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吉安人民医院吸脂手术多少钱吉安治疗胎记哪家好Pens in Space太空笔Legend has it that NASA spent a million dollars developing a pressurized ballpoint pen that astronauts could use in space, while the Russians merely opted to use a pencil. Embarrassing, right? Luckily, though, this is nothing more than a myth.太空笔的发明是一个传奇:美国宇航局耗资百万美元,研发宇航员可以在太空使用的“封闭式气压”圆珠笔;而面临着同样难题的苏联,则选择了一铅笔。情何以堪?好在这只是谣言。Hold on. How come astronauts can’t use regular ballpoint pens?等等,为什么宇航员不用普通圆珠笔呢?Because ordinary pens rely on gravity, while you write, gravity forces the ink down onto the ball, which rolls inside its socket and sps the ink on your writing surface. In space, of course, there isn’t enough gravity to force the ink out, so the pens reservoir needs to be pressurized.因为普通圆珠笔在有重力的情况下方可工作。主要是重力作用油墨,使圆珠在球座内滚动,带出笔芯内的油墨或墨水,以达到书写的目的。而在太空上,没有足够的重力带出油墨,需要气体压力把油墨推向笔尖。If thats the case, why not use pencil?如果是这样,为什么不用铅笔呢?Paul Fisher, the guy who produced the space pen, noted that when astronauts used lead pencils, and the pencils broke, the lead floating around became a safety hazard. Plus, both pencil lead and wood burn rapidly in pure oxygen environments.Paul Fisher指出宇航员使用铅笔十分不安全,使用中产生的铅笔屑会四处漂浮。此外,铅笔的笔芯和木屑在纯氧环境中还易快速燃烧。Paul Fisher后来生产了太空笔。After the Apollo 1 disaster, NASA required writing instruments that wouldn’t burn in these conditions. This space pen is made of metal, and the ink has a much higher ignition point than regular ink.在阿波罗一号的惨剧发生后,美国航天局规定书写工具不得在无氧环境中燃烧。所以太空笔由金属制造,油墨的燃烧点也高于普通油墨。So you have convinced me space pens have got the right staff, but they still much of cost bundle to develop.你成功说我,太空笔选材正确,但是,太空笔的花销确实不菲。Maybe so, Paul Fisher financed their development entirely on his own.也许正因为如此,Paul Fisher自己承担了太空笔研制的费用。In fact, after sinking a million dollars into all that research, the first order was for 400 pens that he sold for .95 each. On the bright side, today all astronauts use these pens, and plenty of ordinary people do too.事实上,在百万美元投入这项研究后,首批订单是400太空笔,每售价2.95美元。值得庆幸的是,如今所有宇航员在用太空笔,不少普通人也在使用。 /201211/207768万安县妇幼保健人民医院激光祛痘多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Intelligence testing智力测试Who are you calling bird-brained?叫谁是笨蛋呢?An attempt is being made to devise a universal intelligence test人类正尝试设计一种通用的智力测验WHAT is the IQ of a chimpanzee? Or a worm? Or a game-show-winning computer program? Or even an alien from the planet Zaarg who can learn any human language in a day, can beat grandmasters ten at a time and can instantly factor the products of large prime numbers?黑猩猩、蠕虫或用于智力竞赛的计算机程序,甚至是来自Zaarg星球的外星人外星人能在一天内学会任何一门人类语言,每次都能赢棋类大师10分,能立即分解出大质数的因子,它们的智商是多少呢?At the moment it is impossible to say.当问到这类问题,没有人能回答出来。IQ tests depend on language, and even Watson, a computer program that beat two human contestants in a special edition of “Jeopardy!”on February 16th, does not have a perfect command of English.IQ测试依赖于语言,而且就算是Watson系统对英语也不是了如指掌2月16日,Watson系统在美国智力竞赛;Jeopardy!;的特别节目中击败了两名人类对手。In any case there is, at the moment, no meaningful scale on which non-human intelligence can be compared with the human sort.但不管怎么样,现在还没有一个有意义的标尺能用于任何非人类和人类智商的比较。The most famous test for artificial intelligence is that devised by Alan Turing, a British computing pioneer.最著名的人工智力测试是由英国计算科学先驱阿兰图灵设计的。To pass the Turing test, and thus be considered intelligent, a program must fool a human being into believing that it is another human being. 为了通过图灵测试,机器中的程序必须使对方误以为它也是一个人类,But the Turing test still requires the program to share a language with the tester and, because it is all or nothing, cannot be used to rank different forms of artificial intelligence against one another.且如果机器通过了测试,该机器就被认为是人工智能。但图灵测试仍要求程序和测试者使用相同的语言。并且由于测试的结果是“是”或者“否”,因此不能用于不同形式人工智能间的评级。José Hernández-Orallo of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, in Spain, and David Dowe of Monash University, in Australia, think they can do better than this.来自西班牙瓦伦西亚理工大学的José Hernández-Orallo和澳大利亚莫纳什大学的David Dowe认为他们能设计出比图灵更完善的测试。They believe not only that a universal scale of intelligence can be devised, but also that it can be assessed without reference to language.他们相信不仅能设计出可通用的智商标尺,而且测试可以与语言无关。If they are right, an insult like “bird-brained” will, in the future, be finely calibrated.如果真能如他们所说,那么将来就可以精确计算出“愚蠢”的程度了。Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe, both computer scientists, propose to make their measurement by borrowing a concept called Kolmogorov complexity from information theory, a branch of computer science. The Kolmogorov complexity of a computers output is the shortest possible program that could produce that output.Hernández-Orallo士和Dr Dowe士都是计算机科学家,他们提出:借用信息论中的Kolmogorov复杂度概念来实现测量。计算机输出的Kolmogorov复杂度是指能产生该输出的可能最短程序基于计算机代码的二进制位数。On this measure, an entitys intelligence would be measured by the Kolmogorov complexity of the most complex tests it can solve—a clear, numerical value.在这种设计下,可以通过最复杂测试的Kolmogorov复杂度来测量一个实体的智商。In practice, calculating the true Kolmogorov complexity of a system is almost impossible. But an approximation can be made. And that, the researchers reckon, will be good enough.实际上,要正确计算出系统的Kolmogorov复杂度几乎是不可能的。但可以计算出它的近似值。而对研究人员的估算工作而言,近似值也就足够了。The actual tests would employ the well-honed methods of operant conditioning, developed initially on pigeons, in which the test subject has first to work out what is going on by trial and error.实际的测试会采用精确的操作性条件反射方法,测试对象首先要清楚实验的过程和错误。As in operant conditioning, correct responses would be ewarded—by money, perhaps, for a human being; by bananas for a chimpanzee or by the numerical value itself for an appropriately programmed computer.在操作性条件反射中,正确的反射响应将得到奖励—对人而言可能是金钱,对黑猩猩而言是香蕉,对可编程计算机而言则可能是数值本身。If the test were noughts and crosses, the test-taker would first have to work out that the game is won by getting three in a row on a 3-by-3 grid, before actually going on to play.如果测验是画圈叉游戏,则在进行游戏之前测试参与者首要要弄懂在3X3的网格中,3个格连成一行就赢得游戏了。A chimpanzee might not manage a test of this level of complexity, but could, maybe, work out the idea of three-in-a-row when only a single row was involved. Chess, though, would surely be beyond it.黑猩猩可能没办法理解这种复杂度等级的测验,但当只有一行时,它们也许就可以明白;3格-1行;的概念了。Games like draughts and dominoes would lie somewhere in between.而象棋的难易度远超过黑猩猩的理解程度。西洋跳棋和多米诺骨牌这类游戏的难易程度则介于圈叉和象棋之间。In fact Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe do not plan to use existing games. Instead they are employing a computer to enerate novel games and patterns.实际上,Hernández-Orallo士和Dowe士计划采用计算机产生的新游戏和新花样来代替已有的游戏。Their approach eliminates human bias.他们的方法消除了人类的偏见,It also allows them to generate tests with any level of complexity they like—even ones that are far beyond the ability of humans to complete.同时也允许产生任何复杂度等级的测验—甚至可以是远超过人类能力的。When it comes to testing the tests, then, aliens from the planet Zaarg will be particularly welcome to apply.当可以进行测试时,特别欢迎来自Zaarg星球的外星人。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231157吉安激光祛斑大概多少钱

吉安中心医院激光去痘多少钱They were also important, because they coincided with a period when the military government in Brazil was trying to open up Brazil to outside investments. 他们也很重要,因为在那段时期巴西的军队政府试图打开巴西对外投资的大门。The military wanted to provide an image of Brazil that was progressive, that Brazil could take its part amongst the nations of the world. 军方想要营造的巴西是一个进步的,可以在世界上的国家利用其自身的部分。For the moment at least, there was no censorship. 至少就目前来说,没有审查。The festivals included protest singers along with pop stars. 这些节日包括歌手及流行的明星。And a new wave of singer-songwriters, who were given the uninspired title MPB, Popular Brazilian Music, and included musicians who would dominate the Brazilian music scene for the next three decades. 而新一波的歌手被授予平凡的头衔,而这其中就包括在接下来的三十年主宰了巴西音乐的音乐家。For the TV companies, the festivals were a massive success.对于电视公司而言,这些节日是一次巨大的成功。People used to gather around, in bars, on street corners, and watch the festivals in groups, because not everybody had television sets. 以前人们聚在一起,在酒吧,在街角,组织观看节日,因为不是每个人都拥有一台电视机。They were still quite expensive. 它们仍然很昂贵。But people would gather and they would support their own particular performer. 但是人们会聚在一起持自己的特定的表演者。They would support in much the same way that they would support a football team. 他们将以持一足球队的同样的方式持这些歌手。注:听力文本来源于普特201302/226505吉安激光去皱 Crowd gets quiet. The moment starts to become the moment, you know, for me. Once you get in the moment, you know youre there. And when I saw the moment. the opportunity totake advantage of it. I never doubted myself. Knowing that this was going to bethe last opportunity, you know, to either win the game or lose it.人群变得鸦雀无声。现在就是那一刻的开始,你知道,这对我来说很重要。一旦你在那个时刻,你知道自己的存在。而当我看见那一刻,这是利用这个机会领先的绝佳机会。我从未怀疑过自己。知道这会是最后机会,你知道,要么胜者为王,要么败者为寇。Michael against Russell. Eleven, ten...Jordan. Jordan a drive, hangs, fires, scores! Bulls win the title! The Bulls are the world champs again!迈克尔与罗素对峙。还有11秒,10秒;众人屏息都在专注于乔丹。乔丹准备,投篮,得分!公牛队赢得冠军!公牛再一次站在了世界之巅!If thats the last image of Michael Jordan, how magnificent is it?!如果这是迈克尔;乔丹最后的演出,那么怎能不华丽至极? !The crowd:众人:Oh, my God! It was beautiful! What a finish!哦,我的上帝!太美妙了!绝妙的完成!I had faith! I had faith!我重拾信心!我重拾信心!God bless you.上帝保佑你。His sixth MVP in this past season, and his sixth MVP in the NBA finals. Michael Jordan!这是他在过去赛季的第6个MVP,也是他在NBA总决赛中的第6个MVP。这就是迈克尔;乔丹!注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171163吉安治疗疤痕疙瘩的医院

吉安人民医院光子脱毛多少钱 Business.商业。The music business.唱片业。Universals gamble.环球公司的游戏。A musical merger could create anew model, or a dozy mammoth.唱片行业的并购案可能会催生一种新的商业模式,亦或者是一个行动迟缓的;庞然大物;。A WISE gamble involves knowing when to hold, when to fold and when to run,croons Kenny Rogers , an artist released through EMIs Capitol Records . Some are now wondering whether Universal Music Group was wise to gamble quite so much money on EMIs recorded-music division, which it bought from Citigroup for £1.2 billion (.9 billion) in an auction in November last year. For a firm in the weakest segment of a struggling industry, it was a lot. And regulators in America and Europe may make it costlier still.肯尼?罗杰斯(Kenny Rogers)在通过百代(EMI)旗下的国会唱片公司(Capitol Records)发行的一首歌中,这样低声吟唱道:;聪明的牌手知道何时叫牌,他懂得扣牌的时机,他还明白几时该重返牌局;。环球唱片(Universal Music Group)去年11月在一次拍卖会上从花旗集团(Citigroup)手中以12亿英镑(折合19亿美元)的价格买入英国百代(EMI)的唱片部门。环球如此大手笔的冒险行为是否明智?一些业界人士对此表示怀疑。对处在这样一个苦苦挣扎的行业,而且是其发展最疲软市场中的公司来说,这的确是一大笔钱。此外,美国和欧盟相关监管部门的介入,可能令环球付出更高昂的代价。At issue is whether the deal would give Universal Music, the largest of the four major labels, an unfair advantage by letting it take over the smallest. Taking EMIs market share and handsome catalogue (from theBeatles to Katy Perry, pictured) would give Universal a 40-50% share of most markets, reckons Enders Analysis, a research firm. It would also give the company more than half of last years Billboard Top 100 hits, which would put it in an especially strong negotiating position with digital distributors, from iTunes to start-ups. ;This is just about getting a bigger piece of the cake,;says Martin Mills, head of the Beggars Group of independent record labels.但是人们目前考虑的重点是:允许全球四家主要唱片公司中规模最大的环球对规模最小的百代进行收购,此举是否会给环球带来不公平优势?英国市场研究公司Enders Analysis认为,百代唱片(EMI)的市场份额以及旗下众多的大牌艺人(从披头士—Beatles到凯蒂·佩里—Katy Perry,见下图)将会给环球公司带来大部分市场中40%-50%的份额。而这样的交易也同样意味着去年;告示牌百强单曲榜(Billboard Top 100 hits);中过半歌曲的发行都将由环球负责,这将使得环球在同数字音乐分销商iTunes及其它新秀公司谈判时处于一个特别强势的地位。马丁·米尔斯,英国独立音乐厂牌乞丐集团(Beggars Group)创始人兼主席,对此发表称,;这也只不过就是分到了一块比较大的蛋糕罢了!;。Hard times force singers to wear old sweet wrappers日子苦、预算紧,某些歌手只能以老式糖纸裹身登台了Regulators have been wary of further consolidation in the industry ever since Sony Music merged with BMGs recorded-music division in 2004. The European Commission duly delivered a long ;statement of objections; earlier this month. Though negotiations are confidential until the Eurocrats deliver their verdict in September, many predict that Universal will have to sell off quite a bit of EMI, including Virgin Music and EMI Classics.自从2004年索尼唱片公司(Sony Music)并购了贝图斯曼(BMG)的唱片部门之后,致力于行业反垄断的监管者们一直都在担心,该行业未来还会出现其他的合并案例。本月早些时候,欧盟委员会适时地发布了一份内容很长的;异议声明;(Statements of objections)。尽管在9月份欧盟官员公布裁决结果之前,磋商内容仍对外保密,但是许多业界人士推测,环球唱片公司将被迫出售EMI唱片部门旗下相当一部分品牌,其中包括维京(Virgin Music)和百代古典(EMI Classics)。Some expect such concessions to hamper the labels plans to make money from the deal. Universal has to pay Citigroup .75 billion in September regardless of the outcome. This puts Vivendi , Universals French parent, in an uncomfortable position, as it must reassure its increasingly tetchy shareholders that the £100m in predicted synergies will come to pass.有人预计,做出这样的让步,会阻碍环球公司计划通过这项交易实现盈利的目的。同时,不管9月份欧盟会公布怎样的裁决结果,环球唱片公司都需要付花旗集团(Citigroup)17.5亿美金。这样的形势,就使得环球的法国老东家—威望迪集团(Vivendi)处在了一个难堪的境地。因为它必须安抚好那些脾气越来越暴躁的股东们,告诉他们百代加入所产生的协同效应,将为集团带来预计1亿英镑的收入。These regulatory hurdles are good news for Universals rivals, particularly Warner Music, an especially loud opponent of the merger (though it had previously attempted to merge with EMI itself), which is keen to scoop up anything divested in the process. But some wonder why Universal ever chose to double down in such a grim market.面对环球遭遇的这些行业监管门槛,它的竞争对手们,特别是华纳唱片公司(Warner Music)感到很高兴。华纳唱片是这次交易案特别强烈的反对者(尽管之前它也试图想要收购百代),而且它一直都渴望能够收编那些在此次并购过程中被拆分出售的业务 。但是也有人对此怀有疑问,究竟环球唱片公司为什么将赌注双倍压在了这样一个不景气的市场上?Sales of recorded music have fallen by half in the past decade, from about billion in 2002 to .5 billion last year. Downloaded music is much cheaper than the old compact discs. Indeed, thanks to widesp piracy, it is often free.在过去的十年里,唱片业的销售额跌了有五成。从2002年的约130亿美元缩水到了2011年的65亿美元。因为从互联网下载的音乐比传统的CD光盘要便宜的多,而且;得益于;网络盗版的盛行,这些数字音乐经常可以免费得到。Small wonder, then, that music firms are scrambling to cut costs. EMI is in fairly good shape after being put on a diet by Terra Firma, the private-equity firm that owned it before Citigroup. Still, Universalis getting the part of EMIs business that is most vulnerable to disruptive technology. (Citigroup separately sold its stodgy but strong music-publishing division to a consortium headed by Sony for .2 billion. Regulators agreed to this deal last month, without much fuss.)有少部分人怀疑,也就是说,目前的音乐唱片公司都在努力缩减开。花旗集团接手之前的百代(EMI),经过私募股权投资公司—泰丰资本(Terra Firma)的操刀调整之后,处于一个比较良好的状态。而现在,环球公司即将收购的却是百代最容易受到科技侵扰的唱片事业部。(花旗集团单独将百代的音乐版权部门以22亿美元的价格出售给了以索尼为首的一个财团。尽管音乐版权是块;难啃的骨头;,但是却拥有强势的发展前景。上月,行业监管人员同意了这笔交易,而且并没有表现出太多的紧张和不安。)Rock and roll, and the blues摇滚乐和布鲁斯To convince people that its purchase makes sense, Universal is in the awkward position of having to send several messages at once, not all of them coherent. To investors, the company is explaining that the music industry is beginning to stabilise. Its future is rosier than most people think, and alarger Universal would be well-placed to cash in [6]on a recovery, goes the argument. The latest Nielsen SoundScan [11]figures could conceivably support this view, as they show a slowing rate of decline of album sales in America in the first six months of 2012.为了让公众相信,这项收购案是合情合理的,环球唱片公司被迫将零星的几条信息一起公布出来,而并非有条理地让大家了解全部实情,这就使得环球现在处于一种尴尬的境地。面对投资者,它解释称音乐行业已经开始逐渐回稳。有人认为,唱片业的前景要比大多数人想的美好,而且规模扩张的环球公司也将受益于行业复苏,使自己在未来处于有利地位。Nielsen SoundScan最新发布的数据对上述观点进行了有力的持。正如数字显示的那样,2012年美国地区上半年唱片销量下降的趋势正在逐渐减缓。To regulators, Universal and Vivendi are singing a completely different tune.They argue that record labels have been crippled by digital distributors such as Apples iTunes, and by piracy. They moan that music retailers dictate terms to them. They plead that they are so powerless that even getting much larger would not give them anything approaching the clout to curb competition in the music market.但是面对行业的监管者们,环球和威望迪(Vivendi)则完全唱起了不同的调调。他们争论道,类似苹果iTunes这样的数字分销商以及盗版音乐的存在,严重削弱了唱片行业的市场;他们还抱怨音乐零售商对他们颐指气使,发号施令。同时他们也在自我辩解,称自己如此无力,即使规模再大也不可能达到在音乐市场;一手遮天;的地步。Lucian Grainge, the head of Universal, tries to square this circle .He explains that the merger is an effort to ;invest in the future of theindustry;. The plan is not to cut costs and keep EMIs catalogue, but to ;build it back up; and maintain it as a separate company within Universal. He describes the deal as a way to ;turn the industry back to some sort of growth;, and promises to work with as many new distributors and platforms as possible.;It would be insane for us to not ensure that the artists we invest in are not in every single new platform.;作为环球音乐首席执行官的卢西恩?格兰奇(Lucian Grainge),正在尝试这样一件不可能完成的事。他解释道,这项并购是环球公司对;投资音乐产业未来;所做的努力。公司的计划并非削减开并同时保留百代旗下的艺人名录,而是要重振其雄风,并将百代作为一个环球内部独立的公司来运作。格兰奇把这项交易形容为一种可以;扭转行业现状,使其重回增长之路;的方式,同时他还承诺将会同尽可能多的新平台和新分销商进行合作。;如果我们不能保每一个公司投资的艺人都享有全新独立的工作平台的话,那么我们就显得太愚蠢了;。The snag is that the industry has yet to find a way to replace declining album sales. Digital sales are rising, but are still only a fraction of what CDs used to generate. Subscription services such as Spotify may appeal more to tech-savvy music aficionados than to casual buyers who might once have picked up a CD on the way home from work. Efforts to bundle music with mobile-phone or pay-TV subscriptions have failed to catch on.还有一个小问题就是,尽管唱片销售额在不断下滑,但是业界仍未找到可以替代传统音乐销售的方式 。数字音乐的销售额在上升,但是具体数量仍是以前CD销售数量的一小部分。在线音乐播放软件Spotify的订阅务可能对了解技术常识的;音乐控;吸引多一些;而那些随机消费者可能会选择在下班回家的途中拿起一张CD来听。所以,尽管试图将数字音乐同手机以及付费电视订阅进行捆绑销售,但是这种做法并未在市场中流行开来。Some suggest that a larger Universal will be more inclined to take risks on new business models. If it finds one, that could benefit record labels and artists. But others guess that the musical mammoth will plod along, milking its existing sources of cash and making it harder for a new, potentially benign distributor to enter the market.有人认为,规模扩大以后的环球唱片公司将有可能冒险采取新的商业模式。如果它找到了这样一条新的经营之道,那么音乐厂牌和旗下艺人都会因此获益。但是也有人猜测,像环球这样庞大的唱片公司在未来的发展道路上将会步履迟缓。在不断艰难挖掘现有财路的情况下,也使得新的、潜力良好的分销商很难进入当前的唱片市场。201208/195018吉安丰胸医院吉安人民中医院治疗青春痘多少钱

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