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来源:京东常识    发布时间:2019年07月16日 08:06:41    编辑:admin         

We'll offer some informations about the Christmas Traditions, Significance of Christmas, Christmas Family Traditions in other coutries of the world.   瑞士   Beautifully dressed small kids visit homes with beautiful gifts a week before Christmas day. Ringing of bell is become a custom. Villagers of distinct villages compete while calling people for midnight mass by ringing the bell. After midnight mass, homemade doughnuts are shared among family members.  On 6th December, Chlausjagen festival or feast of St. Nichohlas is celebrated. A Swiss person eagerly awaits the arrival of Christkindli. He distributes Christmas gifts among people. There is one special fairy tale tram in Zurich. Santa visits on this tram along with little children.  澳大利亚  The traditional meal in Australia during Christmas celebrations is the turkey dinner, pork and ham. Christmas plum pudding is one of the famous Christmas desserts. Sometimes gold nuggets are also present in Christmas puddings during Christmas gold rushes.  Bondi Beach in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney is one of the famous hang out for thousands of visitors during Christmas celebrations.  Christmas Eve in Australia is known for celebrating Carols by Candlelight. During Christmas celebrations, thousands of people surround them with Christmas Bush. Christmas Bush is a native Christmas native plant with red flowered leaves.  日本  Although, a few percentage of Japanese population believe in Christ, still people love to decorate their home and stores with Christmas trees. Exchanging of Christmas gifts is an important Christmas tradition in Japan. Hotei-osho acts as Santa Claus during Christmas celebrations. He is a Buddhist monk.  In Japan, Christmas is celebrated by doing nice things, such as helping needy or sick people in hospitals. Christian missionaries mark the arrival of Christmas celebrations. Turkey is one of the famous Christmas recipes in Japan.  智利  Little clayed figures are placed near the Christmas tree in Chile. This is referred as pesebre. Father of Christmas in Chile is Viejito Pascuero. He wishes everyone Feliz Navidad y un Prospero Anc Nuevo or Happy Christmas.  His arrival is quite similar to Santa Claus. The reindeer draws his cab. Famous Christmas meal of Chile areb azuele de ave, chicken soup wijt stuffed potatoes, corn on cob and onions. Pan de pasqua is another mouth-watering Christmas recipes. it is usually Christmas b comprised of candies and fruits.  奥地利  Christmas celebrations start with the feast of St. Nicholas. Saint is accompanied with a devil. He asks small children about their good and bad actions. Toys, sweets and nuts are gifted to good children. Brass instruments are used for playing chorale music. Carol singers visit house to house with blazing torches and manger. They assemble on the steps of church.  In the year 1818, song Silent Night was sung first time. It was sung in the village church located in Oberndorf. Traditional Christmas dinner of Austria is baked carp. Good children are rewarded with nuts, apples and sweets by St. Nicholas on 6th December. St. Nicholas is also known as Heiliger Nikolaus.   丹麦  On Christmas Eve, dinner starts with rice pudding. This rice pudding is comprised of a magical almond.  Christmas recipe in Denmark also comprised of goose, red cabbage and browned potatoes, along with pastries and cakes.  Christmas plate is one of the world famous Danish traditions. During earlier times, rich Dans used to gift plates biscuits and fruits to their servants.  Christmas decoration plays significant role during Christmas celebrations. People decorate their houses with bright paper, wooden bits and straw.   Parents usually decorate Christmas trees in a secret manner. Children are not allowed to see Christmas tree.  Christmas tree is beautifully lit up and family members assemble around it on Christmas Eve. All of them sing Christmas carols and dance. /200803/29064。

If all goes as planned, a group of U.S. university students will have placed a satellite powered exclusively by water, into orbit around the moon in just over a year.如果一切都按计划进行得很顺利,一群美国大学生就可以在一年内将一颗只用水作为动力的卫星送到月球轨道里。The Cornell University team CisLunar Explorers (cislunar means ;between Earth and the moon;) and their eponymously named satellite - actually two adjoining satellites - are taking part in a NASA program called the Cube Quest Challenge.康奈尔大学;地月空间探索者;团队(;地月空间;的意思是;在地球和月球之间;)和他们的同名卫星--其实是两颗连在一起的卫星--参加了美国宇航局一项叫作;立方任务挑战;的项目。The challenge is simple: design, build and deliver ;flight-qualified, small satellites capable of advanced operations near and beyond the moon.;挑战很简单:设计、制作和发射;具备空间飞行资格、能够在月球附近和外部进行高级操作的小型卫星;。Nothing to it, right? Evidently not, because there are 10 teams that are competing in the challenge with names like ;Cubequestador; and ;Eagles Quest.;这没什么难的,是吧?确实如此,因为有10名字类似;立方探索;、;飞鹰行动;的队伍也参加了这项挑战。But the CisLunar Explorer satellites are unique because the only form of propulsion on board these these two small L-shaped craft is water.但是;地月空间探索者;卫星是特别的,因为这两个小型的L型飞行器的唯一动力就是水。The idea is the brainchild of Mason Peck who works at Cornell University but used to be NASA#39;s chief technologist. He has always wanted to figure out a way to get beyond rockets as a way to push our spacecraft beyond earth.这个想法是前美国宇航局首席技术专家、现在在康奈尔大学工作的马森·派克的创意。他总是想要想出火箭之外的宇宙飞行器动力。;A lot of the mass we send into orbit these days is in the form of rockets – the only way we get anything into space,; he said in a Cornell press release.;这些日子以来,我们送到轨道里的很多东西都是用火箭作为推进器的--这也是唯一一种推进器。;他在康奈尔大学新闻发布会上说道。;But what if we could use what#39;s aly there? If we could do that, if we could refuel spacecraft while they#39;re aly in space...;;但是如果我们用现成的东西怎么样呢?如果我们能做到的话,如果我们能够给空间里的飞行器补充燃料的话……;Here#39;s how it works: The craft is two connected satellites that will gradually separate from each other, both shaped like the English letter ;L.; Water is stored in the lower part of the L.它的工作原理是这样的:这两颗L型卫星是连在一起的,但是会逐渐分开。水储存在L型的低端。Energy from the sun will electrolyze the water into its two parts, hydrogen and oxygen.来自太阳的能量将水电解为氢气和氧气。Put the hydrogen, oxygen and a spark together and you get a bang that provides thrust, with water as the only by-product.氢气、氧气和火星在一起会爆炸,产生巨大的能量,而副产品只有水。And it turns out water is pretty plentiful out in space. Icy comets are full of it, and NASA is currently in the process of looking for it on a number of rocky near-earth asteroids.并且,水在空间里是相当大量的。冰彗星上全是水,并且现在美国宇航局正在寻找一种全是岩石的近地小行星。The newest theories suggest that most of the water on our planet may have come from asteroids or comets when the ancient Earth was being bombarded with space junk in its formative years.最新理论表明,我们星球上的大部分水可能是古代地球在形成过程中遭到来自小行星或者彗星的空间垃圾轰击之后的产物。Another cool thing about the CisLunar Explorer is how the team is teaching it to navigate its way through space.另一件关于;地月空间探索者;很酷的事是:这个团队正在调教卫星进行空间自动导航。The idea is to copy how ancient mariners used the moon, sun and stars to fix their position on the oceans.这个想法是来自于古代航海家利用月亮、太阳和星星的位置来确定自己在海上的位置。Once the twin satellite halves separate after launch they will spin around each other on their way to the moon to keep them from going off course.在发射之后,两颗双子卫星一旦分离,就会在前往月球的路上相互旋转,防止偏离路线。They will be equipped with cameras and be constantly taking pictures of the sun, Earth and the moon, and comparing their positions and their size.团队会给他们装上摄像机,持续不断地给太阳、地球和月球拍照,与他们的位置和大小相对比。Based on where the sun, moon and Earth are at any given moment, the CisLunar Explorers will do the math to figure out their position.基于太阳、月球和地球的实时位置,;地月空间探索者;就可以算出它们的位置。Of the 10 teams competing, the top three winners will hitch a ride on board NASA#39;s space launch system in early 2018.在10参赛团队中,前三名将有机会搭载上美国宇航局2018年初的空间发射系统。The competition is in four stages and the Cornell team has been in the top three in stages one and two.比赛分为四个环节,康奈尔大学代表队在第一和第二环节都是前三名。The winners of this third stage will be announced in about a month, and the final three winners will be announced in early 2017.第三环节的胜者将在大约一个月之后宣布,而最终的前三名将在2017年初宣布。 /201609/468681。

In an article on Monday, I reviewed the evidence behind coffee consumption and health in an effort to put to rest the idea that coffee is a “vice” or something we all need to cut back on.有人认为喝咖啡是一种“坏习惯”,需要努力改正。在周一的一篇文章中,我综述了有关喝咖啡与健康的据,以期澄清这些误解。We received many comments and questions from ers. In fact, we received so many that we thought it might be useful to respond to some of the most frequently discussed ones.对此,读者们发表了很多,也提出了不少问题。于是,我们决定从中挑出一些最有代表性的问题作答,或许能对大家有所助益。Are the same beneficial relationships seen with decaffeinated coffee?饮用无咖啡因咖啡对健康也同样有益么?Most studies did not include data on decaffeinated coffee, either because too few people drank it or because data were not available. The few studies that did, though, had differing results. With respect to cardiovascular disease, decaffeinated coffee did not seem to have the same protective effects as regular coffee. With respect to the one stroke meta-analysis, it seemed to be just as protective as regular coffee. In two breast cancer analyses, decaffeinated had the same nonrelationship as regular coffee. Decaffeinated coffee was also protective against lung cancer, not as protective against Parkinson’s disease, and protective against diabetes and overall mortality, but perhaps to a lesser extent than regular coffee.大多数研究都没有纳入无咖啡因咖啡的数据,这或许是因为喝这种咖啡的人太少,也可能是因为拿不到相关的数据。仅有少数研究纳入了此类咖啡的数据,但并没有得出一致的结果。无咖啡因咖啡似乎不像普通咖啡那样可以预防心血管疾病。一项关于中风的荟萃分析则表明,无咖啡因咖啡与普通咖啡一样具有预防效果。两项针对乳腺癌的分析显示,无咖啡因咖啡与普通咖啡均无甚作用。无咖啡因咖啡也能预防肺癌,但对帕金森氏症没什么效果;在预防糖尿病并降低整体死亡率方面,无咖啡因咖啡有一定的作用,但或许比正常咖啡稍弱。But for most studies, there just aren’t data available. The conclusion to take away: There’s less evidence overall for a potential benefit, but still, there’s no evidence of harmful associations.但大多数的研究都缺乏相关数据。我们的结论是:总体而言,能明无咖啡因咖啡潜在效益的据较少,不过,也没有据表明它有害。What constitutes a cup of coffee? 一杯咖啡指的是多大容量?Pretty much all studies defined a cup of coffee as an 8-ounce serving. That’s smaller than what I imagine most people drink. A grande-size coffee at Starbucks (what is called simply “large” at most other coffee houses) is 16 ounces.几乎所有的研究都将一杯咖啡定义为8盎司(约合227克)的一份。我想这大概比大多数人平时喝的一杯要少些。星巴克(Starbucks)里的大杯(grande-size)咖啡是16盎司(约合454克)。Are the same benefits seen with tea?喝茶也像喝咖啡同样有益么?The literature on tea is about the same size as that for coffee, and reviewing it thoroughly would take more time than is appropriate for this column. However, a number of studies I reviewed did include tea in analyses, and those I can present here. People who drank more tea had a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease and of cognitive decline. Black tea had a potential protective effect against diabetes, but it was not statistically significant. Green tea had no relationship to the development of diabetes.有关茶的文献与关于咖啡的同样多,要将它们彻底查阅一番需要耗费很多时间,就本专栏而言似乎无需如此大费周章。不过,在我之前综述的研究中有一些确实也将茶纳入了分析,下面我就简单地介绍一下。喝茶较多的人患帕金森氏症以及认知功能减退的风险均较低。红茶或可预防糖尿病,但其不具备统计学显著性意义。绿茶与糖尿病的发生无相关性。If we think there’s enough interest in tea, though, we could devote a future column to the evidence on that beverage.然而,如果有很多人都对茶感兴趣的话,我们可以在未来的某一期专栏里讨论关于该饮料的科学据。Is the benefit from caffeine or from some other element in coffee?喝咖啡有益健康,是因为咖啡因还是咖啡中含有的其它成分的缘故?It’s not known. I also don’t think it’s necessarily the same protective effect in each disease. I think that for many of the neurological issues, it could be caffeine acting as a stimulant in the brain. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that decaffeinated coffee doesn’t seem to be as protective, yet tea is. In some of the other diseases, though, the same benefits aren’t seen from other caffeine-containing beverages. No one is arguing that diet soda consumption is associated with less of a chance of getting cancer. Additionally, some protective effects are seen with decaffeinated coffee as well. It’s likely, therefore, that something else could be at work. We don’t know what, though.目前还不清楚。我认为,对不同疾病起预防作用的成分未必相同。比如,对于神经系统上的许多问题,可能是咖啡因在发挥大脑兴奋剂的作用。我的这个假设是有事实依据的:咖啡和茶都可以预防这些问题,而无咖啡因咖啡却无此功效。但是,对于别的一些疾病,饮用其它含咖啡因的饮料却未显示出同样的效益。从没有人提出饮用无糖汽水与患癌症的几率减少相关。此外,无咖啡因咖啡也同样可以预防某些疾病。因此,很可能还有别的东西在起作用,只不过我们还没有明确那具体是什么。What about high blood pressure or cholesterol?那么,喝咖啡对高血压或胆固醇有什么影响么?A 2005 meta-analysis found that in randomized controlled trials caffeine was associated with an increase in blood pressure. When that caffeine was from coffee, however, the blood pressure effect was small. A 2011 study found that caffeine intake could raise blood pressure for at least three hours. Again, though, there wasn’t a significant relationship between long-term coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. A 2012 meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials and five cohort studies could find no significant effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure or hypertension.2005年的一项荟萃分析发现,在随机对照试验中,咖啡因与血压升高相关。但是,当咖啡因来源于咖啡时,对血压的影响却很小。2011年的一项研究发现,摄入咖啡因的升血压效果至少可持续三个小时。但长期饮用咖啡与较高的血压之间依旧没有显著相关性。2012年的一项荟萃分析纳入了10项随机对照试验和五项队列研究,结果发现饮用咖啡对血压或高血压并无显著影响。And, as has been reported in The New York Times, two studies have shown that drinking unfiltered coffee, like Turkish coffee, can lead to increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. But coffee that’s been through a paper filter seems to have had the cholesterol-raising agent, known as cafestol, removed.但是,正如《纽约时报》杂志(The New York Times)曾经报道的,有两项研究表明,饮用未过滤咖啡(如土耳其咖啡)可导致血清胆固醇和甘油三酯增加。但是,用滤纸过滤咖啡似乎可以去除掉升胆固醇的物质——咖啡醇。High blood pressure and high cholesterol would be of concern because they can lead to heart disease or death. Drinking coffee is associated with better outcomes in those areas, and that’s what really matters.高血压和高胆固醇会引起人们的重视,是因为它们会导致心脏病甚至死亡。而喝咖啡对这些问题都有益处,这才是问题的关键所在。Some ers were upset that I neglected to mention some of the deleterious effects of caffeine. What about jitteriness and mood changes?我忘了提及咖啡因的有害影响,这让一部分读者感到不满。那么,喝咖啡与神经过敏和情绪变化之间有什么样的关系?I want to reiterate that the point of the piece was not to tell people to drink coffee. As I said in my recent article on food recommendations, I don’t think there is much value in preaching or judging what others eat or drink. Moreover, this evidence is epidemiologic, that is, based on observations of patterns. I don’t want to fall prey to the mistake of recommending we change our eating behavior without evidence from randomized controlled trials.我想重申的是,本文的论点并非是要劝告大家都去喝咖啡。正如我在最近的一篇关于饮食建议的文章中所说,我认为对别人的食物和饮料指指点点说教评判没什么意义。而且,以上提出的都是流行病学据,也就是说,它们都是从观测研究中发现的模式。在获得来自随机对照试验的据之前,我可不想轻易建议大家改变当前的饮食行为,因为这种建议有可能是错误的。The point of the article was to show that there’s no evidence that coffee is bad for the average person. Data do not support the idea that we are drinking “too much.” Coffee does not appear to be associated with poor health outcomes — the opposite is true. In light of this, we should stop telling everyone to avoid it, or judging others for drinking it. We should also stop feeling guilty or feel we need to consume less.本文只是想要指出,尚无据表明咖啡对普通人有害。有人觉得我们喝咖啡“过多”,但现有数据并不持这一观点。咖啡与损害健康无相关性——事实上,恰恰相反。有鉴于此,我们不应该再阻止大家喝咖啡,或者对喝咖啡的人指手画脚,也无需再因为自己爱喝咖啡而感到羞愧或者认为自己应该克制。That is, unless it’s not making you feel well. As I also said before, individual trial and error is likely necessary when it comes to nutrition. Some people need to avoid caffeine for medical reasons, and they should. If coffee makes you feel bad, or makes it hard for you to sleep, or renders you a less likable person — then by all means feel free to cut back or stop.当然,要是喝咖啡会让你感觉不舒就另当别论了。我之前也说过,在涉及到营养问题时,可能有必要根据个人的具体情况来一番试错。有些人因为医学上的原因不能摄入咖啡因,那么他们就不应该喝咖啡。如果喝咖啡会让你感觉不舒,令你难以入睡,或者会让你变成一个不太讨人喜欢的人,那么,你也尽可以少喝或者不喝咖啡。But if you like it, then by all means enjoy it.但是,如果你喜欢咖啡,那就随心所欲地享用吧。 /201508/396141。