业人员构成的机构,为这一快速发展的领域带来知识、智慧和判断力。眼下,美国已有了一个由律师、哲学家和人类学家组成的大数据、伦理与社会委员会(Council for Big Data, Ethics and Society)。Europe should follow this example — because, as a stream of anecdotes at the Windsor conference revealed, companies and academics to be navigating this new data-rich world without a moral compass. In 2012 a Russian company created Girls Around Me, an app that pooled publicly available information to show the real-time locations and pictures of nearby women, without their consent; the app, a stalker’s dream, was withdrawn. High-tech rubbish bins in London’s Square Mile, which captured information from smartphones to track unwitting owners’ movements in order to target them with advertising, were ditched on grounds of creepiness.欧洲应当仿效美国的做法,因为正如温莎大会上的一连串趣闻所显示的那样,公司和学术界人士在这个数据丰富的新世界航行时,似乎没有带上伦理指南针。2012年,一家俄罗斯公司推出了一款名为“Girls Around Me”的应用(App),可以汇集公开可见的信息,在不经使用者附近女性同意的情况下显示她们的实时位置和照片。这款跟踪骚扰者梦寐以求的应用被撤下了。“平方英里”(Square Mile,即伦敦金融城,因面积正好1平方英里得名——译者注)的高科技电子垃圾箱捕捉来自智能手机的信息,以跟踪不知情的机主的行踪,从而针对他们发布广告,这些垃圾桶因令人毛骨悚然而被取缔。Meanwhile, a scientist has created software that combs Twitter connections to infer a tweeter’s ethnicity and even religion, raising the question of whether public posts can legitimately be used to deduce private information. Do we, as one lawyer suggested,need laws against misuse of our online personae?同时,一名科学家做了一款软件,能够通过彻底搜查推特(Twitter)人脉图,推断一名推特用户的种族、甚至宗教,这引发了使用公开发言推断私人信息是否合法的疑问。我们是否如一名律师所认为的那样,需要出台防止个人在线角色被滥用的法律?We have wearable devices that, like Santa, see you when you are sleeping and know when you’re awake. It is possible that a company will find a way of deducing — through sentiment analysis of social media postings, visits to charity websites, checks on your bank balance and fitness tracking — if you’ve been bad or good.我们有了可穿戴设备,这些设备像圣诞老人一样,在你睡着时注视着你,也知道你何时是醒着的。一家公司有可能找到推断你近来生活是否积极向上的办法——通过分析社交媒体发言表现出的情绪、访问慈善网站以及核查你的存款余额和健康追踪。This goes to show: just because big data makes it technically possible to do something, does not mean we should.这明:并非仅仅因为大数据使某事在技术上具备可行性,就意味着我们应该那么做。 /201601/421342。
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