福建省第二医院的电话华龙网

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月14日 13:28:58
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Today, a successful single woman who falls for a man making less money than she does or not sharing her career ambition may face not-so-subtle disapproval from friends and family. One patient of mine reported being told, #39;I#39;m surprised you haven#39;t found someone who is more your equal.#39; Another felt insulted when a trusted friend asked, #39;Are you sure you wouldn#39;t be happier with a man who is making more money than you?#39;如今,成功单身女性爱上一位挣得比自己少或不能分担其事业进取心的男人可能会遭到来自亲朋好友的明确反对。我的一位患者据称就曾被这样告知:“你没能找到一位跟你更相配的人,我感到很惊讶。”另一位则在其可信赖的朋友这样发问时感到受了侮辱:“你确定跟挣得比你多的男人在一起不会更幸福吗?”These women were in love with solid, supportive guys who shared their values -- men who weren#39;t driven by money. They ded the concerned whispers from friends or family who persisted in believing that they were #39;marrying down.#39;这些女性都跟那些踏实可靠、能给予自己持并与自己持有相同价值观的男性相爱了――他们爱上她们,不是因为钱。这些女性害怕听到来自朋友或家人关切的窃窃私语,那些亲朋好友坚信她们是在“下嫁”。As a couples therapist, the notion of marrying down strikes me as impossibly antiquated. It#39;s right out of the #39;Downton Abbey#39; era, when suitable marriages were entirely a matter of matching people according to social class and fortune -- hence the panic when Lord Grantham#39;s youngest daughter marries the family#39;s Irish chauffeur.作为一名婚姻治疗师,有关下嫁的说法让我觉得难以置信地过时。那完全是《唐顿庄园》(Downton Abbey)时代的产物。在那样的年代,合适的婚姻完全是根据双方的社会地位和身家财富而将人们凑配在一起――因此,格兰瑟姆勋爵(Lord Grantham)才会因为小女儿嫁给了家里的爱尔兰司机而痛苦不已。The notion that women should #39;marry up#39; endured well past the heyday of the English gentry, and the most successful bwinners were considered the most desirable mates. Well into the 20th century, relatively few high-paying jobs were available to women, so for the most part, women went to college to get their M.R.S., or maybe to land the kind of work that would put them near the right professional men.女性应该“高攀”的观念在经历了英国乡绅贵族的鼎盛时期后依然深入人心,最成功的养家者会被视为最令人满意的伴侣。在进入20世纪很久以后,提供给女性的高薪工作相对来说仍比较少,所以大多数情况下,女性读大学是为了在学校结识男性然后嫁为人妇,或者是为了在毕业后能找到一份可以使自己能接近合适职场男性的工作。Today, more women than men are graduating from college and graduate school. Pew Research, which has been compiling data on the topic over the past 50 years, reports that for the first time, #39;the share of couples in which the wife is the one #39;marrying down#39; educationally is higher than those in which the husband has more education.#39; In 2012, the report notes, 27% of newlywed women married a spouse with less education, while only 15% of newlywed men did the same.如今,从大学和研究生院校毕业的女性人数超过了男性。皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)在过去的50年间一直在搜集编汇与该主题相关的数据,其报告称,有史以来第一次出现“妻高夫低”的婚姻比例超过了“夫高妻低”的婚姻比例――前者指妻子学历更高而委身‘下嫁’的情况,后者则指丈夫学历更高。”2012年,该报告指出,27%的新婚女性都嫁给了学历比自己低的配偶,而只有15%的新婚男子娶了学历比自己低的伴侣。More education doesn#39;t necessarily lead to greater earning power, but in most U.S. cities, single, childless women under 30 now make more money than their male peers, according to analysis by Reach Advisors, a research firm. Across all social classes, women contribute 47% of household income, reports the Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire. And most strikingly, Pew has found that in 24% of marriages, women earn more than their husbands, up from 6.2% in 1960.受教育程度更高并不一定会造就更强的赚钱能力,但据研究公司Reach Advisors的分析表明,在美国的大多数城市,单身无子、年龄在30岁以下的女性比同龄男性挣得更多。新罕布什尔大学(University of New Hampshire) 卡西学院(Carsey Institute)的报告称,纵览所有的社会阶层,女性给家庭收入带来的贡献为47%。而皮尤研究发现,最令人震惊的是,在24%的婚姻中,女性都比她们的丈夫挣得更多,这一数据比例在1960年仅为6.2%。For most strong, successful women, the alpha male of old isn#39;t the best match. I have seen in my practice what happens when two dominant personalities engage in power struggles: The alpha male will assume that his priorities should dominate, while the alpha woman will assert hers. These are the most difficult duos to treat.对于大多数强势的成功女性而言,有点大男子主义的年长男性并不是最佳伴侣。在婚姻咨询业务活动中,我已目睹了当两位有着配性人格的男女卷入权力斗争时会发生什么:大男子主义的丈夫将认为他优先考虑的事应该占主导地位,而大女子主义的妻子则会坚持她自己的考量。这样的夫妻问题是最难解决的。Over the past 30 years, says Stephanie Coontz, director of public education at the Council on Contemporary Families at the University of Chicago, #39;egalitarian values have become increasingly important to relationship success.#39; Confident, dominant women need collaborative partners more than they need traditional bwinners. They need men who aren#39;t threatened by their strength and will support their goals.芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)现代家庭理事会(Council on Contemporary Families)公共教育主管斯泰芬尼#12539;库茨(Stephanie Coontz)说,在过去30年间,“对于一段恋情是否成功,平等的价值观已变得越来越重要。”自信、占主导地位的女性更需要的是能够配合她、与之分工合作的伴侣,而不是传统的养家者。她们需要的男性是这样的:不会被自己的强势所吓倒,而且会全力持她们的目标。These men are secure enough to follow as well as lead. They value partnership, parenting and pulling their own weight. They work but aren#39;t workaholics. The problem is family members and friends who sometimes devalue such men because they don#39;t adhere to traditional standards of masculinity -- standards that should no longer apply.这些男性有足够多的安全感,既能显身于人前又能委身于人后。他们珍视伴侣关系和养育子女的职责,并能尽到自己的责任。他们努力工作,却不是工作狂。但问题是,亲朋好友有时会低估这样的男人,因为他们无法达到传统的男子气概标准――这种标准不该再适用于今天。What high-achieving women need are men strong enough to support their achievements, contribute to the household in services and/or money, and be loving partners. A strong woman will reap the benefit of this kind of respectful, responsible beta man; he will be more flexible, more nurturing and more willing to share the responsibilities of family life.建树颇高的女性所需要的,是男性可以足够强大,强大到能持她们取得成就,在务与/或金钱方面,还能对整个家庭有所贡献,而且得是一位充满爱意的伴侣。女强人将从这种恭敬、负责的“小男人”身上获益。他会更灵活、更会悉心照料人而且更愿意承担家庭生活的责任。Attitudes are slowly changing. According to Pew, only 28% of respondents agreed that it is #39;generally better for a marriage if the husband earns more than the wife.#39; But we still have a long way to go: Economists at the University of Chicago School of Business found in 2013 that women are leery of making more than their husbands do and may even choose to stay out of the workplace if they think they#39;re in danger of earning more than their husbands.人们的态度正在慢慢发生改变。据皮尤研究中心称,只有28%的受访者认同这样的观点――“如果丈夫比妻子挣得更多,这对一段婚姻来说一般会更好。”但我们仍有很长一段路要走:芝加哥大学商学院(University of Chicago School of Business)经济学家在2013年发现,女性对于自己比丈夫挣得多的情况非常小心,在觉得这种状况做会让自己陷入困境时,她们甚至会远离职场。Today#39;s romances suggest that growing numbers of smart women and men are marrying neither up nor down -- they#39;re just marrying the right person.现今的爱情故事表明,越来越多的聪慧女性和睿智男性都不是“低就”,也不是“高攀”――他们只是选择了和一个对的人步入婚姻。 /201405/296905

  

  Experts say eating a range of fruit and veg is best, as part of a balanced diet, to protect against illness据英国广播公司报道,专家表示,吃各种水果蔬菜对身体最为有利,可以均衡饮食,预防疾病。Research suggests eating at least seven portions of fruit and vegetables a day is more effective at preventing disease than the government#39;s current five-a-day recommendation.研究表明,一天至少吃7份水果蔬菜比政府目前提倡的一天五份可以更有效预防疾病。Is five a day enough?一天五份够不够?Yes - but people should eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, the government says. The advice is based on World Health Organization guidelines, which are 25 years old.五份是可以的,但政府表示,一天至少应该吃五份。此建议是基于世界卫生组织已建立了25周年的指导方针。Dieticians say eating five a day is enough to get the protective benefits of fruit and veg - although eating more may be additionally beneficial.饮食学专家说,一天吃五份水果蔬菜就足够使人体获益,尽管更多的水果蔬菜可能会带来额外好处。What counts as a portion?多少算是一份呢?Fruit juice counts towards one portion of the recommended five portions per day果汁是一天五份水果蔬菜中的一份。For an adult, a minimum of 400g of fruit and vegshould be eaten every day, or five portions of 80g.对于成年人来说,一天最少吃400克水果蔬菜,或5份80克的水果蔬菜。The amount varies for children, based on activity levels and age, but a rough guide is that one portion should fit in the palm of their hand.对儿童来说,摄入量因运动量与年龄有所不同,但有一个大体指导方法是他们的手掌能承担的量就是一份的量。Fruit and vegetables do not have to be eaten on their own and can be cooked in dishes such as soups, stews or pasta meals.各种水果蔬菜不必分开吃,可以做成汤、大杂烩或面食。Do tinned fruit and fruit juice count?罐头水果和果汁算不算?Yes. But juice should be unsweetened, and only counts as one portion a day, as it contains less fibre than whole fruits and vegetables.罐头水果和果汁算,但果汁应该是未加糖的,由于果汁比完整的水果蔬菜含有的纤维少,只能算作一份。Fruit must be tinned in natural juice, or water, with no added sugar or salt, and not in syrup, which lots of fruit is.水果必须是在天然果汁或水中,不添加任何糖或盐,不是在糖浆中。很多水果罐头用的是糖浆水。Beans and pulses also count, but again only as one portion as they contain fewer nutrients than other fruits and vegetables.豆类也算,但由于其比其他水果蔬菜含有的营养少,也只能算一份。Smoothies may count towards more than one portion if they contain all the edible pulped fruit or veg, and depending on their ingredients.如果冰沙含有所有可食用浆状果肉或蔬菜,可以不止算作一份,这取决于其中的成分。Recommendations include frozen fruit and vegetables, and dried fruit, such as currants, dates, sultanas and figs.还建议食用冷冻水果、蔬菜和干果,如醋栗果、小葡萄干、海枣、无花果等。Those in y-meals and shop-bought pasta sauces, soups and puddings are also included, but advice urges ;only to have them occasionally; or in small amounts as they are often high in salt, sugar and fat.熟食和商店中买的意大利面酱、汤和补丁中的水果蔬菜也算,但建议“偶尔吃这些东西”或食用量要少,因为这些食物通常含有较多的盐、糖和脂肪。What about potatoes?土豆算不算?Potatoes do not count towards one of the five-a-day, but sweet potatoes do.土豆不算,但甘薯算。Potatoes are not one of the five-a-day items. This is because they mainly contribute starch to a healthy diet, which is a good source of energy and helps digestion.土豆不能算作一天五份中的一份,这是因为土豆主要提供的是健康饮食需要的淀粉,对于补充体力和促进消化有益。They are classified in the same group as b or pasta by the government.政府将土豆和面包、意大利面食归为一类。Skins should be left on when cooking as they are a good source of fibre.烹饪时,土豆上的皮应该留着,因为其中含有较多纤维。But sweet potatoes, parsnips, swedes and turnips do count as five-a-day foods, as they are usually eaten as well as the starchy bit of the meal.但由于甘薯、欧洲萝卜、大头菜、红萝卜通常同含淀粉的食物一起吃,可以算作一天5份中的份量。 /201404/292266。

  Google Glass has been touted for its ability to help users send hands-free texts and empower everyone from physicians to cyclers. Could it also help the image of China#39;s urban pari-police, known for their strong-arm tactics with protesters and street vendors? 谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)一直被宣传为可使用户无需动手便可发送文字信息,为医生和单车一族等各类用户提供强大功能。它是否也能提升以粗暴对待抗议者和街头小贩著称的中国城管的形象呢?When Google Glass went on sale in China earlier this year --thanks to some enterprising folks on Taobao--Jiang Yifan, a chengguan in the city of Changzhou in southern Jiangsu province, was among those snapping them up. 今年早些时候谷歌眼镜在中国开卖时(这要归功于一些有魄力的淘宝卖家),江苏省常州市城管蒋佚凡就抢购了一副。The reason? He hopes it might help him avoid on-the-job incidents such as one over the weekend in Cangnan county, Zhejiang province where state media reported that protesters clashed with chengguan after an onlooker continued to photograph on-duty officers despite requests that the individual stop, prompting a crowd to form. Online, rumors that a chengguan had beaten the photographer to death further fueled anger, although the circumstances of what actually happened are unclear. 他为何要买这个产品呢?他希望谷歌眼镜能帮他避免工作中出现暴力事件。在刚过去的这个周末,浙江苍南县就发生了城管与群众的冲突事件,据官方媒体报道,此前一名过路的群众在城管人员予以阻止后仍继续对城管人员执法现场进行拍照,双方的冲突引来了围观人群。在网上,有谣言称一名城管打死了这名拍照者,尽管真实情况如何尚不清楚,但这还是进一步点燃了群众的愤怒情绪。Unverified photos purportedly taken in Cangnan and posted on social media showed hundreds of people mobbing a van in which bloodied officers had taken refuge. Five officers were surrounded, and state media reported that two sustained life-threatening wounds. 有未经实的据称是在苍南县拍摄的照片(已被发布在社交媒体上)显示,有上百人围攻一辆车,血迹斑斑的城管人员躲在车内。五名城管人员遭到围攻,据官方媒体报道,其中两人伤情危重。The events were the latest in a series of violent incidents involving chengguan, including one high-profile case last year in which a watermelon seller was killed in a brawl in Hunan province. Several officers received prison sentences in that case. 这次事件是最新一起涉及城管人员的暴力事件,在去年一起备受关注的类似事件中,湖南一名瓜农在与城管的争执中被打死,有多名城管人员因该事件被判处有期徒刑。Chengguan like Mr. Jiang are charged with keeping China#39;s streets clean and orderly. But the number of violent situations they#39;ve been involved in has prompted plenty of introspection, as well as concern by nonprofit Human Rights Watch and others about limited checks on their power. Accordingly, Chinese cities have tried a number of tactics to try to improve chengguan-resident relations--apparently including hiring attractive female chengguan. 在中国,像蒋佚凡这样的城管负责维护市容。但城管涉及暴力事件的数量已经带来了许多反思,同时也引发了非营利组织人权观察(Human Rights Watch)及其他机构对城管权力约束不够的担忧。有鉴于此,中国各城市已经尝试了一些措施,力争改善城管与居民的关系。显然,这些措施就包括聘用有吸引力的女城管。Mr. Jiang paid 13,500 yuan (,166) for the Google glasses earlier this month on Taobao. He said his own geekiness, as well as a desire for greater professionalism, played a role in his purchase. “I admire the characters in “Iron Man” and “Dragon Ball” who own the most advanced technologies,” he said in an interview with China Real Time.本月早些时候,蒋佚凡花了人民币13,500元(约合2,166美元)在淘宝(Taobao)上买了一副谷歌眼镜。蒋佚凡还说,他之所以购买谷歌眼镜,部分原因是自己有著书呆子的个性和变得更职业的渴望。他在接受中国实时报(China Real Time)采访时说,他喜欢《钢铁侠》(Iron Man)和《七龙珠》(Dragon Ball)里拥有最先进科技的角色。In a Monday editorial, the state-run Global Times urged the government to address the frequency of chengguan conflicts. The paper cited poor training as an underlying cause for many incidents. #39;Most chengguan are as grassroots as other ordinary people...They take the heaviest burden of urban management, but they are treated with prejudice and bias,#39; the paper said. 《环球时报》英文版(Global Times)周一在一篇社论中敦促政府处理城市管理纠纷频发的问题。该报认为缺乏职业训练是许多事故背后的原因。该报写道,多数城管都是与其他普通人一样的“草根”,他们承受了城市管理中最重的负担,但对待他们的却是歧视和偏见。Mr. Jiang#39;s bosses hope their plucky comrade#39;s choice of tech accessory might help forestall such events in the future. #39;It can help prevent some city residents from making unfounded accusations,#39; the Changzhou chengguan department wrote on its verified Weibo account on Monday. #39;Law enforcement needs to be open and transparent.#39; 领导们希望蒋佚凡对数码设备的大胆选择能有助于在未来避免这类事件。常州市城市周一说,这有助于避免一些市民做出毫无根据的指控。常州市城市还说,执法需要公开和透明。 /201404/290498

  My husband has a stack of year-end reviews on his desk-reviews from his bosses, reviews by his peers, reviews of his staff. And then there#39;s one from me. What started as a joke between us 10 years ago-over piles of socks left on the floor-has become a yearly tradition: our year-end review as a couple.老公桌子上有一大摞年终评估报告,有来自老板的,同级的,还有下属的。然后还有一份来自我的。10年前我们围绕地板上一大堆袜子开的玩笑,已成为一项年复一年的传统:我们作为夫妻的年终评估。Performance reviews, for better or worse, have long been a staple of corporate America. Outside the office, I#39;ve found that they can also open up a whole new way of communicating with family and close friends. And they#39;re a handy way to air minor grievances.不管是好是坏,绩效评估长期以来都是美国企业界的一项重要活动。而在办公室外,我发现这些评估也可以为家人、好友之间的沟通开辟一条全新的通道,并且是传递小牢骚的好办法。Several couples I know have their own version of a yearly performance review. One refers to it as the #39;State of Our Union.#39; Another takes a more serious approach to what they call their annual #39;Board of Directors Meeting,#39; complete with a formal agenda in four sections: personal, professional, philanthropic and spiritual. A couple with adult children makes their review a full-family affair, with a psychologist on hand in case the conversation gets heated. In explaining why he conducts reviews at home, a friend said, #39;Sometimes I think we#39;re more honest with people at work than we are with our own family.#39;我认识的几对夫妻都有各自的年度绩效评估。有一对将之称为“我们的国情咨文”。另一对则是更严肃地对待他们所说的“董事局会议”,由四部分正式议程组成:私人事务、专业事务、慈善事务和精神事务。一对子女已经成年的夫妇将评估看作一项涉及全家的事务,还配备了一名心理学家,以防大家在讨论过程中动了肝火。一位朋友在解释为什么在家里搞评估活动时说:“有时候我觉得我们在同事面前比在自己家人前面更加坦诚。”For our own review, my husband and I talk over dinner about our #39;accomplishments#39; over the past year as a couple, the #39;areas for improvement,#39; the #39;goals#39; we want to set for the year ahead and the #39;next steps#39; we are going to take to get there. Comments run the gamut from petty complaints, like laundry on the floor, to important goals, like setting time alone as a couple. These reviews force us to focus and reflect on the big picture, to give priority to what#39;s really important to us in our very busy lives.在我们自己的评估中,丈夫和我会在吃晚饭期间谈到过去一年作为夫妻所取得的“成就”、“待改进之处”、希望为来年制定的“目标”,以及为实现目标将要采取哪些“新步骤”。我们无话不谈,既说到地板上的脏衣之类的琐事,也说到留出夫妻独处时间之类的重要目标。这些评估迫使我们关注及反思大局,并把繁忙生活中真正重要的事情放在头等位置。Our review generally takes place close to New Year#39;s Eve, making it a handy New Year#39;s resolution list, albeit one written by another person. The tone of ours tends to be tongue-in-cheek. For more serious reviewers, a friend suggests adopting what#39;s called the #39;hamburger technique.#39; Structure your review as if it were a hamburger: soft bun to start (ease in with compliments), solid meat (the big criticism), lettuce (room to grow), then finish with another soft bun (more closing compliments).我们的评估一般在快到元旦前夜的时候进行,顺便把它当作一个新年计划列表,只不过是由对方来写的。我们通常都用一种假正经的调子来写。对于更加认真的人,一位朋友建议采用所谓的“汉堡包技巧”,也就是把评估报告写成汉堡包的结构:先是柔软的面包(和风细雨地讲些恭维话)、实在的肉块(重要批评)、生菜(转圜余地),然后用另一片柔软的面包(更多恭维话)收尾。Our annual review has even grown to include family and close friends. Everyone who has heard about it seems interested in giving it a try, perhaps because there aren#39;t very many socially acceptable ways to tell friends about the little things that bother you. That#39;s where the review comes in handy.我们的年度评估甚至还慢慢地包括了家人和好友。所有听说过的人似乎都有兴趣试一试。这可能是因为向朋友说些琐事而又能被人接受的方式并不是非常多。评估的用处就在这里。When a couple close to us heard about our couple#39;s review ritual, they requested to be reviewed on the spot-and then turned around and reviewed us too. Apparently, I#39;m not so good at keeping my calendar and have canceled on them more times than I should have. They suggested that I turn the scheduling over to my husband, who now books our monthly get-togethers. On the rare occasion that we have to postpone a dinner now, they jokingly-or not so jokingly-say, #39;Don#39;t think this won#39;t come up in your review.#39;一对与我们关系不错的夫妇听说我们的评估仪式之后,当即要求我们给他们写评估报告,然后又反过来给我们写。看来我并不擅长遵守日程安排,放他们鸽子的次数太多。他们建议我把制定日程的任务交给老公,现在我们的月度聚会就是由他来预定的。有时候我们不得不暂时把晚宴延后,他们就会半开玩笑半认真地说:“别以为这件事不会出现在对你们的评估里面。”A friend I#39;ve known for 20 years was habitually late-really late-to our dinners. Over dinner a couple of years ago, I told her I was giving our friendship a year-end review. She laughed and I started, #39;You have always been there for me, and I trust you completely as a friend. I also trust that you#39;re going to be at least a half-hour late every time we meet.#39; She nodded, smiled and took the comments in the spirit they were given. And she#39;s never been late again.一位我认识了20年的朋友在参加我们晚宴时又一次习惯性迟到,而且是非常迟。在几年前的晚宴上,我跟她说我要对我们的友谊做一次年终评估。她笑了,然后我开始做评估了:“你对我来说一直是有求必应,我也完全相信你这个朋友。我同样相信的是,每次见面你至少要迟到半个小时。”她点头微笑,领会了这些话的意识。后来她再也没有迟到过。Not everyone is as open to being reviewed. My advice: Know your audience and your boundaries. Drinks with a friend turned into an impromptu, year-end intervention for one woman I know. After a positive start, the #39;reviewer#39; launched into a critique of the friend#39;s boyfriend, citing unsolicited #39;areas for improvement,#39; and encouraged her friend to end the relationship. The friendship never recovered. Some feedback is better left unsaid.也不是每个人都乐于接受评估。我的建议是,了解说话对象,把握好尺度。我认识的一位女性跟一位朋友喝酒聊天,结果年终评估变成了一时兴起的指手划脚。“评估者”以正面的谈话开始,然后又对这位朋友的男友作了一番批评,自作主张地说起“待改进之处”,并鼓励她的朋友结束与男友的关系。她们的友谊再也没有恢复。有些反馈还是不说为妙。In a controversial move, my husband took the initiative last year to write up a review of my mother. That#39;s right, a review of his mother-in-law. He handed her an envelope on Christmas morning with the words #39;Year-End Review#39; plastered in bold across the front. Pale-faced, she opened it-and then started to smile as she her glowing reviews as a mother and grandmother. Scanning to the bottom, she found an area for improvement: Meatball production down from peak in 2010.去年我丈夫主动给我母亲写起评估报告来,一时引起大家的争议。没错,是对他丈母娘的评估。他在 诞节的早晨递给她一个信封,信封正面用粗体涂上“年终评估”几个字。脸色苍白的母亲打开了信封,读到对其母亲、外婆角色的溢美之辞时开始微笑起来。扫到底部的时候,她看到了一个待改进之处:肉丸子产量低于2010年时的峰值了。The review worked. We now always have a freezer full of meatballs.这份评估报告见效了。我们现在总是有满冰箱的肉丸。 /201312/270470

  PARIS — In France, the country of Sartre and Molière, literary knowledge is considered a sign of savoir faire, and all the more so, perhaps, if you are the person presiding over the country’s culture budget.巴黎——在诞生了萨特(Sartre)和莫里哀(Molière)的法国,文学知识被认为是明智的标志,如果你是负责该国文化预算的那个人,或许更是如此。So an admission by the French culture minister, Fleur Pellerin, that she has not a book in two years has provoked horror among some members of the cultural elite here.因此,法国文化部长弗勒尔·佩尔兰(Fleur Pellerin)承认过去两年从未读过一本书的事,让这里的部分文化精英感到震惊。The awkward confession, in an interview over the weekend on the television channel Canal Plus, spawned a storm of criticism on social media and beyond, and even some demands for the resignation of a seemingly uncultured culture minister who had previously been lauded for her intellect and style.佩尔兰是周末在接受Canal Plus电视频道的采访(本文最初发表于2014年10月29日)时,尴尬地讲出此事的。这番爆料在社交媒体及以外的地方遭到口诛笔伐,部分人甚至要求这位看似没文化的文化部长辞职。而此前,这位文化部长曾凭借其才智和风度赢得赞誉。When asked to name her favorite book by Patrick Modiano, the French author who recently won the Nobel Prize in Literature, Ms. Pellerin laughed uncomfortably, unable to name any work by the celebrated writer.当让其说出最喜欢的法国作家帕特里克·莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)的一本书时,佩尔兰不自在地笑了。她说不出这名前不久刚获得诺贝尔文学奖的著名作家的任何一部作品。Only weeks before, Ms. Pellerin had applauded Mr. Modiano for conveying France’s literary influence and vitality “in the eyes of the world.” And earlier in the interview, she had gushed that she had shared a wonderful lunch with Mr. Modiano, found him nice and laughed a lot.而就在几周前,佩尔兰还盛赞莫迪亚诺“向全世界”传递了法国的文学影响力和活力。而且在让其说出最喜欢的莫迪亚诺著作之前,她还在采访中大谈曾和莫迪亚诺共进午餐,觉得莫迪亚诺人很好,曾与他多次开怀大笑。Mr. Modiano, the 15th French writer to win the Nobel for literature, has published 30 works, including moody and concise fictional works set in Paris during World War II.莫迪亚诺是第15位获得诺贝尔文学奖的法国作家,他出版了30本书,其中包括背景设置在二战时期巴黎的一些沉郁而简练的小说。Making matters worse, to some cultural observers, Ms. Pellerin said she had no problem admitting that she had not had much time to a book for pleasure in two years.对于一些文化观察人士来说,更糟的是,佩尔兰在过去两年没有出于乐趣读过任何一本书,却不觉得承认这一点有什么问题。“I a lot of notes, a lot of legal texts, the news, A.F.P. stories, but I very little,” she said.她说,“我阅读了很多笔记,很多法律文本、新闻,以及法新社(AFP)的报道,但我很少读书。”The exchange was seen as an embarrassment among some members of the cultural cognoscenti, who have been basking in France’s cultural supremacy, with a flurry of new museum openings and the Nobel Prize, at a time when the economy and government are struggling.一些文化专家认为,这是一次令人尴尬的对话。目前,这里的文化专家们正沐浴着法国文化优势的光芒,在法国经济及政府苦苦挣扎的同时,新物馆却纷纷开门,法国作家也获得了诺贝尔文学奖。At the French site of The Huffington Post, Claude Askolovitch, a writer, said Ms. Pellerin’s oversight was no less than “barbaric” and called for her to resign, arguing that what he described as her crude indifference to France’s Nobel laureate made her unfit for the job.作家克劳德·阿斯克洛维奇(Claude Askolovitch)在《赫芬顿邮报》(The Huffington Post)法文版网站上发表文章称,佩尔兰的疏忽说“野蛮”也不过分,并要求她辞职,他辩称,佩尔兰不加掩饰地漠视法国的诺贝尔奖得主,因此不适合做文化部长这份工作。“Barbarism is here,” he said. “If one can be culture minister without ing, then we are mere technocrats and budgeters.” He chided her for prioritizing the ing of ministerial memos over the uplift provided by great literary works.“这是一种野蛮行为,”他说。“如果一个不读书的人能成为文化部长,那我们就只是些技术统治论者和预算编制者了。”他指责佩尔兰优先选择阅读部长级备忘录,而不是通过伟大文学作品提升素养。Others, however, were more forgiving and commended Ms. Pellerin for showing a candor all too rare among politicians.然而其他人的态度却更宽容,还称赞佩尔兰表现出了政治人物身上少有的坦诚。Defenders noted that until recently, Ms. Pellerin had been a junior minister in charge of promoting small and medium-size businesses, innovation and the digital economy, and that such savvy trumped literary knowledge at a time when the economy was sputtering and culture budgets were stretched thin.替佩尔兰辩护的人指出,她作为一个年轻的部长,过去一直负责扶持中小企业、创新和数字经济,当前经济乏力而且文化预算捉襟见肘,对经济的熟稔,当然比文学知识更重要。“One can salute her frankness, understanding that the life of a minister leaves little time for the calm required for ing, and even salute the spontaneity of Fleur Pellerin,” said an article in Le Point titled “Fleur Pellerin hasn’t Modiano! So what?”《观点》(Le Point)杂志上一篇题为“弗勒尔·佩尔兰没读过莫迪亚诺又怎样?”的文章写道,“我们应该向她的诚实致敬,要明白部长的生活留不出多少空闲时间,没有阅读所需的那种沉静。我们甚至应该称赞弗勒尔·佩尔兰的率性。”Even before, Ms. Pellerin, 41, had become an object of some fascination among the French. Born in South Korea, she was adopted by a French family when she was 6 months old. She graduated at the top of her class at the #201;cole Nationale d’Administration, the training ground for future French presidents and prime ministers. Colleagues say that before working 14-hour days as a minister, Ms. Pellerin was a prolific er of fiction and nonfiction, and that she is equally at ease admiring a Picasso painting as she is listening to a hip-hop track.现年41岁的佩尔兰,在此之前就曾让法国人惊叹过。她生于韩国,6岁时被一个法国家庭收养。她以班里第一名的成绩毕业于法国国家行政学院(#201;cole Nationale d’Administration),而那里是未来法国总统和总理的训练场。同事们表示,在成为部长每天工作14小时之前,佩尔兰热衷于阅读小说和非小说类书籍,而且她既能安然欣赏毕加索的油画,也喜欢听嘻哈音乐。On Twitter, the interview provoked equal expressions of humor, righteous indignation and bemusement at all the fuss. “Fleur Pellerin incapable of citing a book by Modiano, do you mean that she hadn’t Wikipedia that day, like three-quarters of Twitter?” wrote Matteu Maestracci, a journalist for the radio broadcaster France Info.这次采访也在Twitter上也引发了各种不同的反应,包括幽默、义愤,还有对这番大惊小怪的哑然失笑。“弗勒尔·佩尔兰连一本莫迪亚诺的书都说不上来?是说她那天没有像四分之三的Twitter网友一样,看看维基百科吗?”法国新闻广播电台(France Info)记者马修·马埃斯特拉奇(Matteu Maestracci)写道。One Twitter user, Henri Rouquier, for his part, tried to insert a sense of proportion. “France has finally confronted its biggest problem at this time of national crisis: Fleur Pellerin has not Modiano,” he wrote.一位Twitter网友昂立·卢奇埃(Henri Rouquier)想提醒我们不要小题大做。他写道,“在经历全国性危机的时候,法国终于遇到了最大的问题:弗勒尔·佩尔兰没有读过莫迪亚诺。”Outside France, Ms. Pellerin might receive even more sympathy. Although revered at home, Mr. Modiano, until recently, was largely unknown abroad. One of his novels, “Rue des Boutiques Obscures,” released as “Missing Person” in English, won the prestigious Prix Goncourt in 1978, but has sold just 2,425 copies in the ed States.在法国之外,佩尔兰或许还会得到更多同情。尽管莫迪亚诺在国内备受推崇,但直到最近,他在国外基本上都默默无闻。他的一本小说《暗店街》(Rue des Boutiques Obscures)在1978年赢得了赫赫有名的龚古尔奖(Prix Goncourt),但该书的英译本《失踪的人》(Missing Person)在美国却只卖出了2425本。 /201411/340998

  

  Kathleen Wiederman is not staunchly against vaccines. She simply believes it is better for her child to naturally battle an illness than to be vaccinated against it.凯思琳·维德曼并非是疫苗的坚定反对者,她只是相信,她的孩子通过自身免疫对抗疾病,比接种疫苗要好得多。;Doctors don#39;t know everything,; said the 42-year-old recruiter, who prefers alternative medicine and gave birth at her home in the well-heeled Virginia suburbs without the aid of a pain-killing epidural.“医生并不了解所有的事,”42岁的招聘人员维德曼表示。她喜欢替代疗法,并在位于富饶的弗吉尼亚郊区的家中生孩子,全程不使用硬脊膜外注射麻醉来避免疼痛。At first, she and her husband agreed on the matter, but when their marriage ended, he pushed for their daughter to get some of her recommended vaccines and Wiederman relented.起初,她和丈夫同意这样的做法,但当他们离婚后,她丈夫让女儿接种了一些她所推荐的疫苗,这时,维德曼的态度有所软化。Now her daughter is five and has had a handful of shots, including against chicken pox and measles, but not polio.现在,她的女儿5岁了,已经注射了几种疫苗,包括水痘和麻疹疫苗,但没有接种小儿麻痹症的疫苗。And if her child gets sick?那么,如果她的孩子病了,该怎么办呢?;Then we treat it however you need to treat it and work through it,; she told AFP.“无论需要怎样的治疗,我们都会提供,来治好孩子的病,”她告诉法新社。Wiederman, who has a law degree, is among a growing number of Americans who oppose vaccines, raising concerns about a resurgence in contagious diseases like measles and whooping cough.反对疫苗接种的美国人数量不断增加,拥有法律学位的维德曼是其中一员,而她却担心像麻疹和百日咳这样的传染性疾病会再次出现。Vaccine hesitancy is increasingly common, and not only when it comes to infant and childhood immunizations, experts say.专家表示,对疫苗持观望态度的现象日益普遍,并不只局限于婴儿和儿童的免疫。Two in three working age adults refuse to get the annual flu vaccine and the same proportion of parents decline the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for young adolescents, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.美国疾病控制和预防中心表示,在处于工作年龄的成年人当中,每三个人中就有两人拒绝接受每年的流感疫苗注射,同样比例的父母拒绝让年龄还小的青少年注射人类乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗。;The people we are concerned about are the people who are hesitant. The general demographic is well-educated and upper middle class,; said Barry Bloom, a professor of medicine at Harvard University.“我们所担心的是那些持观望态度的人们,他们一般接受过良好教育,属于中上层阶级,”哈佛大学医学教授巴里·布鲁姆说。;I think they are on the rise everywhere.;“我认为,他们的人数在每个地方都有增加。”In recent years, reports linking vaccines to autism have been debunked, but fears of adverse events -- which experts say are rare -- have proven difficult to erase.近年来,一些将疫苗同自闭症相联系的报告已被明是错误的,专家也表示注射疫苗后很少出现不良事件,但是,人们对此所产生的恐惧却很难消除。Some parents are troubled by the increasing number of vaccines children are given, which have risen from seven in 1985 to 14 today, a result of medical advances, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.疾病控制和预防中心表示,由于医学的进步,一些父母正受困于孩子可接种疫苗数量的不断增长,疫苗数量从1985年的7种增加到现在的14种。;I was stunned by the number of vaccines,; said Alina Scott, a 37-year-old project manager and mother of a two-year-old son.“我对疫苗的数量感到吃惊,”37岁的项目经理艾莉娜·斯科特说,她有一个2岁的儿子。Scott said she began ing everything she could find on the topic, even before her child was born, and decided that vaccines were not for them.斯科特表示,她开始阅读她能找到的关于这一主题的所有材料,甚至在她的孩子出生之前就开始了,并且她认为疫苗不适合他们。;This lasted until about a year ago, when I just felt like I wasn#39;t finding any new information. It#39;s like I hit the end of Internet,; she said. ;I don#39;t think we will be vaccinating any time soon.;“这一行为持续到了一年前,那时,我觉得我无法找到任何新的信息,就像是我已经到达了互联网的尽头,”她说,“我想,我们不会很快就接种疫苗。”- Religious exemptions -宗教豁免Nearly all US states require a standard list of immunizations before children can enter school, but they allow religious exemptions for vaccines. Some allow parents to opt out for personal reasons.几乎美国所有的州都要求,孩子进入学校前,要进行一系列规定的免疫接种,但是,他们允许对于疫苗的宗教豁免,一些州允许父母可以因个人原因,不让孩子接种疫苗。Some measles outbreaks in recent years, including in the Orthodox Jewish community in New York City, have been linked to parents refusing vaccines.近些年,一些水痘病例爆发,包括在纽约市传统犹太社区的出现,与父母拒绝为孩子接疫种苗密切相关。;Today you are allowed to have philosophical reasons not to vaccinate and I think that is crazy,; said Anne Gershon, director of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease at Columbia University Medical Center.“今天,你可以有合理的原因不接种疫苗,但我认为这是疯狂的举动,”哥伦比亚大学医学中心儿童传染性疾病部门的负责人安妮·格申说。;The reason is that it hurts many people. It is not just your child.;“原因在于,这会伤及很多人,不仅仅是你的孩子。”Some young people cannot get vaccines, including those with cancer or immune diseases, and very young infants are vulnerable to pertussis, or whooping cough, until the age of two months when they can get begin to get doses of the vaccine.一些年轻人不能接种疫苗,包括那些身患癌症或免疫疾病的人。很小的婴儿容易患百日咳,他们在两个月大的时候才能开始接种一些剂量的疫苗。Particularly with measles, one of the most contagious diseases, outbreaks will occur unless 94 percent or more of the population is vaccinated, according to Bloom.布鲁姆表示,特别需要注意的是水痘,它是最具传染性的疾病之一,除非94%或更多的人接种了疫苗才能避免大规模的爆发。Nationwide, vaccination rates among US kindergarteners have stayed high -- near 95 percent.就全国而言,在美国的幼儿园儿童当中,疫苗接种率很高,接近95%。But a 2011 poll in the journal Pediatrics found that one in 10 parents did not stick to the recommended schedule of vaccines for their child, and a quarter of parents had doubts about vaccine safety.然而,2011年儿科杂志的民意调查发现,1/10的父母没有坚持让孩子接种疫苗推荐计划表上的疫苗,而1/4的父母怀疑疫苗的安全性。The ed States typically sees about 60 cases of measles per year.美国每年通常有60例水痘病例。;We don#39;t have a crisis, but nonetheless the trend is going up and the number of immunizations is going down,; said Bloom.“我们没有这样的危机,但是即便如此,这一趋势正在上涨,而接受免疫的数量正在下降,”布鲁姆说。Another trend is resistance to vaccines like the annual flu shot, experts say.专家说,另一个趋势是对类似每年流感疫苗的抗拒。The CDC said in February that two-thirds of adults aged 18 to 65 had not had their seasonal shot, and that hospitalizations in this age group had doubled over last year. Deaths from flu complications were also far higher than usual.疾病控制中心(CDC)在二月曾表示,18到65岁的成年人当中,有2/3的人没有接受季节性疫苗注射,这个年龄群体的住院人数在去年增加了一倍,流感并发症引发的死亡人数也远高于平常。Doctors are also surprised at how many decline the three-dose shot to prevent HPV, a sexually transmitted infection which can lead to cervical cancer in women and cancers of the head, neck, penis and anus in men.注射预防HPV的三剂预防针数量大量减少,医生也对此感到惊讶。HPV通过性接触感染,会导致女性的宫颈癌,以及男性头部、颈部、生殖器和的癌症。The vaccine is recommended for school age boys and girls before they become sexually active, and can be given as early as age nine.这一疫苗建议在学龄儿童性征活跃前注射,也可以早在9岁时就接种。Just one in three women aged 19 to 26 had been vaccinated in 2012, and just 2.3 percent of men, the CDC has reported.CDC报告称,2012年,19到26岁的女性中,1/3接种了疫苗,而只有2.3%的男性接受了疫苗注射。;I think for physicians, the idea that vaccines could prevent cancers seems phenomenal,; said Anne Schuchat, Assistant Surgeon General and director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.“我认为对内科医生而言,疫苗能够预防癌症似乎很惊人,”外科总医师助理及国家免疫和呼吸疾病中心负责人安妮·舒查特说。;It has been a surprise it has not been going like hotcakes.;“令人吃惊的是,它却没有那样畅销。”When it comes to how to communicate the benefits of vaccines to a skeptical public, experts are stumped.面对挑剔的公众,如何与他们交流疫苗的好处,这难倒了专家。In Bloom#39;s view, vaccines have fallen victim to their own success.;If they have never seen a kid blinded from measles, or mentally retarded from pertussis, it is very hard in this wonderful, happy, affluent world of kindergartens and first and second grades to see that there is a problem that vaccines are preventing.;在布鲁姆看来,疫苗已经成为了他们自身成功的受害者。 “如果他们从未见过一个孩子因水痘而致盲,或因百日咳而智力发展受阻,就很难在美好、快乐和丰富的幼儿时期和一二年级时发现这个问题,即疫苗正受到人们的抗拒。” /201404/289600。

  

  

  

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