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2019年07月24日 06:46:42 | 作者:排名典范 | 来源:新华社
In the record of his life at Walden Pond, Henry David Thoreau reported on an odd phenomenon. ;As I walked on the railroad causeway,; he wrote, ;I used to wonder at the halo of light around my shadow.; Thoreau was probably seeing a phenomenon called ;heiligenshein,; which is German for halo. This is a glowing light around the head and shoulders of your shadow. These days, its likely to be seen by early morning golfers on dewy grass. Where does this halo come from?在瓦尔登湖的生活记录里,亨利·大卫·梭罗报告了一个奇怪的现象。“而当我在铁路堤道上行走的时候,”他写道:“我常常惊奇地看到我的影子周围有一个光轮。”梭罗可能看到的是一个叫作;heiligenshein;的现象,;heiligenshein;是德语,意为“光环”。那是围绕在头和肩膀的影子周围的一圈耀眼的光芒。这些天,清晨在被露水打湿的高尔夫球场上很有可能看见这种现象。这些光环来自哪里?Your shadows halo is made by something called ;back scattering.; This happens whenever sunlight enters a dewdrop. The sunbeam enters the front of the drop, then a certain amount of light bounces off the back. This light streams back out the front, almost exactly in the direction it came from. Thanks to back scattering, every dewdrop on the golf course is shining a narrow beam of light directly back toward the sun.影子周围的光环是由于“反向散射”形成的。当阳光射进水滴时,往往会发生这种现象。阳光从水滴前方进入时,总有一定数量的光线被反射回去。这些光线从水滴前方反射回去,反射角度几乎与入射方向一样。由于反向散射,高尔夫球场上的每一滴露珠都会向太阳发出一道狭小的光芒。Heiligenshein is the glare from this backward bouncing sunlight. If every dewdrop bounces sunlight, why does the halo only appear around your shadows head instead of over the whole fairway? Unlike a light bulb, which shines light in every direction, each dewdrop is reflecting a narrow, tightly focused beam, aimed directly at the sun. Your eyes must be in the path of these beams to see them. If youre looking down at your shadow, your eyes are only in the line of fire for those dewdrops near your shadows head. The beams from the dewdrops a few feet to the side miss your eyes entirely. This is why youre likely to see a halo around your own shadows head, but not around those of others.Heiligenshein 就是这种反射光线较耀眼的部分。如果每一滴露水都反射阳光,那么为什么光环只出现在头部的影子周围?灯泡向四面八方发光,但与灯泡不同的是,露水反射的光只对着太阳,而且反射光线即狭小又集中。只有当这些光束射入你的眼睛,你才能看见。当你低头看向影子时,只有影子头部周围的露珠反射的光线才会进入你的眼睛,而旁边几英尺远的露珠反射的光芒就会错过。这就是为什么你可能在影子头部周围看到光环,而不是在影子的其它部位看到。原文译文属!201209/201512Business商业American business美国公司Hard times, lean firms艰难时局磨练高效能企业How much longer can America keep increasing productivity?美国的生产率增长还能持续多久?EVERYONE complains that corporate America is reluctant to hire additional workers.企业不愿再增加雇佣量在美国引起民怨沸腾。Far less attention has been paid to the flip side of the jobless recovery: the remarkable improvement in American productivity.但很少有人关注减少失业率的有效途径:显著提升美国的劳动生产率水平。How long can this continue? ;I see no limit,; says William Hickey, the boss of Sealed Air, a packaging-maker.这种提升能持续多久?包装材料制造商宝廷的老总William Hickey 说:;依我看来可无限期提升。;Is he right to be so optimistic?他的这种乐观估计是对还是错?American firms were slow to react to the downturn at the beginning of the century, and paid the price.新世纪之初,美国企业在应对经济衰退时反应迟钝,并为此付出了代价。They learned their lesson. When the economy slumped in 2008, they were much quicker to adjust.它们吸取了教训,更快地适应了2008年的经济大萧条,且劳动生产率也没有如往常随经济衰退而下降。There was little of the fall in labour productivity that normally accompanies a recession, and this was not just a one-off ;batting average; effect (in which average productivity rises because the worst performers are fired).这不只是一次性实现的;棒球击球率;效应(即平均分因得分最低的选手被淘汰而提升)。专家们认为这是一种依靠压榨产业工人在短时期内维持的经济增长模式。Rather, it was a productivity boost that has continued in defiance of expert predictions that workers can only be squeezed so hard for a short while.然而恰恰相反,这种增长是靠全力提升劳动生产率实现的。After falling in the first half of the year, American labour productivity (output per hour) was 2.3% higher in the third quarter of 2011 than in the same period a year earlier. This was the fastest quarterly rise in 18 months.经历了上半年的下降后,2011年第三季度美国的劳动生产率(每小时产量)同比增长了2.3%,这是18个月内最快的季度性增长。Manufacturing productivity in that quarter rose by 2.9% compared with a year earlier.该季度制造业生产率同比增长了2.9%。Americas productivity growth has been more robust than most other rich countries—a feat many ascribe to its flexible labour market and a culture of enterprise.美国的生产率比绝大多数发达国家增长得更为强劲——许多人将这一成就归功于美国灵活的劳动力市场机制和特有的企业文化。Yet some analysts expect productivity growth to stall soon.但有些分析师认为生产率不久将停止增长。Hard-pressed workers are feeling grouchy: workforce surveys report record levels of job dissatisfaction.重重压力令产业工人们牢骚不断:劳动力调查显示出对工作表示不满的人数创了纪录。Many firms have been ;starving the organisation to see how it can do with a lower cost structure,; says Carsten Stendevad of Citigroup, a bank.Citigroup的Carsten Stendevad说,很多公司正;忍饥挨饿;,以 ;测试自身在低成本状态下的生存能力;。Unless the economy picks up, he predicts that productivity growth will slow in 2012. (He admits, however, that he wrongly predicted the same thing would happen in 2011.)他预计,只要经济形势没有好转,2012年生产率增长就会放缓(但他也承认自己曾错误地对2011年的情况做过同样的判断)。Two things could keep productivity rising.有两个因素能使生产率持续增长。First, workers are terrified of losing their jobs.其一,工人们害怕失业,这使得鼓励他们加班或干其它的活变得更加容易。This makes it easier to persuade them to put in extra hours or shoulder new tasks. Even in unionised firms, there have been reports of greater flexibility.据媒体报道,即使企业里有工会,维权活动仍更具弹性。Workers have been staying on the job longer rather than ;featherbedding; their hours by, for example, queuing up early to clock off as soon as the shift ends.工人们将更多的时间用于工作,而不是一到换班时间便早早排队下班等;浪费行为;。Second, tough times are forcing firms to strain every brain cell to become more efficient.其二,困难的时局正促使企业为提高效率而绷紧每一根神经。Sealed Air, for example, has made numerous incremental tweaks, such as upgrading a machine that makes absorbent pads for supermarket meat trays so that its output increased from 400 units per hour three years ago to 550—with the same number of workers.以希悦尔包装公司为例,该公司逐步做出了大量技术改进,如通过升级一款生产超市装肉托盘用吸水纸的机器,在工人数量相同的条件下,产量由三年前的每小时500件提升到550件。The willingness of firms to invest in such enhancements has varied enormously. Some would rather hoard cash or buy back their own shares than spend it on more efficient machinery or information technology.企业对这类技术改进的投资意愿各不相同(大相径庭)。有的企业宁愿积蓄资金或购买自己的股票也不愿投资于产能提升和信息技术领域。Yet there are signs that leading industrial firms are starting to increase their capital spending, says Jeff Sprague of Vertical Research Partners, a research outfit.而研究组织;纵向研究伙伴;的Jeff Sprague认为,主要工业企业已有增加投资的迹象,并尤其指出,企业正投资于;消除瓶颈;。In particular, he has noticed firms investing in ;debottlenecking; which, as its name suggests, means removing hold-ups in production processes, sometimes with an additional production line.这一概念名称意味着清除生产过程中的障碍,有时还要为此增加生产线。There are hefty gains to be made from using more automation, says Mr Hickey, adding that although he worries about diminishing returns, ;we havent hit the wall yet.;Hickey说,更广泛地使用自动化技术可获得更大规模的收益,并坦言自己虽然担心收益止升回落,;但我们还没有触及增幅上限。;Service businesses, too, are wringing efficiency improvements from new technology.务业也正通过运用新技术努力提升效率。Hertz allows customers to rent cars at automated kiosks, just as airlines have for some time allowed passengers to check in without talking to anyone.Hertz汽车租赁公司如今可使顾客通过自动化租车亭实现汽车租赁,就像航空公司曾使旅客不用与任何人交谈便可办理登机手续一样。Fast-food firms, such as McDonalds and Starbucks, are continuously innovating with their products and service.快餐企业如麦当劳、星巴克等正坚持产品和务创新。In short, the recession has forced American firms to become more muscular.总之,此轮经济衰退迫使美国企业变得更加强健。This should help them thrive when the good times return. It should also give them an edge over foreign rivals.这将有助于它们在经济复苏后蓬勃发展,并提高对外国竞争对手的优势。But all such advantages are temporary.但这所有的优点都是暂时的。As Mr Hickey points out, a factory that Sealed Air opened in Mexico was expected to be far less productive than one in America, but within four years had caught up.Hickey指出,宝廷在墨西哥的一家工厂的产能曾被认为会远远落后于其在美国的一家工厂,但四年之内,前者便追平了后者。 /201211/210201

Who were the first farmers on Earth? You might think it was the Babylonians or another group in the Middle East. But humans are newcomers when it comes to the fine art of raising food. Leafcutter ants of arid and tropical regions of South, Central and North America have been farming for fifty million years, long before modern humans existed.谁是地球上的第一代农民?你可能会想到古巴比伦人或是中东的另一族群。但是谈到种植作物的艺术,人类还只是菜鸟而已。切叶蚁在美洲南部,中部和北部干旱的热带地区发展农业已有五千万年的历史,比人类的进化的历史还长。Leafcutter ants have large jaws to cut through plant and tree leaves, but they do not eat leaves. Instead, they carry leaf pieces back to their five million or so nest mates. Here is where the farming begins. Foraging ants hand their leaves over to smaller ants who rush them off to one of many football sized chambers. The leaves are then chewed into smaller and smaller fragments until they can be added to a fungus culture garden.切叶蚁用大下巴切碎植物和树叶,但它们并不吃树叶。相反,它们把碎树叶拖回容纳着500万同胞的巢穴。这就是农业的起源。外出觅食的蚂蚁将树叶交接给更小的蚂蚁,它们则将树叶碾到足球般大小的隔间里。然后将树叶咀嚼成更细的碎片,直到可以将其添洒到真菌花园里。Fungi feed off the leaves and grow bodies called gongylidia which are then distributed around the colony, especially to growing larvae. Fungus may not sound too appetizing, but the white fluffy growths are much more nutritious than leaves. We use a similar process with cows. They are fed grasses which we cant digest to create milk and meat. The leafcutters not only grow crops, they also protect them. While we use man-made pesticides, leafcutters use antibiotics made by their skin bacteria to ward off invasive mold. They also physically remove foreign fungi growing in their gardens. Their system of agriculture is one to be admired. It certainly has passed the test of time.真菌以树叶为食,长出躯干来(叫做结节丝),随后四处蔓延,分散在茁壮成长的幼虫的“殖民地”里。也许菌类听起来并不让人垂涎三尺,但是那白绒绒的幼虫比树叶营养价值高得多。我们养牛的过程与此类似。我们喂牛吃草,草不能产奶但牛可以。切叶蚁不仅种植作物,还悉心料理它们。我们用人造杀虫剂来保护农作物,而切叶蚁则用自身皮肤上的细菌分泌的抗生素来阻止霉菌入侵。它们也会除掉长在花园里的异类真菌。它们的农业系统令人惊叹,当然也经得起时间的考验。原文译文属!201207/191673

But how could we do that?但是我们应该如何实现它呢?;So my inspiration was to use light. I could build a time machine based on light.;“我的灵感就是利用光。我能制造一个以光为基础的时间机器。”Doctor Mallet wants to use high energy lasers to stir the very fabric of time.马利特士想要利用高能激光器来激活时间结构。;Imagine that the skate park is my time machine and Garret is a laser beam. As Garret is moving around, he is moving the space around me and this energy of light that is causing space and time to become twisted. ;“假设滑板公园就是我的时间机器,阁楼是激光束。当阁楼四处转动时,我周围的空间和光能发生移动,因此引发时空扭曲。”;Once I understood that principle and the theory based on it, then I realized that what was necessary with the builded equipment.;“一旦我明白其中的基础原理和理论,就意识到建造这个设备什么是必要的。”Doctor Mallet first hopes to prove his concept by building a mini-time machine for subatomic particles.;马利特士开始希望通过建造一个以亚原子粒子为基础的迷你时光机器。;It would look something like cylinder with intersecting laser beams.;“那看起来像一个安装有交叉激光束的圆柱体。”The time machine itself will be small, very small.时光机器本身会非常小。;The device itself is going to have to be about the width of a human hair.;“这个装置本身的宽度必须很小,相当于人类的一根头发那么细。”Now he plans to drop a subatomic particle into the swirling vortex of light.“现在我们计划放弃亚原子粒子,改用旋涡状光束。”;What will we do is to send particles that are very short lived.;“我们要做的就是发送昙花一现的粒子。”;A millions of a second. When we send these particles in, it will change their life time and that will tell us the time has been changed.;“百万分之一秒。当我们将这些粒子发送进去,时光机器就会改变生命中的时间,并告诉我们时间已经改变。”A quantum particle may not be a human time traveler. But that doesnt discourage Doctor Mallet.人类的时间旅行可不像量子粒子那么简单。但这并没有使马利特士气馁。原文译文属!201208/196140

Dear Annie: When I was in college, I was good friends with ;Carrie.; When Carrie met my boyfriend, she was rather intoxicated and said some hurtful things about him. Carrie went on and on about how she couldnt believe I would date a frat boy, that I was better than that, etc.亲爱的安妮:大学时,我有个好朋友叫“凯利”。凯利见到我男朋友时喝醉了,然后把他说得一无是处。她滔滔不绝地讲着,说她还是不敢相信我会跟一个联谊会的男孩交往,我能找到更好的,等等。Carrie apologized the next day. I married the boyfriend and still keep in touch with Carrie. But even after two years, I cannot shake what she said. I know her well enough to realize that while she was sorry, she meant every word. Carrie has asked to visit a couple of times, and I keep making excuses because it would be uncomfortable.第二天凯利道歉了。我与男朋友结了婚,与凯利还保持着联系。但即使两年过后,我还是不能忘记她说过的话。我很了解她,她如果道歉,每一句都是认真的。好几次凯利想来拜访我,我都找借口拒绝了,因为这让我感觉不舒。I know her loose tongue was a result of the drinking and she did apologize, but I cant forget the incident. What should I say when she tells me shed like to come and stay with us? — Confused Since College我知道她嘴巴不严是因为喝醉的缘故,而且她的确道歉了,但我始终无法忘记那件事。她再提起想过来跟我们住一阵子时,我该怎么做呢?Dear Confused: Even if Carrie meant those words at the time, it doesnt mean she still feels that way. Before inviting Carrie to visit, have a frank discussion. Tell her you are still bothered by those comments about your husband and, because you value the friendship so highly, would like to clear the air. See what she says before checking her off your guest list.亲爱的小糊涂:即使凯利当时是认真的,也不代表她现在还那样认为。在邀请她之前,与她开诚布公地谈一次话。告诉她你还在为当年她的出言不逊而烦恼,因为你是如此珍视你们之间的友谊,所以想消除误会。看看她会有何反应,然后再决定是否将它从客人名单上划掉。原文译文属!201211/211120

Trust is essential to social interaction among humans. Making friends, conducting business transactions, leading a team, and even playing games would be all but impossible without it. But have you ever wondered why we trust other people at all?信任对人们进行社交互动至关重要。没有信任,就不能交朋友,进行商业交易,领导团队,就连玩游戏都是不可能的。你可曾想过究竟为什么要相信他人? Little is known about the science of trust, but researchers have begun to focus on the peptide oxytocin as a potential clue to the biological basis for this behavior. Oxytocin is produced in the hypothalamus, and acts on areas of the brain responsible for social behaviors.很少有人了解信任的科学,但研究人员已经开始重视这一领域,他们发现催产素是一条潜在线索,可能是信任这种行为的生理学基础。催产素产生于下丘脑,作用于大脑,促进人们进行社交活动。 Scientists hypothesize that oxytocin stimulates a trust response by encouraging ;approach behavior; —that is, reducing the natural suspicion we have to the social proximity of others. The chemical has also been found to reduce the brains fear response to pictures of human faces.科学们假设通过鼓励“趋向行为”(即降低我们天生的对他人的怀疑,从而接近他人),催产素能刺激信任反应。据研究,在面对人类面孔照片时,这种化学物质可以降低人们胆怯心理。 Under its influence, people are more willing to take social risks. In one study, researchers had their subjects play a simple game based on trust. Those who had been given a dose of synthetic oxytocin were more likely to trust the other players than those who had not.在其影响下,人们也更愿意承担社会风险。在一项研究中,科学家们让受试者玩一个建立在信任基础上的游戏。那些用过一剂合成催产素的受试者,更容易相信别人,而其他人则没有。 In another study, seventy individuals with general social phobias used synthetic oxytocin for one month, taking a dose before entering difficult social situations. These subjects were more relaxed and exhibited a higher level of confidence when interacting with others while supplementing their brains natural levels of the chemical.在另外一项研究里,70名患有社交恐惧症的受试者连续一个月用合成催产素,并在进入社交困境之前也用一剂。受试者在与他人交流时,表现得更轻松,并展现出十分自信的一面。 Scientists are hopeful that further research into the effects of oxytocin will provide a new way to treat anxiety disorders in humans, from debilitating shyness to autism and schizophrenia. As they continue to explore oxytocins role in brain activity, they hope to further understand these disorders, as well as the normal function of trust in human societies.科学家们希望通过进一步研究催产素作用,能研发出一种新的方式来治疗人类的焦虑症,克软弱的羞怯心理,孤独症和精神分裂症。随着继续探索催生素在大脑的作用,他们希望进一步了解这些行为障碍,还有信任在人类社会中的正常功能。原文译文属! 201207/190120

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