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福州检查胎停比较好的医院福州博爱中医院治输卵管积水多少钱福州那里输卵管结扎 So this is just one experiment that we published a few years ago,where a monkey, without moving its body,learned to control the movements of an avatar arm,a virtual arm that doesnt exist. 那么这只是我们几年前发表的一个实验,一只猴子,无需动自己的身体,学会控制一个机械手臂,一个不存在的虚拟的手臂。What youre listening to is the sound of the brain of this monkey as it explores three different visually identical spheres in virtual space.你们听到的是这只猴子脑部的声音在虚拟空间里边探索三个视觉上相同的球体。And to get a reward, a drop of orange juice that monkeys love,this animal has to detect, select one of these objects by touching,not by seeing it, by touching it,because every time this virtual hand touches one of the objects,an electrical pulse goes back to the brain of the animal describing the fine texture of the surface of this object, so the animal can judge what is the correct object that he has to grab, and if he does that, he gets a reward without moving a muscle. 奖励就是给猴子一滴它喜欢的橙汁,这只猴子需要通过触摸来探测和选取其中一个物品,不是通过观察,而是通过触摸,因为每当虚拟手臂触摸一个物体时,一个电子脉冲就会传到猴子的脑部给这个动物描述物体表面的质地,猴子就能够判断它需要选哪个物体,如果它找到正确的物体, 他将无需动一块肌肉而得到奖赏。The perfect Brazilian lunch:完美的巴西式午餐,not moving a muscle and getting your orange juice.无需劳动而获得奖励。So as we saw this happening,we actually came and proposed the idea that we had published 15 years ago. 当我们发现这个之后,我们得出了15年前提出的观点。We reenacted this paper.我们重新起草了文章。We got it out of the drawers,and we proposed that perhaps we could get a human being that is paralyzed to actually use the brain-machine interface to regain mobility. 我们从箱子里找回这篇文章,并提出或许我们可以让一个瘫痪的人运用脑机接口重新获得运动能力。The idea was that if you suffered and that can happen to any one of us.大意就是如果你患有瘫痪,它很有可能发生到任何人身上。Let me tell you, its very sudden.我和你们说,世事无常。Its a millisecond of a collision,a car accident that transforms your life completely. 这是毫秒之差的一个事故,一次车祸就改变了你的一生。If you have a complete lesion of the spinal cord,you cannot move because your brainstorms cannot reach your muscles. 如果你的脊髓完全损伤,你无法运动因为你的脑电风暴无法 将信号发送到你的肌肉中。However, your brainstorms continue to be generated in your head.然而,你的脑电风暴不断在脑部产生。Paraplegic, quadriplegic patients dream about moving every night.截瘫,全身瘫痪的患者 每天都梦到自己又能运动四肢。They have that inside their head.他们在脑子里有这样的感觉。The problem is how to get that code out of it and make the movement be created again.问题就是我们怎么把它转码变成动作,So what we proposed was, lets create a new body.所以我们提出的是 造一个新的肢体。Lets create a robotic vest.创造一个机器背心。And thats exactly why Juliano could kick that ball just by thinking,because he was wearing the first brain-controlled robotic vest that can be used by paraplegic, quadriplegic patients to move and to regain feedback.这就是为什么Juliano能够通过想象来踢球,因为他穿着第一件脑控机器背心能够帮助截瘫,全身瘫痪的患者重新运动并且重新得到运动反馈。That was the original idea, 15 years ago.这就是15年前的想法。What Im going to show you is how 156 people from 25 countries all over the five continents of this beautiful Earth,dropped their lives, dropped their patents,dropped their dogs, wives, kids, school, jobs,and congregated to come to Brazil for 18 months to actually get this done. 我要给你们展示的是从25个国家来自这个美丽星球的五大洲的156人,放下他们的生活 离开他们的父母,宠物、妻子、儿女、功课、工作,聚集到巴西度过18个月来完成这个项目。Because a couple years after Brazil was awarded the World Cup,we heard that the Brazilian government wanted to do something meaningful in the opening ceremony in the country that reinvented and perfected soccer until we met the Germans, of course.因为在几年后巴西成功申请举办世界杯,我们听说巴西政府想在开幕式上做一些意义非凡的事情在这个重塑并完善足球的国家当然,那是在我们碰到德国人之前。But thats a different talk,and a different neuroscientist needs to talk about that. 但那又是另一个话题了,这是另一类神经学家该讨论的问题。But what Brazil wanted to do is to showcase a completely different country,但巴西想要做的是展现一个完全不一样的国家,a country that values science and technology,and can give a gift to millions, 25 million people around the world that cannot move any longer because of a spinal cord injury. 一个重视科学和技术的国家,能够为全球2500万因为脊髓受伤而无法行动的人一个礼物。Well, we went to the Brazilian government and to FIFA and proposed,well, lets have the kickoff of the 2014 World Cup be given by a Brazilian paraplegic using a brain-controlled exoskeleton that allows him to kick the ball and to feel the contact of the ball. 我们向巴西政府和国际足联提出建议,让我们邀请一个巴西截瘫患者使用一个大脑控制的骨骼康复机器人让他能接触并感受到球来为2014世界杯开球。They looked at us, thought that we were completely nuts,and said, Okay, lets try.他们像看到一群疯子一样地看着我们然后说好吧,我们来试一下。We had 18 months to do everything from zero, from scratch.我们有18个月的时间从零开始。We had no exoskeleton, we had no patients, we had nothing done.我们没有机器人,没有患者,我们什么都没有。These people came all together and in 18 months, we got eight patients in a routine of training and basically built from nothing this guy, that we call Bra-Santos Dumont 1.这些人聚集在一起并且在18个月的时间里 我们有8位患者进行日常训练基本上是从零开始,这个家伙,我们称它为Bra-Santos Dumont一号。The first brain-controlled exoskeleton to be built was named after the most famous Brazilian scientist ever,Alberto Santos Dumont,who, on October 19, 1901, created and flew himself the first controlled airship on air in Paris for a million people to see. 第一个脑控骨骼康复机器人是以巴西最著名的科学家,阿尔贝托桑托斯杜蒙来命名,他在1901年10月19号 发明并自行飞行了第一架驾驶飞艇 在巴黎上空在百万人们的注视下飞行。Sorry, my American friends,I live in North Carolina,but it was two years before the Wright Brothers flew on the coast of North Carolina. 对不起,我的美国朋友们,我住在北卡罗纳,但莱特兄弟是在两年后才在北卡的岸边成功试飞的。201503/365169Number 15, this ones really important 第15点 这一点很重要Dont have a relationship with a partner who doesnt get it不要同志不同道不合的人搭伙Someone says, why do you have to go to so many auditions 有人问 你干嘛要去试演那么多次Next, move on, that person is not for you下一个 这个人不适合你Okay, let me tell you something 让我给你们讲讲until your creative thirst is quenched 除非你的创作欲望枯竭了you are not going to be happy with anyone. Youre an artist 否则你不会对任何人都满意 你是一名艺术家If they cant share your pain and your joy. Its not going to work如果他们无法分享你的痛苦和喜悦 那是行不通的You need a sole mate, not a sell mate. Thats pretty much it 你需要一个精神伴侣 而不是经营伴侣Number 16, never go on stage mad 第16点 不要在舞台上发疯If youre in a fight with someone even if youre right just apologize如果你同某人打架 哪怕你是对的 请道歉This is more important. Anger robs creativity 这很重要 愤怒会偷走创造性I remember watching the great comedy once. Its really funny 我曾经观看过一出很棒的喜剧 很有趣until he started talking about his ex-wife 直到他开始讲他的前妻Its like, something else has happened to you这就像进入了另一个世界So remember. Anger robs creativity 记住 愤怒会偷走创造性Number 17, and this is important 第17点 这一点很重要Never create anything bigger than your act 不要创造出任何大于作为的名气By that I mean, dont become more famous for something that 我意思是说 不要因为某些与你has nothing to do with what your talent is 才能无关的东西而变得太出名Meryl Streep is the greatest actress in the world 梅丽尔·斯特里普是世界最伟大的女演员how much does she make a movie? 她拍一部片多少钱I have no idea 我不知道Shes famous for being the greatest actress in the world 她出名是因为她是世界最好的女演员not the highest paid 而不是因为片酬最高When people find out how much money youre making 人们知道你赚多少钱后you suddenly become a lot less talented 你突然就会变得不那么有才华So try to get press for things that have something to do with your abilities 让媒体多报道关于你能力的东西when you get too comfortable move on 如果过得太舒适 请往前进Most performers are pretty lazy 很多演员都很懒They only like to perform when theyre best received他们只想在自己最受欢迎的地方演出201601/42福州妇幼医院不孕不育

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福州排卵检查那个医院好 Over the next five minutes,在接下来的5分钟里my intention is to transform your relationship with sound.我想把你们与声音的关系作个转变Let me start with the observation that most of the sound around us is accidental,首先,请允许我以这样的观察开始,我发现大多数围绕我们的声音是偶然性的。and much of it is unpleasant.并且许多声音也是不愉悦的。We stand on street corners, shouting over noise like this,我们站在街巷的角落,像这样盖过噪音来说话,and pretending that it doesnt exist.就当那噪音不存在一样。Well, this habit of suppressing sound has meant that our好,这样一种压制其他声音的习惯意味着我们relationship with sound has become largely unconscious.与声音的关系变得更无意识了There are four major ways sound is affecting you all the time,声音通过这样4种主要的方式一直影响着你们and Id like to raise them in your consciousness today.而今天我想唤起你们对于声音的知觉。First is physiological.首先声音是生理的。Sorry about that. Ive just given you a shot of cortisol, your fight/flight hormone.抱歉。我刚给了你们一记皮质醇(荷尔蒙)你们的的冲击,Sounds are affecting your hormone secretions all the time,这样的声音一直影响着你们的荷尔蒙分泌物,but also your breathing, your heart rate -- which I just also did --但同时你们的呼吸,你们的心跳频率,就像我刚才那样and your brainwaves.还有你们的脑电波Its not just unpleasant sounds like that that do it.对它们而言这声音不仅仅是不愉悦。This is surf.这是拍岸浪花的声音It has the frequency of roughly 12 cycles per minute.它有着大约每分钟12转的频率Most people find that very soothing,许多人觉得那声音非常抚慰人心的,and, interestingly, 12 cycles per minute而,有趣的是,12转每分钟的频率is roughly the frequency of the breathing of a sleeping human.恰巧是一个沉睡着的人的呼吸频率,There is a deep resonance with being at rest.从而形成了这样一种与人类休息时的共鸣。We also associate it with being stress-free我们也将此与其他的状态联系起来:比如没有压力的时候,and on holiday.又如放假之时。The second way in which sound affects you is psychological.第二种声音影响你们方式是心理上的。Music is the most powerful form of sound that we know音乐是我们所知道的最能that affects our emotional state.影响着我们情绪的一种声音表现形式。This is guaranteed to make most of you feel pretty sad这样的声音一定会让你们都感到有些伤感if I leave it on.如果我一直放下去。Music is not the only kind of sound, however, which affects your emotions.然而,音乐并不是唯一的一种影响着你们情绪的声音形式。Natural sound can do that too.自然之音亦有此效。Birdsong, for example, is a sound which most people比如鸟鸣,这种声音对于大多数人而言find reassuring. 都是一种安慰。There is a reason for that. Over hundreds of thousands of years这正是在经历了成百上千年weve learned that when the birds are singing, things are safe.我们认识到鸟的歌声是安全的表现的原因。Its when they stop you need to be worried.而当它们停下也就是你们需要担心的时候了。The third way in which sound affects you is cognitively.第三种声音影响着你们的方式是认知性的。You cant understand two people talking at once 你不会同时理解两个人在同时说话or in this case one person talking twice.或者在这种情况下一个人说话两次。Try and listen to the other one.尝试听另一个人We have a very small amount of bandwidth for processing auditory input,我们大脑只有很小一部分可以带宽可以用来处理声像的输入which is why noise like this --这正是为什么如这样的闹声is extremely damaging for productivity.对于生产力有着如此巨大的破坏力If you have to work in an open-plan office like this,如果你要在这样一个公开的办公室里工作,your productivity is greatly reduced.你的效率就大打折扣了。And whatever number youre thinking of, it probably isnt as bad as this.并且无论你在想着怎样的数字,也许并不会像这样糟糕。You are one third as productive in open-plan offices as in quiet rooms.你在一个开放式的办公室里面的效率是安静的房间内的三分之一。And I have a tip for you. If you have to work in spaces like that,那让我给你个小建议吧。如果你需要在那样的开放环境下工作,carry headphones with you, with a soothing sound like birdsong.带上你的耳机,和如鸟鸣般和谐的音乐。Put them on and your productivity goes back up to triple what it would be.在你工作的时候带上耳机,你的效率变会恢复三倍变为它本来的样子。The fourth way in which sound affects us is behaviorally.第四种声音影响你的方式是通过行为的With all that other stuff going on, it would be amazing当周围有声音的时候,如果我们的行为完全不变,if our behavior didnt change.那将会是一件令人惊讶的事情了。So, ask yourself: Is this person ever going to drive所以,问问你自己吧:这人是不是准备就at a steady 28 miles per hour? I dont think so.一直用28英里每小时的速度开下去?我不这么认为。At the simplest, you move away from unpleasant sound用最简单的方式说,你会离开不舒的声音and towards pleasant sounds.并前往和谐的声音。So if I were to play this所以如果我们播放这个声音for more than a few seconds, youd feel uncomfortable;过不了几秒,你们觉得不舒了吧;for more than a few minutes, youd be leaving the room in droves.过不了几分钟,你们会成群结队离开这里。For people who cant get away from noise like that,因为人们不能摆脱这样的噪声,its extremely damaging for their health.对于他们的身体也是极大的伤害。And thats not the only thing that bad sound damages.而且那并不是噪音唯一破坏的Most retail sound is inappropriate and accidental, and even hostile,大多数零售商发出的声音是不正确的,随意性的,甚至是带有敌意的。and it has a dramatic effect on sales.并且对于销量也有着巨大的影响作用。For those of you who are retailers, you may want to look away对于你们其中这些零售商,在我展示这些画面前,before I show this slide.你们或许不想再看。They are losing up to 30 percent of their business这些声音使得生意少去了百分之三十with people leaving shops faster, or just turning around on the door.人们加快步伐离开商店,或者只是在门口望一望。We all have done it, leaving the area我们都做过这样的事情,离开那片地域because the sound in there is so dful.只因为那里的声音太令人不快乐。201504/367552福州解扎手术三甲医院福州治疗阳痿要多少钱



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