2017年11月20日 05:15:43|来源:国际在线|编辑:普及中文
Following more than five-thousand people for ten years, the study observed how loneliness can sp through a group. Lonely people, it seems, transmit their sad, lonely feelings to people around them. What happens, according to the study, is that interacting with a lonely person can leave you with a negative feeling toward friendship generally. And so you’re more likely to have negative experiences with other friends, weakening social bonds. If loneliness is allowed to sp unchecked, it can destroy a social network. The best way to ward off this sort of lonely contagion is to pay more attention to people on the edges of a group. Reaching out to those who are shy or don’t fit in, and are therefore lonely, can make them feel less alone. And so they’re less likely to sp lonely feelings throughout the group.【生词注释】observe v. 观察transmit v. 传播interact v.交流,交往unchecked adj.未受制止的ward off 避开; 挡住contagion n.传染fit in 融入(群体)对5千多人进行10年的研究,研究观察寂寞是如何在群体中传播的。寂寞的人,看上去,会将他们的悲哀,孤独感觉传播给周围的人。根据研究表明,和一个孤独的人交往会使你对友谊产生消极的情绪。然后你和其他的朋友会有不越快的经理,消弱社会纽带。如果孤独不受阻止地传播,它会破坏社会关系网。阻止这种孤独蔓延的最好办法就是多关注处于群体边缘的人。接触那些因害羞或是不合群而感到孤独的人,这样会使他们感到不那么孤独。他们在群体中传播孤独的可能性也就变小了。201110/158597昨天咱们去了趟实验室,知道了铁元素重要的作用。今天,我们要来设想一下,这么大的落基山脉究竟是如何形成的?你想知道科学家经过实地调查研究,给出了一个什么样的解释?听听吧! It's now at the surface. How did it get here? It's been pushed up by the rise of the Rocky Mountains and in doing so, look what it has done on the Flatiron. Scientists investigating the Rocky Mountains have found two clues about their early history. Ammonites, on the side 8000 feet high, are evidence that the area was once under the sea. Traces of iron in granite is evidence that rock, pushed up from 15 miles below the surface, tilting the Flatirons. And it didn't just happen here, but along approximately a thousand miles of the American Rockies. Geologists now needed to find out what monumental forces were responsible for this massive upheaval. One hundred million years ago, most of North America was covered by a vast inland sea. 70 million years ago, the sea retreated. And the Rocky Mountains began to rise, forming a great mountain range. Scientists trying to piece together their geological past, needed to solve the mystery of what lifted them up. A force capable of that amount of heavy lifting would have to have been on a global scale. Geologists believe this force was caused by plate tectonics. The earth's crust is broken up into a series of interlocking plates. These plates are continuously on the move. Over millions of years, they collide and break apart, forming new continents and geological features around the world. When the Rockies formed, two of these plates smashed into each other at the American west coast. What we know is that at the time of this grand uplift, on the western margin of North America, ocean crust, and Oceanic Plate, was subducting beneath the North American Plate. And it was doing so at a high rate of speed. As such, it was transferring stress into the interior of the continent. As the two plates move towards each other, they squeeze the crust. Over millions of years, it folded and buckled, forming tall mountains. This was the birth of the American Rockies. But a mystery …小编有约:"Geologists believe this force was caused by plate tectonics. " Daisy想知道,地质学家给的这个假设,你觉得怎样?所以Daisy今天的问题就是要问问大家,你了解板块构造论吗?201110/158662Spring has just sprung in the Northern Hemisphere, and that means an annual natural spectacular is just a couple of weeks away, deep in the heart of Texas.春天已经来到了北半球,这也意味着在德克萨斯州的中心地区,一年一度的自然界盛事即将到来。There are no other natural wonders in the rugged Texas Hill Country. No awe-inspiring canyons, no snow-covered peaks or rain forests or raging mountain streams. Most of the time, the appeal of this tapestry of cedar and oak trees, lazy streams, and low limestone cliffs is more modest. 德克萨斯州崎岖的希尔山地没有什么奇特的自然景观。那里既没有让人产生敬畏之心的大峡谷,也没有白雪皑皑的山峰,更没有热带雨林或者奔腾的山间溪流。一年中的大部分时间,人们在这里看到的就是杉树和橡树枝繁叶茂,小溪缓缓流淌,以及低矮的石灰崖延伸至远方,一切都显得那么平淡。But there’s nothing modest about a Hill Country spring. In 1991, George Oxford Miller published a book of photographs of the region. In the text, the environmental photojournalist wrote that "excitement comes in small packages." He found what he described as "air unadulterated with human additives, stars undimmed by city lights, the uninterrupted sounds of nature, and fields of flowers unblemished by footprints." 但是,希尔山地的春天绝不平淡。1991年,环境摄影师乔治·米勒出版了一本该地区的摄影集。米勒在书中写道,“这里纯净的空气没有被人类活动污染,满天的繁星没有被城市的灯光遮掩,大自然的声音没有受到惊扰,无际的野花没有被踩在脚下。”Four hundred species of flowers, including Indian paintbrushes, prickly poppies, flowering herbs, and the most compelling blossom of all - the bluebonnet, the Texas state flower.德克萨斯州有400多种野花,包括印第安火焰草、蓟罂粟、草药花、以及盛开怒放的德克萨斯州花矢车菊。201103/129589

Yael: Today, were talking penguin eggs.今天,我们来谈下企鹅的蛋。Don: Why?为什么?Y: Penguins lay their eggs on hard surfaces near coastlines, or they might dig burrows if the soil permits. And because theyre optimized for swimming rather than walking, its difficult for penguins to gather a lot of soft nesting material. See the problem?企鹅在海岸边坚硬的地表产蛋,如果土地合适,它们也会挖洞。因为它们更擅长游泳而不是走路,对企鹅来说要收集到很多柔软的筑巢的材料是很难的。明白问题了吧?D: Hmm! the penguin lifestyle isnt exactly eggshell-friendly.企鹅的生活方式对蛋壳来说并不很友好。Y: And thats not counting the nasty fights penguins can get into over things like space for their nests or burrows, and the stones that some species pile up around their nests if theyre in the open.那还不包括,企鹅为了争夺筑巢或洞穴领地而发生的激烈争斗,而且如果企鹅在开阔地,它们会在巢穴旁堆积石块。D: I bet all that hubbub isnt very good for eggs either. So do penguins lose more eggs than other species?我打赌所有的吵闹声对蛋也是不利的。那企鹅会比其它物种损失更多的蛋吗?Y: Actually, according to one study, only 2.6 percent of penguin eggs break from causes other than human interference or predators. That rate is similar to the rate in the rest of the bird world, even including those birds that have cushy nests and never fight near their eggs.事实上,根据一份研究显示,排除人类的破坏和掠夺者的影响,只有2.6%的企鹅蛋会破裂。这个机率和其它鸟类是一样的,甚至包括那些有舒适的巢穴且从不在蛋附近打架的鸟类。D: So how do they do it? By producing thicker shells?那企鹅是怎样做的?产出更厚的蛋壳?Y: Yep. Penguin eggshells are fifty percent thicker than expected for their size. But it isnt easy to produce thick egg shells. It requires a lot of calcium, more than female penguins normally get in their diets.是的,企鹅蛋壳比估计的尺寸要厚一般。但是不容易产出厚蛋壳,这需要很多钙,远多于雌性企鹅正常猎食中所获得的钙。D: And they cant just run to the store for a supplement.而且它们还不能去商店来补充。Y: Nope. So in the period right before they lay eggs, female penguins eat a lot of mollusks. The clam and mussel shells in their stomachs slowly leach calcium which is then used to form eggshells. Incidentally, thicker shells also help prevent breakage for birds that lay eggs on rocks, and for ostriches and rheas.不能。所以在企鹅产蛋前,雌企鹅会吃很多软体动物,胃中的蚌和贝壳类会缓慢 过滤用于形成蛋壳的钙。顺便说一句,厚蛋壳还能避免企鹅在岩石上产蛋时蛋壳的破损,就像鸵鸟和美洲驼一样。D: I always did wonder about those ostriches. 我总是对这些鸵鸟感到惊奇。201111/161594

The countdown is on for South Sudan's independence July 9, and the country's future capital is making its final preparations for the big day.距离7月9日南苏丹的独立日期,已经进入倒计时阶段。Joy in Juba"Right now we're on one of Juba's main streets, which has been closed down for a parade. It's a massive event with thousands of people, some from civil groups, some from student groups chanting, singing, welcoming the new independence as they walk toward the parade grounds that will host Saturday's ceremonies," reports VOA's East Africa Correspondent Gabe Joselow from Juba. "Nothing to say about it, except that its just unbridled enthusiasm and joy, and quite a scene to behold."Juba, the future capital of southern Sudan, is buzzing with excitement as the country prepares to officially declare independence Saturday.南苏丹未来的首都朱巴充满着忙乱和兴奋的气氛。这个新兴国家将于这个星期六正式宣告独立。Remembering John GarangThe ceremony itself will be held at the John Garang mausoleum - a stadium that honors the man who led southern rebels during Sudan's 20-year civil war.庆典将在约翰加朗体育场举行,这个场地是以领导南苏丹进行20年内战的一位人物命名的。One of the most anticipated moments will be the first performance of the country's brand new national anthem.庆典中最让人期待的节目之一,将是国团首次演奏这个新国家的国歌。Susan Junua is part of a national choir that has been recruited to teach the anthem to people around the country.国家合唱团的苏珊·朱努亚被征召出来教全国民众唱国歌。The words, written by students and faculty at Juba University, reflect hope, a respect for God and a commemoration of those who died during years of conflict.国歌的歌词是朱巴大学的师生共同创作的。它反映着希望,对上帝的敬仰,和对内战期间死难同胞的追念。Junua says independence marks a new beginning.朱努亚说,南苏丹的独立,象征着一个新的开始。"As a South Sudanese, the independence is a freedom. To my life, because we have been tortured, we have been in slavery for many years," said Junua.她说:“对于一个南苏丹人,独立就是自由。因为在我一生中,我们曾经遭受虐待,曾经在奴役中度过许多岁月。”201107/143705

Dying out渐失其势Little by little, countries are ditching the death penalty各国逐渐放弃死刑On September 19th Abdul Hamid al-Fakki, a Sudanese, was executed in Saudi Arabia for the crime of “sorcery”. On September 21st Troy Davis, a black man convicted of shooting an off-duty white policeman, was executed in the American state of Georgia. Protests that the evidence against him was flawed proved fruitless.9月19日,苏丹人阿布杜尔·哈米德·阿尔法基在沙特被以“巫术”罪处以死刑。9月21日,黑人特洛伊·达维斯因杀一名下班后的白人警察,在美国佐治亚州被处决。此前,曾有人抗议称据有瑕疵,但未起到作用。Despite these cases the death penalty, on the statute books since the days of Hammurabi, is disappearing in much of the world. More than two-thirds of countries have done away with it either in law or in practice. The latest is Benin. In August the west African country committed itself to abolishing capital punishment permanently. The number of countries that carry out judicial killings fell from 41 in 1995 to 23 in 2010, according to Amnesty International, a pressure group. China (chiefly), Iran, North Korea, and Yemen accounted for most of the executions. Votes against the death penalty at the UN General Assembly have passed with big and growing majorities since 2007. Capital punishment has virtually gone in Europe (only Belarus still uses it, most recently in 2010). This year China whittled down its list of crimes punishable by death.尽管出现了这些死刑案例,但这种自汉谟拉比法典即明令在册的刑罚在世界大多数国家都已消失。三分之二以上的国家在法律上或实践中废除了死刑。最新废除死刑的国家是西非国家贝宁。今年8月,贝宁宣布永久废除死刑。根据压力集团“大赦国际”的统计,仍在执行这种法律杀戮的国家从1995年的41个减为2010年的23个。中国(占大部分)、伊朗、朝鲜和也门执行了绝大多数死刑。自2007年以来,每年联大都以绝对且不断增加的多数票通过决议,要求废除死刑。欧洲实际上已经废除了死刑(只有白俄罗斯还保留,最近于2010年执行过)。今年,中国削减了适用死刑的罪名。Yet for all the apparent momentum, capital punishment remains entrenched in the Middle East and north Africa, and in parts of Asia, notably China. Jacqueline Macalesher of Penal Reform International, a lobby group, thinks the Arab spring could be a new spur to abolition, though she worries that executing political enemies may prove attractive in the short run.尽管废死刑的势头很强,但中东、北非与亚洲部分地区仍坚持不愿放弃之。游说组织“刑法改革国际”的杰奎琳·马卡莱舍尔认为,阿拉伯之春可能成为废除死刑的新动力,但她也担心,在短时间内,处决政治对手也可能颇有吸引力。The other big exception is America, where two-thirds of states still have the death penalty. A leading Republican candidate for the presidency, Rick Perry, is governor of Texas, the state that uses it most. The state has carried out a record 236 executions in his nearly 11 years as governor. Mr Perry says he loses no sleep over it, and many voters feel the same.美国是另一个例外的主要国家,其三分之二的州仍有死刑。共和党重量级总统候选人里克·佩里是德克萨斯州州长,该州死刑案例最多,在佩里任州长的近11年内共执行了创纪录的236例死刑。佩里表示,他对此并不担心,许多选民也持同样看法。But the abolitionist trend seems inexorable. In March Illinois became the fourth state in four years to scrap the death penalty. Maryland, Connecticut and California may follow suit. Squeezed state budgets are eroding enthusiasm. The cost of fighting protracted legal battles and maintaining separate facilities for those condemned to death looks increasingly unaffordable when schools and libraries are being closed. California alone has more than 700 people on death row.但废除死刑的趋势看起来不可阻挡。3月,伊利诺伊州成为四年内第四个废除死刑的州。马里兰、康乃狄克与加利福尼亚也可能跟进。地方财政紧缩影响到各州坚持死刑的意愿。目前,因财政紧张,学校与图书馆纷纷关闭。在这种情况下,冗长的诉讼过程以及单独关押被判死刑者所耗费用不赀,显得越来越难以负担。仅加利福尼亚一州,就有700名被判死刑而未决者。Bryan Stevenson, founder of the Equal Justice Initiative, a pressure group that espouses abolition, ascribes increasing unhappiness over the death penalty to a long-term growth in sensitivity to human rights. A growing number mind that the death penalty in America falls disproportionately on blacks and poor people. The chance that innocent folk may be executed counts for more, with many, than the deterrent effect of capital punishment (itself questioned by academic studies). Gruesome details about the mechanics of executions also stoke public disquiet.持废除死刑的压力集团“平等司法倡议”创始人拜延·斯蒂文斯表示,长期以来人们对人权的关注度不断增加,因而对死刑的容忍度日趋下降。越来越多的人认为,在美国获死刑者中,黑人与穷人比例过高。许多人对无辜者被错杀的关切也超过了对死刑威慑作用(研究结果对此提出置疑)的认可。执行死刑过程中可怕的细节也增加了公众的不安感。Pressure to get into international clubs has also propelled abolition. The Council of Europe, a Strasbourg-based talking shop that requires members to accede to the European Convention on Human Rights, has made the death penalty a bar to membership. That (plus other things such as election rigging) has left Belarus’s application with rigor mortis.融入国际社会的压力也促进了有关国家废除死刑。设在斯特拉斯堡的清谈组织欧洲委员会要求其成员国加入“欧洲人权公约”,死刑遂成为加入该委员会的障碍。这(以及操纵选举等其它情形)令白俄罗斯加入该委员会的申请决无生机。201110/157815

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